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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To compare the opioid drug requirements amongst those individuals with high levels of catecholamines in blood and acute post-procedural pain, by ICD9/10 codes (experimental) to those with normal levels of catecholamines and acute post-procedural pain (AP-PP) only (controls) METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In collaboration with both the Informatics and the Biostatistics Departments at CTSI and under the auspices of the IRB at the University of Rochester, we completed the collection of ~8,000 electronic health records(EHRs) of adults 18 years and older with surgical appointments at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH), who met inclusion criteria, from January 2006 to September 2019 and received Fentanyl therapy for AP-PP management. Subjects were categorized in a two-arm-matched case-control fashion. A ratio of 1(Experimental):1(Control) was utilized. Analytic comparisons were completed using normal distribution statistical methods with p >0.1 for significance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After removal of duplicates and exclusion of EHRs, a total of 17 subjects met inclusion criteria for the experimental group. We matched controls (n = 17) with experimental subjects for age, gender and surgical procedure for accurately compare opioid requirements in the postoperative recovery. Mean age of subjects was 69(+/-10.1235) years old. Most of subjects were females (70%). Mean Fentanyl requirement was significantly different in the experimental group 466.17(625.621)mcg compared to 215.58(353.323)mcg in the controls (p value 0.07832) DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: It is suggested that healthy individuals with genetic variations in pain pathways including; the COMT and MAOA rendered individuals with higher levels of catecholamines in the body driving abnormal responses to pain sensitivity. We emulated this genetic variation for clinical purposes using ICD10/9 codes of those with conditions related to higher catecholamine levels in the body. Based on our preliminary results, we suggest that COMT and MAOA genetic variations could impact opioid drug use and the current opioid dependency and epidemics in the U.S. This study will address remarkable questions and identify strategies about this topic.
Recently, Echinacea purpurea and its extracts have gained much interest due to their improvement on meat quality, but little information is available on the application of the purified Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide (4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylan, 4OMG). Thus, this trial aimed at assessing the effects of dietary supplementation of 4OMG on growth performance, thigh meat quality and small intestine development of broilers. A total of 240 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four groups with three replicates of 20 within each group. Each group received either 0, 15, 20 or 25 g 4OMG/kg DM of diet. During the entire experiment, broilers had ad libitum access to water and feed, and the feed intake was recorded daily. All broilers were weighed before and end of the experiment. For each group, three pens with a total of 20 broilers were randomly selected to slaughter after 30 days. Increasing dietary supplementation of 4OMG linearly increased final live weight and daily body weight gain (P = 0.013) of broilers, Gain-to-Feed ratio (P < 0.001), muscle pH (P = 0.024) and redness (P = 0.001), but decreased drip loss (P = 0.033), shear force value (P = 0.004) and hardness (P = 0.022) of the thigh meat. Broilers fed diet with higher 4OMG had greater weight index, villus height and ratio of villus height to crypt depth in both duodenum and jejunum. These results indicated that increasing dietary supplementation of 4OMG was beneficial for growth performance, meat quality and development of the small intestine of broilers.
A review is given of the future device processing needs for Ga2O3 power electronics. The two main devices employed in power converters and wireless charging systems will be vertical rectifiers and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The rectifiers involve thick epitaxial layers on conducting substrates and require stable Schottky contacts, edge termination methods to reduce electric field crowding, dry etch patterning in the case of trench structures, and low resistance Ohmic contacts in which ion implantation or low bandgap interfacial oxides are used to minimize the specific contact resistance. The MOSFETs also require spatially localized doping enhancement for low source/drain contact resistance, stable gate insulators with acceptable band offsets relative to the Ga2O3 to ensure adequate carrier confinement, and enhancement mode capability. Attempts are being made to mitigate the absence of p-type doping capability for Ga2O3 by developing p-type oxide heterojunctions with n-type Ga2O3. Success in this area would lead to minority carrier devices with better on-state performance and a much-improved range of functionality, such as p-i-n diodes, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors, and thyristors.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
A miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider based on composite right/left-handed transmission line is presented. The composite right/left-handed transmission line and conventional microstrip transmission line are utilized to realize the 0° phase shift transmission line, which is used to replace the 180° transmission line of the conventional Bagley Polygon power divider. As a result, miniaturization is realized, without deteriorating the isolation between the output ports. The design equations are presented. This power divider shows advantages compared with other miniaturized ones. For verification, a miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider is designed and fabricated. The 58.2% length reduction of the counterpart is realized. The measurement and simulation results show good agreement.
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis prevalent in large parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the rates of Babesia microti infection among small rodents in Yunnan province, where human cases of babesiosis have been reported. Currently, distribution of Babesia in its endemic regions is largely unknown. In this study, we cataloged 1672 small wild rodents, comprising 4 orders, from nine areas in western Yunnan province between 2009 and 2011. Babesia microti DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 4·3% (72/1672) of the rodents analyzed. The most frequently infected rodent species included Apodemus chevrieri and Niviventer fulvescens. Rodents from forests and shrublands had significantly higher Babesia infection rates. Genetic comparisons revealed that Babesia was most similar to the Kobe- and Otsu-type strains identified in Japan. A variety of rodent species might be involved in the enzootic maintenance and transmission of B. microti, supporting the need for further serological investigations in humans.
In this paper, a tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using asymmetric stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SL-SIR) is presented. The asymmetric characteristic of SL-SIR broadens degrees of freedom for three controllable modes design. Also, the coupling coefficients (Mij) and the external quality factors (Qei) at each passband of the filter can be independently adjusted by the proposed mixed-type feedline structure. Besides, multi-transmission zeros are produced to improve the isolation and selectivity of the passbands. Finally, a tri-band BPF is operated at 1.9 GHz (time division long term evolution – TD-LTE band), 3.2 GHz (worldwide interoperability for microwave access – WiMAX band), and 5.8 GHz (wireless local area networks – WLAN band) and their insertion loss are 1.03, 0.94, and 1.27 dB, respectively. The measured results of the fabricated tri-band BPF exhibit good agreement with simulated results.
2D nanomaterials, when assembled into an ordered macrostructure, will present many great opportunities, including for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). We report densely-packed vertically-aligned VO2(B) nanobelts (NBs)-based forest structure synthesized on edge-oriented graphene (EOG) network. Using a EOG/Ni foam as a 3D scaffold, aligned VO2(B) NBs can be further synthesized into a folded 3D forest structure to construct a freestanding electrode for LIBs. Electrochemical studies found that such a freestanding VO2(B)/EOG electrode, which combines the unique merits of 2D VO2(B) NBs and 2D graphene sheets, has excellent charge-discharge rate performance. A discharge capacity of 178 mAh g-1 at a rate of 59 C and 100 mAh g-1 at 300 C was measured. A good charge-discharge cycling stability under a high current density was also demonstrated. The results indicate VO2(B)/EOG forest based freestanding electrode is very promising for developing high-rate LIBs.
AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors were exposed to 60Co gamma-irradiation to doses up to 300Gy. The impact of Compton- electron injection (due to gamma-irradiation) is studied through monitoring of minority carrier transport using Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) technique. Temperature dependent EBIC measurements were conducted on devices before and after exposure to the irradiation, which provide us with critical information on gamma-irradiation induced defects in the material. As a result of irradiation, minority carrier diffusion length increases significantly, with an accompanying decrease in the activation energy. This is consistent with the longer life time of minority carrier in the material’s valence band as a result of an internal electron injection and subsequent trapping of Compton electrons on neutral levels.
This letter focuses on the evolution under illumination of the minority carrier lifetime and conversion efficiency of p-type gallium (Ga) co-doped solar grade multicrystalline silicon wafers and solar cells. We present experimental data regarding the concentration of boron-oxygen (B-O) defects in this silicon when subjected to illumination, and the concentration was found to depend on [B]-[P] rather than [B] or the net doping p0([B] + [Ga] – [P]). This result implies that the compensated B is unable to form the B-O defect. Minority carrier lifetime and EQE measurements at different degradation states indicate that the B-O defect and Fe-acceptor pairs are the two key centers contributed to LID in this material.
Atomic layer deposition has attracted much attention recently in fabricating noble metal nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. We have explored synthesizing palladium nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition on self-assembled monolayers modified silicon substrate. Using alkyltrichlorosilanes as the passivating agents, our results show the method is capable of fabricating Pd nanoparticles with well controlled density and particle diameter on the modified silicon substrate.
Convergent studies provide support for abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala, the key components of the neural system that subserves emotional processing in major depressive disorder (MDD). We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine potential amygdala–PFC functional connectivity abnormalities in treatment-naive subjects with MDD.
Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 28 individuals with MDD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Amygdala–PFC functional connectivity was compared between the MDD and HC groups.
Decreased functional connectivity to the left ventral PFC (VPFC) from the left and right amygdala was observed in the MDD group, compared with the HC group (p < 0.05, corrected).
The treatment-naive subjects with MDD showed decreased functional connectivity from the amygdala to the VPFC, especially to the left VPFC. This suggests that these connections may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.
During the last decade, multilocus analysis has gradually become a powerful tool for the studies of population genetics and phylogeography. The double-striped cockroach, Blattella bisignata, is endemic to southeast Asia, and there is currently little genetic information available for the species. We chose it as the target species to investigate a biodiversity hotspot in southwest China. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 11 single-copy anonymous nuclear markers with an average length of 378bp. These loci, isolated from a genomic library of B. bisignata, can amplify in two additional Blattella species (B. germanica and B. lituricollis). While testing these markers in representative species of Blattellidae, Blattidae and Epilampridae, some of them can cross-amplify successfully. After sequencing 30 individuals collected from southern China per locus, we found relatively high variability (approximately 3.6 SNPs per 100bp). Finally, a small-scale study was also performed to show that these markers do indeed fulfill the expectations as phylogeographic markers.
Yungang Grottoes in Shanxi, China, which represent outstanding example of Chinese outdoor immovable stone artifacts, are precious world cultural heritage. In the present study, the preparation and assessment of superhydrophobic hybrid coatings with photocatalytic activity on the sandstone substrate collected from Yungang were explored preliminarily. The protection efficiency of coating is investigated by measuring the water-stone contact angles, water vapor permeability, water absorption, and resistance to acid and salt corrosion. Results show that the superhydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid coatings with photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties are highly suitable for the conservation of stone monuments.
In this paper, we deal with a class of reflected backward stochastic differential equations (RBSDEs) corresponding to the subdifferential operator of a lower semi-continuous convex function, driven by Teugels martingales associated with a Lévy process. We show the existence and uniqueness of the solution for RBSDEs by means of the penalization method. As an application, we give a probabilistic interpretation for the solutions of a class of partial differential-integral inclusions.
Reliability testing often manifests device weaknesses and failure mechanisms. As new materials and structures are developed, creative and different testing is often necessary to determine reliability. We are developing an in-house reliability test system that will provide the necessary testing flexibility of HEMT devices so researchers can pinpoint defects and vulnerabilities. Using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) power supplies and data acquisition equipment, a custom control system allows for many different tests: DC and RF, temperature, step/stress/recovery, high-speed pulse, and optical pumping, as well as combinations and automated sequencing of these tests. This flexibility allows for the creation of new test types as failure mechanisms are understood. The initial station will provide for the simultaneous, independent testing of 16 devices. This paper outlines the system design and capabilities, the motivation for the system, and some results from different tests.
Chloride ion concentration can be used as a biomarker for the level of pollen exposure in allergic asthma, chronic cough and airway acidification related to respiratory disease. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with an InN thin film in the gate region was used for real time detection of chloride ion detection. The InN thin film provided surface sites for reversible anion coordination. The sensor exhibited significant changes in channel conductance upon exposure to various concentrations of NaCl solutions. The sensor was tested over the range of 100 nM to 100 μM NaCl solutions. The effect of cations on the chloride ion detection was also studied.