M phase or maturation promoting factor (MPF), a kinase complex composed of the regulatory cyclin B and the catalytic p34cdc2 kinase, plays important roles in meiosis and mitosis. This study was designed to detect and compare the subcellular localization of cyclin B1, phosphorylated cyclin B1 and p34cdc2 during oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilization in mouse. We found that all these proteins were concentrated in the germinal vesicle of oocytes. Shortly after germinal vesicle breakdown, all these proteins were accumulated around the condensed chromosomes. With spindle formation at metaphase I, cyclin B1 and phosphorylated cyclin B1 were localized around the condensed chromosomes and concentrated at the spindle poles, while p34cdc2 was localized in the spindle region. At the anaphase/telophase transition, phosphorylated cyclin B1 was accumulated in the midbody between the separating chromosomes/chromatids, while p34cdc2 was accumulated in the entire spindle except for the midbody region. At metaphase II, both cyclin B1 and p34cdc2 were horizontally localized in the region with the aligned chromosomes and the two poles of the spindle, while phosphorylated cyclin B1 was localized in the two poles of spindle and the chromosomes. We could not detect a particular distribution of cyclin B1 in fertilized eggs when the pronuclei were initially formed, but in late pronuclei cyclin B1 was accumulated in the pronuclei. p34cdc2 and phosphorylated cyclin B1 were always concentrated in one pronucleus after parthenogenetic activation or in two pronuclei after fertilization. At metaphase of 1-cell embryos, cyclin B1 was accumulated around the condensed chromosomes. Cyclin B1 was accumulated in the nucleus of late 2-cell embryos but not in early 2-cell embryos. Furthermore, we also detected the accumulation of p34cdc2 in the nucleus of 2- and 4-cell embryos. All these results show that cyclin B1, phosphorylated cyclin B1 and p34cdc2 have similar distributions at some stages but different localizations at other stages during oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilization, suggesting that they may play a common role in some events but different roles in other events during oocyte maturation and fertilization.