To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A review is given of the future device processing needs for Ga2O3 power electronics. The two main devices employed in power converters and wireless charging systems will be vertical rectifiers and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The rectifiers involve thick epitaxial layers on conducting substrates and require stable Schottky contacts, edge termination methods to reduce electric field crowding, dry etch patterning in the case of trench structures, and low resistance Ohmic contacts in which ion implantation or low bandgap interfacial oxides are used to minimize the specific contact resistance. The MOSFETs also require spatially localized doping enhancement for low source/drain contact resistance, stable gate insulators with acceptable band offsets relative to the Ga2O3 to ensure adequate carrier confinement, and enhancement mode capability. Attempts are being made to mitigate the absence of p-type doping capability for Ga2O3 by developing p-type oxide heterojunctions with n-type Ga2O3. Success in this area would lead to minority carrier devices with better on-state performance and a much-improved range of functionality, such as p-i-n diodes, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors, and thyristors.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
A miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider based on composite right/left-handed transmission line is presented. The composite right/left-handed transmission line and conventional microstrip transmission line are utilized to realize the 0° phase shift transmission line, which is used to replace the 180° transmission line of the conventional Bagley Polygon power divider. As a result, miniaturization is realized, without deteriorating the isolation between the output ports. The design equations are presented. This power divider shows advantages compared with other miniaturized ones. For verification, a miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider is designed and fabricated. The 58.2% length reduction of the counterpart is realized. The measurement and simulation results show good agreement.
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis prevalent in large parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the rates of Babesia microti infection among small rodents in Yunnan province, where human cases of babesiosis have been reported. Currently, distribution of Babesia in its endemic regions is largely unknown. In this study, we cataloged 1672 small wild rodents, comprising 4 orders, from nine areas in western Yunnan province between 2009 and 2011. Babesia microti DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 4·3% (72/1672) of the rodents analyzed. The most frequently infected rodent species included Apodemus chevrieri and Niviventer fulvescens. Rodents from forests and shrublands had significantly higher Babesia infection rates. Genetic comparisons revealed that Babesia was most similar to the Kobe- and Otsu-type strains identified in Japan. A variety of rodent species might be involved in the enzootic maintenance and transmission of B. microti, supporting the need for further serological investigations in humans.
In this paper, a tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using asymmetric stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SL-SIR) is presented. The asymmetric characteristic of SL-SIR broadens degrees of freedom for three controllable modes design. Also, the coupling coefficients (Mij) and the external quality factors (Qei) at each passband of the filter can be independently adjusted by the proposed mixed-type feedline structure. Besides, multi-transmission zeros are produced to improve the isolation and selectivity of the passbands. Finally, a tri-band BPF is operated at 1.9 GHz (time division long term evolution – TD-LTE band), 3.2 GHz (worldwide interoperability for microwave access – WiMAX band), and 5.8 GHz (wireless local area networks – WLAN band) and their insertion loss are 1.03, 0.94, and 1.27 dB, respectively. The measured results of the fabricated tri-band BPF exhibit good agreement with simulated results.
2D nanomaterials, when assembled into an ordered macrostructure, will present many great opportunities, including for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). We report densely-packed vertically-aligned VO2(B) nanobelts (NBs)-based forest structure synthesized on edge-oriented graphene (EOG) network. Using a EOG/Ni foam as a 3D scaffold, aligned VO2(B) NBs can be further synthesized into a folded 3D forest structure to construct a freestanding electrode for LIBs. Electrochemical studies found that such a freestanding VO2(B)/EOG electrode, which combines the unique merits of 2D VO2(B) NBs and 2D graphene sheets, has excellent charge-discharge rate performance. A discharge capacity of 178 mAh g-1 at a rate of 59 C and 100 mAh g-1 at 300 C was measured. A good charge-discharge cycling stability under a high current density was also demonstrated. The results indicate VO2(B)/EOG forest based freestanding electrode is very promising for developing high-rate LIBs.
AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors were exposed to 60Co gamma-irradiation to doses up to 300Gy. The impact of Compton- electron injection (due to gamma-irradiation) is studied through monitoring of minority carrier transport using Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) technique. Temperature dependent EBIC measurements were conducted on devices before and after exposure to the irradiation, which provide us with critical information on gamma-irradiation induced defects in the material. As a result of irradiation, minority carrier diffusion length increases significantly, with an accompanying decrease in the activation energy. This is consistent with the longer life time of minority carrier in the material’s valence band as a result of an internal electron injection and subsequent trapping of Compton electrons on neutral levels.
A GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistor has been fabricated using Cl2/Ar dry etching for mesa formation. As the hole concentration increases due to more efficient ionization of the Mg acceptors at elevated temperatures (> 250°C), the device shows improved gain. Future efforts should focus on methods for reducing base resistance, which are briefly summarized.
The characteristics of dry etching of the AlGaInN materials system in different reactor types and plasma chemistries are reviewed, along with the depth and thermal stability of etch-induced damage. The application to device processing for both electronics and photonics is also discussed.
Undoped, 4µm thick GaN layers grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition were used for fabrication of high stand off voltage (356 V) Schottky diode rectifiers. The figure of merit VRB2/RON, where VRB is the reverse breakdown voltage and RON is the on-resistance, was ~ 4.53 MW-cm−2 at 25°C. The reverse breakdown voltage displayed a negative temperature coefficient, due to an increase in carrier concentration with increasing temperature. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurements showed that Si and O were the most predominant electrically active impurities present in the GaN.
This letter focuses on the evolution under illumination of the minority carrier lifetime and conversion efficiency of p-type gallium (Ga) co-doped solar grade multicrystalline silicon wafers and solar cells. We present experimental data regarding the concentration of boron-oxygen (B-O) defects in this silicon when subjected to illumination, and the concentration was found to depend on [B]-[P] rather than [B] or the net doping p0([B] + [Ga] – [P]). This result implies that the compensated B is unable to form the B-O defect. Minority carrier lifetime and EQE measurements at different degradation states indicate that the B-O defect and Fe-acceptor pairs are the two key centers contributed to LID in this material.
Atomic layer deposition has attracted much attention recently in fabricating noble metal nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. We have explored synthesizing palladium nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition on self-assembled monolayers modified silicon substrate. Using alkyltrichlorosilanes as the passivating agents, our results show the method is capable of fabricating Pd nanoparticles with well controlled density and particle diameter on the modified silicon substrate.
Convergent studies provide support for abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala, the key components of the neural system that subserves emotional processing in major depressive disorder (MDD). We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine potential amygdala–PFC functional connectivity abnormalities in treatment-naive subjects with MDD.
Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 28 individuals with MDD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Amygdala–PFC functional connectivity was compared between the MDD and HC groups.
Decreased functional connectivity to the left ventral PFC (VPFC) from the left and right amygdala was observed in the MDD group, compared with the HC group (p < 0.05, corrected).
The treatment-naive subjects with MDD showed decreased functional connectivity from the amygdala to the VPFC, especially to the left VPFC. This suggests that these connections may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.
During the last decade, multilocus analysis has gradually become a powerful tool for the studies of population genetics and phylogeography. The double-striped cockroach, Blattella bisignata, is endemic to southeast Asia, and there is currently little genetic information available for the species. We chose it as the target species to investigate a biodiversity hotspot in southwest China. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 11 single-copy anonymous nuclear markers with an average length of 378bp. These loci, isolated from a genomic library of B. bisignata, can amplify in two additional Blattella species (B. germanica and B. lituricollis). While testing these markers in representative species of Blattellidae, Blattidae and Epilampridae, some of them can cross-amplify successfully. After sequencing 30 individuals collected from southern China per locus, we found relatively high variability (approximately 3.6 SNPs per 100bp). Finally, a small-scale study was also performed to show that these markers do indeed fulfill the expectations as phylogeographic markers.
Yungang Grottoes in Shanxi, China, which represent outstanding example of Chinese outdoor immovable stone artifacts, are precious world cultural heritage. In the present study, the preparation and assessment of superhydrophobic hybrid coatings with photocatalytic activity on the sandstone substrate collected from Yungang were explored preliminarily. The protection efficiency of coating is investigated by measuring the water-stone contact angles, water vapor permeability, water absorption, and resistance to acid and salt corrosion. Results show that the superhydrophobic organic-inorganic hybrid coatings with photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties are highly suitable for the conservation of stone monuments.
ZnO is a very promising material for spintronics applications, with many groups reporting room temperature ferromagnetism in films doped with transition metals during growth or by ion implantation. In films doped with Mn during PLD, we find an inverse correlation between magnetization and electron density as controlled by Sn doping. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the implanted single-phase films were both strong functions of the initial anneal temperature, suggesting that carrier concentration alone cannot account for the magnetic properties of ZnO:Mn and factors such as crystalline quality and residual defects play a role. Plausible mechanisms for the ferromagnetism include the bound magnetic polaron model or exchange is mediated by carriers in a spin-split impurity band derived from extended donor orbitals. We will also review progress in ZnO nanowires. The large surface area of nanorods makes them attractive for gas and chemical sensing, and the ability to control their nucleation sites makes them candidates for micro-lasers or memory arrays. Single ZnO nanowire depletion-mode metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors exhibit good saturation behavior, threshold voltage of ∼-3V and a maximum transconductance of 0.3 mS/mm. Under UV illumination, the drain-source current increased by approximately a factor of 5 and the maximum transconductance was ∼ 5 mS/mm. The channel mobility is estimated to be ∼3 cm2 /V.s, comparable to that for thin film ZnO enhancement mode MOSFETs and the on/off ratio was ∼25 in the dark and ∼125 under UV illumination. Pt Schottky diodes exhibit excellent ideality factors of 1.1 at 25 °C, very low reverse currents and a strong photoresponse, with only a minor component with long decay times thought to originate from surface states. In the temperature range from 25–150 °C, the resistivity of nanorods treated in H2 at 400 °C prior to measurement showed an activation energy of 0.089 eV and was insensitive to the ambient used. By contrast, the conductivity of nanorods not treated in H2 was sensitive to trace concentrations of gases in the measurement ambient even at room temperature, demonstrating their potential as gas sensors. We have also made sensitive pH sensors using single ZnO nanowires.
UV-ozone cleaning prior to metal deposition of either e-beam Pt contacts or sputtered W contacts on n-type single-crystal ZnO is found to significantly improve their rectifying characteristics. Pt contacts deposited directly on the as-received ZnO surface are Ohmic but show rectifying behavior with ozone cleaning. The Schottky barrier height of these Pt contacts was 0.70 eV, with ideality factor of 1.5 and a saturation current density of 6.2 × 10−6 A·cm−2. In contrast, the as-deposited W contacts are Ohmic, independent of the use of ozone cleaning. Post-deposition annealing at 700 °C produces rectifying behavior with Schottky barrier heights of 0.45 eV for control samples and 0.49 eV for those cleaned with ozone exposure. The improvement in rectifying properties of both the Pt contacts is related to removal of surface carbon contamination from the ZnO.
The dc and rf performance of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Si-on-poly (SopSiC) substrates is reported. The HEMT structure incorporated a 7 period GaN/AlN superlattice between the AlGaN barrier and GaN channel for improved carrier confinement. The knee voltage of devices with 2 μm gate-drain spacing was 2.12 V and increased to 3 V at 8 μm spacing. The maximum frequency of oscillation, fMAX, was ∼40 GHz for devices with 0.5 μm gate length and 2 μm gate-drain spacing. Parameter extraction from the measured rf characteristics showed a maximum intrinsic transconductance of 143 mS.mm−1.