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The transgenic Liberty Link® (LL) soybean is tolerant to glufosinate, conferred by the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), which is encoded by the pat gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Because symptoms of injury can be observed in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plants in some situations, this study evaluated the effects of rates of glufosinate on agronomic performance; quality of LL soybean seeds; and the ammonia, glufosinate, and N-acetyl-l-glufosinate concentration (NAG) in soybeans with and without the pat gene after application of increasing glufosinate rates. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted; the first evaluated the selectivity of glufosinate in LL soybeans, and the second evaluated the metabolic changes in soybeans with (LL) and without (RR2) the pat gene, after application of glufosinate. For fieldwork, application of glufosinate at rates up to four times the maximum recommended caused initial injury symptoms (up to 38.5%) in LL soybean plants. However, no negative effect was found on seed quality and agronomic performance of LL plants, including yield. This shows the selectivity of glufosinate promoted by pat gene insertion for application in POST (V4), in LL soybean. For the greenhouse experiment, it was concluded that the LL soybean plants presented high glufosinate metabolism, lower ammonia concentration, and no reduction in dry matter, in comparison with RR2 soybean, after application of high rates of glufosinate.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
A new Saldidae (MCT 6959-I) from the Crato Formation (Lower Cretaceous, late Aptian), Santana Group, Araripe Basin (northeastern Brazil) is described and illustrated. Olindasalda gondwanica n. gen. n. sp. is the first fossil Saldidae recorded from the Gondwanan supercontinent. The new genus can be distinguished from other members of the subfamily Chiloxanthinae by its small (4.49 mm) and oval-elongated body, absence of spots on the corium of the hemelytron, long R vein, and much-reduced first cell of the membrane. Remarks on the geology of the type locality and a comparison of the new genus with other saldids are provided.
In São Paulo, Brazil, the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19) was confirmed on 26 February, the first death due to CoViD-19 was registered on 16 March, and on 24 March, São Paulo implemented the isolation of persons in non-essential activities. A mathematical model was formulated based on non-linear ordinary differential equations considering young (60 years old or less) and elder (60 years old or more) subpopulations, aiming to describe the introduction and dissemination of the new coronavirus in São Paulo. This deterministic model used the data collected from São Paulo to estimate the model parameters, obtaining R0 = 6.8 for the basic reproduction number. The model also allowed to estimate that 50% of the population of São Paulo was in isolation, which permitted to describe the current epidemiological status. The goal of isolation implemented in São Paulo to control the rapid increase of the new coronavirus epidemic was partially succeeded, concluding that if isolation of at least 80% of the population had been implemented, the collapse in the health care system could be avoided. Nevertheless, the isolated persons must be released one day. Based on this model, we studied the potential epidemiological scenarios of release by varying the proportions of the release of young and elder persons. We also evaluated three different strategies of release: All isolated persons are released simultaneously, two and three releases divided in equal proportions. The better scenarios occurred when young persons are released, but maintaining elder persons isolated for a while. When compared with the epidemic without isolation, all strategies of release did not attain the goal of reducing substantially the number of hospitalisations due to severe CoViD-19. Hence, we concluded that the best decision must be postponing the beginning of the release.
The use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal feeding is declining, so Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil (LGSEO) could be used as a potential substitute for the conventionally used growth promoters. The LGSEO contains components such as carvacrol and thymol, which kill and/or control pathogenic bacteria, increase population of beneficial organisms, act against oxidative processes and onto nutrient digestibility and absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and the effects of LGSEO as a growth promoter in the diet of Japanese quail by examining their productive performance, intestinal microbiology, blood biochemical parameters, hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and intestinal gene expression. A total of 252 two-day-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 3 treatments in 7 replicates, using 12 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, basal diet + LGSEO at 400 mg/kg of diet and basal diet + chemical antimicrobial (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) at 500 mg/kg of diet. The experimental period was 34 days. The highest feed intake (P < 0.01) was found in the group receiving the conventional antimicrobial, whereas the best feed conversion (P < 0.01) was shown by the animals receiving LGSEO. Escherichia coli growth was restricted in the quail receiving the growth promoters. Salmonella spp. growth was controlled by the treatment containing the conventional antimicrobial. There was no difference between the treatments (P > 0.05) for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes in the blood or hepatic TBARS content. Birds receiving negative-control treatment exhibited a higher expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), while those receiving the treatment with essential oil showed lower catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX7) expressions compared to the conventional antimicrobial and control groups, respectively. Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil is a powerful performance enhancer for Japanese quail by virtue of its abilities to improve their intestinal environment, balance the microbial population and reduce energy expenditure for oxidative processes.
Pasture management that considers pasture growth dynamics remains an open question. Conceptually, such management must allow for grazing only after the recuperation of the pasture between two separate timely grazing periods when pasture reaches optimum recovery, as per the first law of Voisin’s rational grazing system. The optimum recovery period not only implies a pasture with better nutritional value and higher biomass yield but one that also reduces the production of enteric methane (CH4) to improve the grazing efficiency of cattle. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate three different recovery periods (RP) of mixed grasses on the grazing behaviour of heifers, as well as herbage selectivity, herbage yield and nutritional value, in vitro degradability and CH4 production. Based on these criteria, three pasture RPs of 24 (RP24), 35 (RP3) and 46 (RP46) days were evaluated in six blocks using a randomized block design. At each predetermined RP, samples of the pasture were taken before the animals were allowed to graze. Right after collecting the pasture samples, heifers accessed the pasture during 4 h consecutively for grazing simulation and behavioural observations. We also measured the bite rate of each animal. The pasture growing for 24 days had the highest biomass production, best nutritional value, best efficiency of in vitro CH4 relative emission (ml) per DM degraded (g) and bite rate of the three RPs. Heifers all selected their herbage, irrespective of RP, but with different nutritional value and higher in vitro degradability. However, this did not change the production of in vitro CH4. Considering the growth conditions of the area where the study was performed, we recommend the shorter RP24 as the most suitable during the summer season. The study’s findings support the idea of management intervention to increase the quality of grazing systems.
To investigate the use of a video monitoring system for automatic event recognition for the assessment of autonomy in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) in dementia patients.
Three groups of participants (healthy control, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease) had to carry out a standardized scenario consisting of directed tasks (single and dual task) and IADLs such as preparing pillbox. During this time they were recorded by 3D video cameras capturing all their activities. The performance quality of each participant was manually annotated and assessed based on the amount of successfully carried out activities. Recorded data was processed by a platform of video signal analysis in order to extract kinematic parameters detecting activities undertaken by the participant. We developed a classifier based on the extracted video features for diagnostic prediction and further autonomy performance prediction.
Overall activities were correctly automatically detected. The most accurate detected activities were: using the phone with 91% accuracy and preparing pillbox with 88% accuracy. The diagnostic group classifier based on the automatically extracted video features obtained accuracy of 71.79 % when combining directed tasks and IADLs. Autonomy group classifier obtained an accuracy of 84.61% when combining directed tasks and IADLs.
The results suggest that it is possible to assess autonomy with the help automatic video monitoring system (AVMS) and that the use of such technologies could provide clinicians with diagnostic relevant information and improve autonomy assessment in real time decreasing observer biases.
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic brain infection related to epilepsy. Only albendazole (ABZ) and praziquantel are used in its treatment. The development of new therapeutics has been encouraged. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci intracranial infection is the experimental model used in NCC studies. This study evaluated the histopathology of the brains of BALB/c mice experimentally infected with T. crassiceps cysticerci after the treatment with the ABZ/nitazoxanide (NTZ) combination. Thirty days after the inoculation the mice received an oral single dose of the ABZ/NTZ combination (40 mg kg−1 each). The control groups were treated with: NaCl 0.9%; ABZ or NTZ. The histopathologic evaluation of the brains was performed 24 h after treatment. The ABZ treatment induced discrete mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, meningitis, gliosis, hyperaemia and hippocampus compression; moderate ependimitis and oedema. The NTZ treatment induced accentuated inflammatory infiltration, foamy macrophages, ependimitis, choroiditis, gliosis and hyperaemia and moderate oedema. The ABZ/NTZ combination treatment induced a significant decrease in the polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltration, ependimitis, choroiditis, gliosis, hyperaemia and ventriculomegaly in comparison with the other groups. The cysticerci showed destruction of the tegument not observed in other groups. The ABZ/NTZ combination is efficient as the parasite showed signs of destruction and lower damage to the host's tissue.
A child’s diet contains nutrients and other substances that influence intestinal health. The present study aimed to evaluate the relations between complementary feeding, intestinal barrier function and environmental enteropathy (EE) in infants. Data from 233 children were obtained from the Brazilian site of the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project cohort study. Habitual dietary intake from complementary feeding was estimated using seven 24-h dietary recalls, from 9 to 15 months of age. Intestinal barrier function was assessed using the lactulose–mannitol test (L–M), and EE was determined as a composite measure using faecal biomarkers concentrations – α-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neopterin (NEO) at 15 months of age. The nutrient adequacies explored the associations between dietary intake and the intestinal biomarkers. Children showed adequate nutrient intakes (with the exception of fibre), impaired intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. There was a negative correlation between energy adequacy and L–M (ρ = −0·19, P < 0·05) and between folate adequacy and NEO concentrations (ρ = −0·21, P < 0·01). In addition, there was a positive correlation between thiamine adequacy and MPO concentration (ρ = 0·22, P < 0·01) and between Ca adequacy and NEO concentration (ρ = 0·23; P < 0·01). Multiple linear regression models showed that energy intakes were inversely associated with intestinal barrier function (β = −0·19, P = 0·02), and fibre intake was inversely associated with the EE scores (β = −0·20, P = 0·04). Findings suggest that dietary intake from complementary feeding is associated with decreased intestinal barrier function and EE in children.
Modern lifestyle increases the prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities in the young population. High-salt (HS) diets are associated with hypertension and cardiac remodelling. The present study evaluated the potential effects of cardiometabolic programming induced by HS intake during puberty in lean and obese rats. Additionally, we investigated whether HS could exacerbate the impairment of cardiovascular parameters in adult life due to postnatal early overnutrition (PO). At postnatal day 3 (PN3), twenty-four litters of Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal litter (NL, nine pups/dam) and small litter (SL, three pups/dam) throughout the lactation period; weaning was at PN21. At PN30, the pups were subdivided into two more groups: NL plus HS (NLHS) and SL plus HS (SLHS). HS intake was from PN30 until PN60. Cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at PN120. SL rats became overweight at adulthood due to persistent hyperphagia; however, HS exposure during puberty reduced the weight gain and food intake of NLHS and SLHS. Both HS and obesity raised the blood pressure, impaired baro- and chemoreflex sensitivity and induced cardiac remodelling but no worsening was observed in the association of these factors, except a little reduction in the angiotensin type-2 receptor in the hearts from SLHS animals. Our results suggest that the response of newborn offspring to PO and juveniles to a HS diet leads to significant changes in cardiovascular parameters in adult rats. This damage may be accompanied by impairment of both angiotensin signalling and antioxidant defence in the heart.
Since behavioural adjustments are an important line of defence against thermal stress, either due to their energy efficiency or to efficiency at preventing overheating, we aimed to evaluate whether broilers fed different maize particle sizes adjusted their behaviour to deal with heat stress challenges. At several times a day, the behaviour of 220 naked neck broilers was evaluated. These broilers were fed with isonutritive diets containing maize with different geometric mean diameters (GMD): 605 and 2280 μm. The thermal environment was monitored during the experiment. Panting and open wings were the only behaviours that showed differences between the times of day (P < 0.05). However, GMD showed a significant effect on feed intake and panting (P < 0.05). The interaction between GMD and time of day was significant only on panting (P < 0.05). Although no daily variation was observed, the highest feed intake was observed in broilers fed the diet containing maize with a GMD of 2280 μm. Less than 5% of the broilers were observed drinking water during the day. Open wings was the behavioural adjustment most used by broilers from 10:00 h, and remained elevated until 14:00 h for both GMDs. The birds panted more when fed the diet containing maize with a GMD of 2280 μm. In conclusion, broilers adjust their behaviour to dissipate excess body heat from the environment and as a result of feed intake. Coarse particles of maize in the diet increase the thermal challenge of broilers since the environment also provides stressful thermal conditions.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
The current study was carried out to examine the effect of cottonseed processing and chitosan supplementation on lamb performance, digestibility and nitrogen digestion. Eighty uncastrated Santa Inês lambs (23 ± 2.2 kg average weight, 4 months old) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that consisted of two cottonseed processing forms (whole or ground) and two chitosan levels (0 or 136 mg/kg live weight). Higher dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) was achieved with the diets containing the whole cottonseed. Ether extract ADC was higher in the animals fed the chitosan-containing diet. There was an interaction effect on the ADC of neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein, which increased with chitosan inclusion associated with the whole cottonseed. The lambs that received the treatment containing the whole cottonseed showed higher microbial protein synthesis. Chitosan addition increased nitrogen retention. The animals fed chitosan-containing diets showed higher microbial protein synthesis. There was an interaction effect on microbial protein synthesis. Whole cottonseed associated with chitosan in lamb diets increases ether extract ADC and microbial protein synthesis.
To assess the reliability and validity of body weight (BW) and body image (BI) perception reported by parents (in children) and by adolescents in a South American population.
Cross-sectional study. BW perception was evaluated by the question, ‘Do you think you/your child are/is: severely wasted, wasted, normal weight, overweight, obese?’ BI perception was evaluated using the Gardner scale. To evaluate reliability, BW and BI perceptions were reported twice, two weeks apart. To evaluate validity, the BW and BI perceptions were compared with WHO BMI Z-scores. Kappa and Kendall’s tau-c coefficients were obtained.
Public and private schools and high schools from six countries of South America (Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Brazil).
Children aged 3–10 years (n 635) and adolescents aged 11–17 years (n 400).
Reliability of BW perception was fair in children’s parents (κ=0·337) and substantial in adolescents (κ=0·709). Validity of BW perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·176) and fair in adolescents (κ=0·268). When evaluating BI, most children were perceived by parents as having lower weight. Reliability of BI perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·124) and moderate in adolescents (κ=0·599). Validity of BI perception was poor in children’s parents (κ=−0·018) and slight in adolescents (κ=0·023).
Reliability of BW and BI perceptions was higher in adolescents than in children’s parents. Validity of BW perception was good among the parents of the children and adolescents with underweight and normal weight.
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein–mineral–vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders. Eighteen steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments and finished for 91 days. Data regarding pasture and growth performance were collected during three different periods (0 to 28, 29 to 56 and 57 to 91 days). Subsequently, steers were harvested to evaluate carcass traits, presence of rumenitis, abomasitis and liver abscesses. The legume–grass pasture provided more than 19% dry matter of protein. In addition, pasture of paddocks where steers were assigned to SUPP and PAST treatments showed similar nutritional quality. When compared to PAST, finishing on SUPP increased total weight gain per hectare, stocking rate, daily and total weight gains. The increase of weight gain was high to GRAIN than SUPP and PAST. Steers finished on GRAIN had high hot carcass weight, fat thickness and marbling score when compared to PAST. However, these attributes did not differ between GRAIN and SUPP. Abomasum lesions were more prevalent in steers finished on GRAIN when compared to PAST. Results of this research showed that it is possible to produce carcasses with desirable market weight and fat thickness by finishing steers on legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover. Moreover, supplementing steers with corn when grazing on legume–grass pasture produced similar carcass traits when compared to beef fed corn only.
In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoke and pH cycling on the chemical composition and surface/cross-sectional enamel microhardness. A total of 40 dental blocks obtained from bovine incisors were divided into four groups (n=10): no treatment (control); exposure to cigarette smoke (CS); exposure to pH cycling (PC); and exposure to cigarette smoke and pH cycling (CS-PC). The samples were analyzed by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence, bench mode X-ray fluorescence, as well as surface microhardness (SMH) and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) testing. The SMH results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. The CSMH results were evaluated using split-plot ANOVA and Tukey’s test. A high amount of Cd and Pb and traces of Ni and As were observed in enamel and dentin after exposure to cigarette smoke (CS and CS-PC). The SMH and CSMH of CS were statistically higher when compared with the control. The PC and CS-PC showed lower SMH and CSMH. We conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke promoted heavy metal deposition in enamel/dentin. In addition, it increased the enamel microhardness but did not promote a protective effect on the in vitro development of caries. The clinical significance of this work is that there is significant bioaccumulation of heavy metals from cigarette smoke on the surface and in the enamel and dentin.
Intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, microbial protein synthesis, weight gain, yields of the main commercial cuts and carcass morphometric measurements were evaluated in lambs fed diets containing different levels of chitosan. Sixty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average body weight (BW) of 24 ± 2.2 kg were assigned to three treatments (diets containing 0, 136 or 272 mg chitosan/kg BW) in a completely randomized design. There was no effect of chitosan on dry matter (DM) intake. Ingested and retained N showed a quadratic response, with the highest values estimated at the chitosan levels of 142 and 152 mg/kg BW, respectively. Similar to N balance, microbial protein synthesis showed the same quadratic response, in which the level of 136 mg/kg BW resulted in higher synthesis when compared with the other levels. No effect of chitosan was detected on average daily gain, final weight, or carcass variables (hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, yield of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements of the carcass). Conformation, visceral fat content and fatness of carcasses were also not altered by the use of chitosan. Chitosan improves the digestibility of DM, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre, and increases N balance and microbial protein synthesis but does not change the production performance of feedlot lambs.
The present study provides a comprehensive survey of the planktonic hydrozoan fauna from the Paranaguá Estuarine System (PES; southern Brazil, 25°S 48°W), a subtropical estuary considered a Natural World Heritage site by UNESCO. Extensive collections were performed throughout the estuary in five sampling campaigns during the summer and winter periods of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2014, totalling 185 samples. About 49,000 organisms were analysed which together with the few previous records resulted in a total of 36 hydromedusae and three siphonophore species. We highlight the presence of Cnidostoma fallax in high abundance (>19,000 individuals captured; ~40% of all planktonic hydrozoans). The high abundance of this species throughout three consecutive summers suggests a change in the local assemblage structure, since previous reports in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s had shown Liriope tetraphylla recurrently as the dominant species which now ranks fourth. It is difficult to ascertain the causes of such changes due to the paucity of previous studies on Brazilian estuaries, but one possibility is that C. fallax has been recently introduced. In any case, the high dominance of this hydromedusa was not expected and this scenario would potentially cause changes in the local food web since C. fallax and L. tetraphylla are quite different morphologically and ecologically and thus probably play different trophic roles. Future studies are necessary to check the long-term permanency of C. fallax and to assess its biology and ecology and the impact of this assemblage change on the ecosystem.
To compare cognitive function among frail and prefrail older adults.
Cross-sectional clinical study.
Fifty-one non-institutionalized older individuals participated in this study.
Cognitive functions were evaluated through Mini-Mental State Examination (Global Cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Verbal Fluency Test (semantic memory/executive function). Data were compared using parametric and non-parametric bivariate tests. Binary logistic regression was used to test a frailty prediction model. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.01 to compare groups. In the regression model, the p value was set to be ≤0.05.
Statistically significant differences were observed in global cognition, and short-term memory between frail and prefrail individuals (p ≤ 0.01). Global cognition explained 14–19% of frailty's model.
According to our findings, the evaluation of cognitive functions among older persons with frailty and prefrailty provides important complementary information to better manage frailty and its progression.