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With the progress in science and technology, hazardous chemicals are becoming more essential in chemical products, industrial and agricultural production, and daily life. Hazardous chemicals have poisoning, corrosive, explosive, and combusting natures; once on fire, they can trigger a chain of catastrophic incidences, resulting in casualties, property loss, and environmental pollution and posing hazards to life and property. Using the “8–12” explosion of the Ruihai Logistics warehouse in Tianjin Port (Binhai New District, China), the present study analyzes the characteristics of trauma of the casualties in this accident and the emergency medical rescue strategies. The goals were to improve the ability of emergency rescue in such accidents and to save people’s lives and property to the maximum extent.
According to the ‘farming/dispersal’ hypothesis, the Early and Mid-Holocene spread of Neolithic material culture in East Asia would have arisen from dispersals of established farming populations. The authors test this hypothesis by considering the Beixin Culture that appeared in the south-west Haidai region of northern China c. 5000 BC, before spreading north and east to the coast over the subsequent millennium. While this culture had architecture, elaborate pottery and other forms of Neolithic material culture, analysis of archaeobotanical evidence from Guanqiaocunnan (4340–3970 BC) suggests an economic base of hunting, gathering and cultivating, rather than a reliance on farming.
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are proposed as potential structural materials for advanced nuclear systems, but little is known about the response of matrix chemistry in HEAs upon irradiation. Here, we reveal a substantial change of matrix chemical concentration as a function of irradiation damage (depth) in equiatomic NiCoFeCr HEA irradiated by 3 MeV Ni ions. After ion irradiation, the matrix contains more Fe/Cr in depth shallower than ~900–1000 nm but more Ni/Co from ~900–1000 nm to the end of the ion-damaged region due to the preferential diffusion of vacancies through Fe/Cr. Preferential diffusion also facilitates migration of vacancies from high radiation damage region to low radiation damage region, leading to no void formation below ~900–1000 nm and void formation around the end of the ion-damaged region at a fluence of 5 × 1016 cm−2 (~123 dpa, displacements per atom, peak dose under full cascade mode). As voids grow significantly at an increased fluence (8 × 1016 cm−2, 196 dpa), the matrix concentration does not change dramatically due to new voids formed below ~900–1000 nm.
The family †Peipiaosteidae contains the genera †Peipiaosteus, †Stichopterus, †Spherosteus, †Yanosteus, and †Liaosteus, all from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia. Although the family has taxonomically expanded since it was first established for †P. pani Liu and Zhou, 1965, the amount of detailed comparative data for many of the taxa involved is lacking. In this paper, we describe the osteology of the monotypic genus †Yanosteus from the Yixian Formation (Early Cretaceous) of China largely on the basis of a newly prepared, well-preserved specimen. †Yanosteus is characterized by a series of infraorbital ossicles (a characteristic of the family), a broad, rounded palatopterygoid, a robust dentary, an extremely small opercle and a subopercle with distinctly long and rounded anterior process and a posteriorly scalloped margin, a broad and weakly forked caudal fin, an elongate dorsal fin with more than 160–178 fin rays (diagnostic for the genus), and a short but well-formed pectoral fin spine. We use the results of this study to discuss the characters of the †Peipiaosteioidei and the diversity of †peipiaosteioids.
In this study, direct numerical simulation of the dispersion and motion of inertial particles in a spatially developing compressible turbulent boundary layer at a Mach number of 2 is performed with the Eulerian–Lagrangian point particle method. Two cases are simulated with different particle diameters (Stokes number) but identical inflow particle numbers. Statistical characteristics and preferential accumulation of particles in the very-near-wall and wake regions are systematically investigated through conditional sampling and mechanism analysis. The results reveal that particle streaks are formed in low-speed regions near the wall because of the influence of dominating ejection events. After normalization with the local minimum particle number density, the particle number density profile reveals a self-similar feature at different streamwise positions. Compared with small particles, large particles are more significantly influenced by turbophoresis and demonstrate stronger preferential accumulation; thus, more large particles are clustered in the near-wall regions and the deviation between the mean velocities of the particle and the fluid increases. With the wall effect, both large and small particles are selectively accumulated in high-vorticity regions in the buffer layer in contrast to turbulence without walls. In comparison with incompressible wall-bounded turbulence, a new mechanism for particle preferential accumulation based on local fluid density is discovered. Large particles are located in low-density regions in the inner zones and high-density regions in the outer zones. Nevertheless, small particles remain located in regions with low fluid density, as illustrated by the mechanism analysis of particle dilatation.
Previous studies have shown that African American youth are over-represented in the Criminal Justice System (CJS). Substance use problems are common among those with CJS involvement. However, less is known regarding racial disparities, among youth with CJS involvement, in receiving substance use treatment services.
To examine racial disparities with regard to receiving treatment services for substance use related problems, among youth with (CJS) involvement.
Data were obtained from the 2006–2008 United States National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in USA. Among White and African American adolescents (Ages 12–17) with recent CJS involvement and who met criteria for alcohol or illicit drug abuse or dependence (N = 602), racial differences in receiving treatment services for substance use problems were examined. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of service access among the adolescents, to see if the racial disparity could be explained by individual-level, family-level, and criminal justice system involvement factors.
While 31.2% of White adolescent substance abusers with CJS involvement had received treatment for substance use related problems, only 11.6% of their African American counterparts had received such treatment (P = 0.0005). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that access to treatment services can be predicted by substance use related delinquent behaviors, but that racial disparities in treatment still exist after adjusting for these factors (AOR = 0.24, 95%CI = (0.09,0.59), P = 0.0027).
There is an urgent need to reduce racial disparities in receiving substance use treatment among U.S. youth with CJS involvement.
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can increase the level of inflammation and induce rumenitis in dairy cows. Berberine (BBR) is the major active component of Rhizoma Coptidis, which is a type of Chinese anti-inflammatory drug for gastrointestinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of BBR on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rumen epithelial cells (REC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. REC were cultured and stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of BBR. The results showed that cell viability was not affected by BBR. Moreover, BBR markedly decreased the concentrations and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in the LPS-treated REC in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, Western blotting analysis showed that BBR significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-treated REC. Furthermore, the results of immunocytofluorescence showed that BBR significantly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 induced by LPS treatment. In conclusion, the protective effects of BBR on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in REC may be due to its ability to suppress the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that BBR can be used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat inflammation induced by SARA.
Nanocrystalline and nanolaminated materials show enhanced radiation tolerance compared with their coarse-grained counterparts, since grain boundaries and layer interfaces act as effective defect sinks. Although the effects of layer interface and layer thickness on radiation tolerance of crystalline nanolaminates have been systematically studied, radiation response of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates is rarely investigated. In this study, we show that irradiation can lead to formation of nanocrystals and nanotwins in amorphous CuNb layers in Cu/amorphous-CuNb nanolaminates. Substantial element segregation is observed in amorphous CuNb layers after irradiation. In Cu layers, both stationary and migrating grain boundaries effectively interact with defects. Furthermore, there is a clear size effect on irradiation-induced crystallization and grain coarsening. In situ studies also show that crystalline/amorphous interfaces can effectively absorb defects without drastic microstructural change, and defect absorption by grain boundary and crystalline/amorphous interface is compared and discussed. Our results show that tailoring layer thickness can enhance radiation tolerance of crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates and can provide insights for constructing crystalline/amorphous nanolaminates under radiation environment.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a serious heart disorder that may induce sudden cardiac death and heart failure. Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of dilated cardiomyopathy. In previous studies, mutations in more than fifty genes have been identified in dilated cardiomyopathy patients. The purpose of this study was to detect the genetic lesion in a family from the central south of China affected by severe dilated cardiomyopathy.
Whole-exome sequencing combined with cardiomyopathy-related genes list were used to analyse the mutations of the proband. Co-segregation analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing.
Results and conclusions
Two novel heterozygous mutations – Myosin Binding Protein C: p.L1014RfsX6 and Titin: p.R9793X – were identified in the proband. The deletion mutation c.3041delT/p.L1014RfsX6 caused a premature stop codon at position 1020 in exon 28 of the Myosin Binding Protein C. The nonsense mutation, c.29377 C>T/ p. R9793X, of Titin was located in the highly evolutionarily conserved domain, resulting in truncation of the Titin protein as well. Co-segregation analysis further revealed that the Myosin Binding Protein C mutation came from his mother and the Titin mutation came from his father. Both mutations are reported in dilated cardiomyopathy patients for the first time. Our study not only provides a unique example of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in dilated cardiomyopathy but also expands the spectrum of Myosin Binding Protein C and Titin mutations and contributes to the genetic diagnosis and counselling of dilated cardiomyopathy patients.
The effects of the thermal cyclic aging treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 2060 Al–Li alloy laser beam welded joints were investigated. Aging treatments were conducted at different temperatures and for different cycles. Test results showed that the tensile strength of the weld joints increased and the elongation slightly decreased after the thermal cycling treatment. It was also found that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the welds exhibited a significant increase in microhardness, whilst the microhardness variation of the nondendrite equiaxed zone (EQZ) can be neglected. The strengthening effect of the thermal cycling became more obvious as the temperature and cycles increased. The highest strength of around 513 MPa (96% of the base metal) was obtained at the temperature of 180 °C. Reprecipitation of strengthening phases such as T1 in the HAZ at 180 °C was observed by TEM, which can be considered as the main reason for the strengthening effect of the aging treatment.
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
On August 12, 2015, a hazardous chemical explosion occurred in the Tianjin Port of China. The explosions resulted in 165 deaths, 8 missing people, injuries to thousands of people. We present the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the explosions and summarize the lessons that can be learned.
This study was a retrospective analysis of the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the Tianjin explosions. Data on injuries, outcomes, and patient flow were obtained from the government and the hospitals.
A total of 46 ambulances and 143 prehospital care professionals were dispatched to the scene, and 198 wounded were transferred to hospitals by ambulance. More than 4000 wounded casualties surged into hospitals, and 798 wounded were admitted. Both emergency medical services and hospitals were quick and successful in the early stage of the explosions. The strategy of 4 centralizations (4Cs) for medical services management in a mass casualty event was successfully applied.
The risk of accidental events has increased in recent years. We should take advantage of the lessons learned from the explosions and apply these in future disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 411–414)
In this paper, a systematic investigation of turbulence modulation by particles and its underlying physical mechanisms in decaying compressible isotropic turbulence is performed by using direct numerical simulations with the Eulerian–Lagrangian point-source approach. Particles interact with turbulence through two-way coupling and the initial turbulent Mach number is 1.2. Five simulations with different particle diameters (or initial Stokes numbers,
) are conducted while fixing both their volume fraction and particle densities. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence modulation are analysed through investigating the particle motion in the different cases and the transport equations of turbulent kinetic energy, vorticity and dilatation, especially the two-way coupling terms. Our results show that microparticles (
) augment turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid, critical particles (
) enhance the rotational motion of fluid, and large particles (
) attenuate turbulent kinetic energy and the rotational motion of fluid. The compressibility of the turbulence field is suppressed for all the cases, and the suppression is more significant if the Stokes number of particles is close to 1. The modifications of turbulent kinetic energy, the rotational motion and the compressibility are all related with the particle inertia and distributions, and the suppression of the compressibility is attributed to the preferential concentration and the inertia of particles.
Glacier albedo controls the surface energy budget, the variability of which affects the glacier surface melt rate and, in turn, impacts the mass balance of the glacier. During 2013 and 2014, spatial and temporal variations of albedo were investigated using 18 Landsat images of Urumqi Glacier No. 1. Factors influencing these spatiotemporal profiles were analyzed. An established retrieval process, including geolocation, radiometric calibration, atmospheric, topographic, and anisotropic correction and narrow- to broadband conversion, was applied for the first time to Landsat-8 images. Differences between Landsat image derived albedo values and albedo values measured using a handheld spectroradiometer ranged from −0.024 to 0.049. Spatial and temporal variations of surface albedo were significant, especially in the ablation area. The variability of the values of ice albedo ranged from 0.06 to 0.44 due to topographic effects and light-absorbing impurities. The results suggest that this retrieval method can be used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface albedo from Landsat-8 images on mountain glaciers. Moreover, as constant albedo values for ice and snow cannot be assumed, the distribution of albedo was not completely dependent on altitude under conditions of more intense ablation, and by reason of light-absorbing impurities during the melt season.
The Brownian motion of a nanoparticle in fluid depends on the molecular forces acting on it. Because of the small size and the high frequency, it is difficult to make experimental measurements of these forces. In the present work, Brownian forces acting on a nanoparticle are numerically investigated with the molecular dynamics method. Some new phenomena are disclosed. (i) The probability distribution shows that the Brownian forces conform to the Gaussian distribution and self-similarity of the probability distribution is also found for different
numbers which are characterized with the particle radius and the mean path
of the gas molecule
. (ii) The frequency spectrum distribution of the Brownian force is not a white noise spectrum, which is different from the assumption commonly used in Langevin model. The preferential frequency of the Brownian force is found. (iii) The size effect relating to the Brownian forces is not monotonically varying with
and is also found. It first increases and then decreases after it reaches the maximum value at
. The variation process for
observed in the present work has not been reported in previous research to date.
Metallic glasses (MGs) are known to have high strength, but poor ductility. Prior studies have shown that plasticity in MG can be enhanced by significantly reducing their dimension to nanoscale. Here we show that, via the introduction of certain types of crystalline/amorphous interfaces, plasticity of MG can be prominently enhanced as manifested by the formation of ductile “dimples” in a 2 μm thick amorphous CuNb film. By tailoring the volume fraction and architecture of crystalline/amorphous multilayers, tensile fracture surface of MG can evolve from brittle featureless morphology to containing ductile dimples. In situ micropillar compression studies performed inside a scanning electron microscope show that shear instability in amorphous layers can be inhibited by interfaces. The mechanisms for improving plasticity and fracture resistance of MG via interface and size effect are discussed.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
To retrospectively analyze the rescue and treatment of pediatric patients by the Chinese Red Cross medical team during the Nepal earthquake relief.
The medical team set up a field hospital; the pediatric clinic consisted of 1 pediatrician and several nurses. Children younger than 18 years old were placed in the pediatric clinic for injury examination and treatment.
During the 7-day period of medical assistance (the second to third week after the earthquake), a total of 108 pediatric patients were diagnosed and treated, accounting for 2.8% of the total patients. The earthquake-related injuries mainly required surgical dressing and debridement. No severe limb fractures or traumatic brain injuries were found. Infection of the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin were the most common ailments, accounting for 42.3%, 18.5%, and 16.7%, respectively, of the total treated patients.
Two to 3 weeks after the earthquake, the admitted pediatric patients mainly displayed respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. When developing a rescue plan and arranging medical resources, we should consider the necessity of treating non–disaster-related conditions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4)
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness among Chinese children and to explore their associations with socio-economic status (SES).
A population, school-based cross-sectional study using multistage, stratified cluster random sampling. Grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness, overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined by the International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs.
Seven districts of Shanghai, China.
Chinese children aged 3–12 years (n 84 075).
In boys and girls, respectively, the prevalence of grade 1 thinness was 8·89 % and 11·78 %, of grade 2 thinness was 2·80 % and 3·74 %, and of grade 3 thinness was 2·23 % and 2·93 %. Compared with urban children, suburban children had higher prevalence of thinness. Children whose parent had low education had higher prevalence of grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness than those whose parent had high education. The prevalence of grade 2 and 3 thinness, obesity and severe obesity in low-SES children was higher than that in high-SES children, and the prevalence of grade 1 thinness was lower than that in high-SES children. Particular patterns of prevalence of grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness appeared in low-, middle- and high-SES children.
The study describes associations of SES with grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness, overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Shanghai children. The patterns of thinness and obesity in Shanghai provide further insights into BMI patterns in mega-cities in developing countries.
We developed a new soft-lithographic fabrication technique which enables the realization of high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars. The key enabling factor is the adoption of the direct drawing technique incorporated with the in situ heating for simultaneous hardening and solidification of the PDMS micropillars. In addition, our technique allows self-aligned installation of highly reflective microspheres at the tips of the micropillars. Using the transparent PDMS micropillar as a flexible waveguide and the microsphere as a self-aligned reflector, we transformed the microsphere-tipped PDMS micropillars into all optically interrogated acoustic sensors inspired by the cricket’s filiform hairs and successfully demonstrated the sensing capability.