To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
To assess the reliability and validity of body weight (BW) and body image (BI) perception reported by parents (in children) and by adolescents in a South American population.
Cross-sectional study. BW perception was evaluated by the question, ‘Do you think you/your child are/is: severely wasted, wasted, normal weight, overweight, obese?’ BI perception was evaluated using the Gardner scale. To evaluate reliability, BW and BI perceptions were reported twice, two weeks apart. To evaluate validity, the BW and BI perceptions were compared with WHO BMI Z-scores. Kappa and Kendall’s tau-c coefficients were obtained.
Public and private schools and high schools from six countries of South America (Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Brazil).
Children aged 3–10 years (n 635) and adolescents aged 11–17 years (n 400).
Reliability of BW perception was fair in children’s parents (κ=0·337) and substantial in adolescents (κ=0·709). Validity of BW perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·176) and fair in adolescents (κ=0·268). When evaluating BI, most children were perceived by parents as having lower weight. Reliability of BI perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·124) and moderate in adolescents (κ=0·599). Validity of BI perception was poor in children’s parents (κ=−0·018) and slight in adolescents (κ=0·023).
Reliability of BW and BI perceptions was higher in adolescents than in children’s parents. Validity of BW perception was good among the parents of the children and adolescents with underweight and normal weight.
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein–mineral–vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders. Eighteen steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments and finished for 91 days. Data regarding pasture and growth performance were collected during three different periods (0 to 28, 29 to 56 and 57 to 91 days). Subsequently, steers were harvested to evaluate carcass traits, presence of rumenitis, abomasitis and liver abscesses. The legume–grass pasture provided more than 19% dry matter of protein. In addition, pasture of paddocks where steers were assigned to SUPP and PAST treatments showed similar nutritional quality. When compared to PAST, finishing on SUPP increased total weight gain per hectare, stocking rate, daily and total weight gains. The increase of weight gain was high to GRAIN than SUPP and PAST. Steers finished on GRAIN had high hot carcass weight, fat thickness and marbling score when compared to PAST. However, these attributes did not differ between GRAIN and SUPP. Abomasum lesions were more prevalent in steers finished on GRAIN when compared to PAST. Results of this research showed that it is possible to produce carcasses with desirable market weight and fat thickness by finishing steers on legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover. Moreover, supplementing steers with corn when grazing on legume–grass pasture produced similar carcass traits when compared to beef fed corn only.
In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoke and pH cycling on the chemical composition and surface/cross-sectional enamel microhardness. A total of 40 dental blocks obtained from bovine incisors were divided into four groups (n=10): no treatment (control); exposure to cigarette smoke (CS); exposure to pH cycling (PC); and exposure to cigarette smoke and pH cycling (CS-PC). The samples were analyzed by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence, bench mode X-ray fluorescence, as well as surface microhardness (SMH) and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) testing. The SMH results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. The CSMH results were evaluated using split-plot ANOVA and Tukey’s test. A high amount of Cd and Pb and traces of Ni and As were observed in enamel and dentin after exposure to cigarette smoke (CS and CS-PC). The SMH and CSMH of CS were statistically higher when compared with the control. The PC and CS-PC showed lower SMH and CSMH. We conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke promoted heavy metal deposition in enamel/dentin. In addition, it increased the enamel microhardness but did not promote a protective effect on the in vitro development of caries. The clinical significance of this work is that there is significant bioaccumulation of heavy metals from cigarette smoke on the surface and in the enamel and dentin.
Intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, microbial protein synthesis, weight gain, yields of the main commercial cuts and carcass morphometric measurements were evaluated in lambs fed diets containing different levels of chitosan. Sixty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average body weight (BW) of 24 ± 2.2 kg were assigned to three treatments (diets containing 0, 136 or 272 mg chitosan/kg BW) in a completely randomized design. There was no effect of chitosan on dry matter (DM) intake. Ingested and retained N showed a quadratic response, with the highest values estimated at the chitosan levels of 142 and 152 mg/kg BW, respectively. Similar to N balance, microbial protein synthesis showed the same quadratic response, in which the level of 136 mg/kg BW resulted in higher synthesis when compared with the other levels. No effect of chitosan was detected on average daily gain, final weight, or carcass variables (hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, yield of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements of the carcass). Conformation, visceral fat content and fatness of carcasses were also not altered by the use of chitosan. Chitosan improves the digestibility of DM, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre, and increases N balance and microbial protein synthesis but does not change the production performance of feedlot lambs.
The present study provides a comprehensive survey of the planktonic hydrozoan fauna from the Paranaguá Estuarine System (PES; southern Brazil, 25°S 48°W), a subtropical estuary considered a Natural World Heritage site by UNESCO. Extensive collections were performed throughout the estuary in five sampling campaigns during the summer and winter periods of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2014, totalling 185 samples. About 49,000 organisms were analysed which together with the few previous records resulted in a total of 36 hydromedusae and three siphonophore species. We highlight the presence of Cnidostoma fallax in high abundance (>19,000 individuals captured; ~40% of all planktonic hydrozoans). The high abundance of this species throughout three consecutive summers suggests a change in the local assemblage structure, since previous reports in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s had shown Liriope tetraphylla recurrently as the dominant species which now ranks fourth. It is difficult to ascertain the causes of such changes due to the paucity of previous studies on Brazilian estuaries, but one possibility is that C. fallax has been recently introduced. In any case, the high dominance of this hydromedusa was not expected and this scenario would potentially cause changes in the local food web since C. fallax and L. tetraphylla are quite different morphologically and ecologically and thus probably play different trophic roles. Future studies are necessary to check the long-term permanency of C. fallax and to assess its biology and ecology and the impact of this assemblage change on the ecosystem.
To compare cognitive function among frail and prefrail older adults.
Cross-sectional clinical study.
Fifty-one non-institutionalized older individuals participated in this study.
Cognitive functions were evaluated through Mini-Mental State Examination (Global Cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Verbal Fluency Test (semantic memory/executive function). Data were compared using parametric and non-parametric bivariate tests. Binary logistic regression was used to test a frailty prediction model. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.01 to compare groups. In the regression model, the p value was set to be ≤0.05.
Statistically significant differences were observed in global cognition, and short-term memory between frail and prefrail individuals (p ≤ 0.01). Global cognition explained 14–19% of frailty's model.
According to our findings, the evaluation of cognitive functions among older persons with frailty and prefrailty provides important complementary information to better manage frailty and its progression.
The present study aimed to describe breast-feeding, complementary feeding and determining factors for early complementary feeding from birth to 8 months of age in a typical Brazilian low-income urban community.
A birth cohort was conducted (n 233), with data collection twice weekly, allowing close observation of breast-feeding, complementary feeding introduction and description of the WHO core indicators on infant and young child feeding. Infant feeding practices were related to socio-economic status (SES), assessed by Water/sanitation, wealth measured by a set of eight Assets, Maternal education and monthly household Income (WAMI index). Two logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate risk factors associated with early complementary feeding.
Based on twice weekly follow-up, 65 % of the children received exclusive breast-feeding in the first month of life and 5 % in the sixth month. Complementary feeding was offered in the first month: 29 % of the children received water, 15 % infant formulas, 13 % other milks and 9·4 % grain-derived foods. At 6 months, dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet were both 47 % and these increased to 69 % at 8 months. No breast-feeding within the first hour of birth was a risk factor for the early introduction of water (adjusted OR=4·68; 95 % CI 1·33, 16·47) and low WAMI index a risk factor for the early introduction of other milks (adjusted OR=0·00; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·02).
Data suggest local policies should promote: (i) early breast-feeding initiation; (ii) SES, considering maternal education, income and household conditions; (iii) timely introduction of complementary feeding; and (iv) dietary diversity.
We studied the ontogenetic growth of goat wethers (castrated male goats) of the Saanen and Swiss Alpine breeds based on a large range of intraspecific body mass (BM). The body parts and the chemical constituents of the empty body were described by the allometric function by using BM and the empty body mass (EBM) as the predictors for morphological traits and chemical composition, respectively. We fitted the allometric scaling function by applying the SAS NLMIXED procedure, but to evaluate assumptions regarding variances in morphological and compositional traits, we combined the scaling function with homoscedastic (MOD1), and the heteroscedastic exponential (MOD2) and power-of-the-mean (MOD3) variance functions. We also predicted the ontogenetic growth by using the traditional log-log transformation and back-transformed results into the arithmetic scale (MOD4). We obtained predictions from MOD4 in the arithmetic scale by a two-step process, and evaluated MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 by a model selection framework, and compared MOD4 with MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 based on goodness-of-fit measures. Based on information criteria for model selection, heterogeneous variance functions were more likely to describe 10 over 36 traits with a low level of model selection uncertainty. One trait was predicted by averaging the MOD1 and MOD2 variance functions; and nine traits were better described by averaging the MOD2 and MOD3 variance functions. The predictions for other 16 traits were averaged from MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3. However, MOD4 better described 11 traits according to the goodness-of-fit measures. Depending on the variable being analyzed, the body parts and the chemical amounts exhibited the three types of allometric behavior with respect to BM and EBM, that is, positive, negative and isometric ontogenetic growth. Reference BMs, that is, 20, 27, 35 and 45 kg, were used to compute the net protein and energy requirements based on the first derivative of the scaling function, and the results were presented in reference to the EBM and EBM0.75. Both the net protein and energy requirements scaled to EBM0.75 increased from 20 to 45 kg of BM.
Epidemiological patterns of cardiac disease differ between developed countries and African nations. Despite the collaborative efforts of developed countries, several obstacles hinder the implementation of successful programmes for the management of children with heart disease in Africa.
Materials and methods
This study is a retrospective analysis of a bi-national two-institution partnership programme for the treatment of children with congenital and acquired heart disease. In April, 2011, a continuous medical-surgical programme was inaugurated at Clínica Girassol in Luanda. The main goals were to initiate permanent and local delivery of services while training local teams, allowing autonomous medical and surgical management of children with heart disease.
Between April, 2011 and August, 2015, a total of 1766 procedures were performed on 1682 children. Of them, 1539 had CHD and 143 had acquired heart disease; 94 children underwent interventional treatment. A total of 1672 paediatric surgeries were performed on 1588 children: 1087 (65%) were performed with extracorporeal circulation and 585 (35%) were off-pump. The age distribution of the children was 4.5% (n=76) neonatal, 40.4% (n=675) between 30 days and 1 year, and 55.1% (n=921) over 1 year. There were 76 re-operations (4.5%) due to complications. The 30-day mortality rate was 4.2% (71 patients). Education-wise, several Angolan medical and surgical specialists were trained, allowing near-autonomous cardiac care delivery in children with heart disease.
An innovative cooperation model between a European and an African centre based on permanent delivery of care and education allowed for effective training of local teams and treatment of children with heart disease in their own environment.
Fluorescent dyes like Rhodamine B (RB) have been used to identify the spatial distribution of adhesive restorative materials in the tooth/restoration interface. Potential effects of the addition of RB to dental adhesives were addressed in the past, but no further information is available on how to determine suitable concentrations of RB in these bonding agents for imaging in the confocal laser scanning microscope. This study provides systematical strategies for adding RB to viscous dental adhesive resins, focusing on the determination of the lowest range of dye concentrations necessary to achieve an acceptable image of the dentin/adhesive interface. It was demonstrated that optimized images of the resin distribution in dentin can be produced with 0.1–0.02 mg/mL of RB in the (tested) adhesives. Our approaches took into account aspects related to the dye concentration, photophysical parameters in different host media, specimen composition and morphology to develop a rational use of the fluorescent agent with the resin-based materials. Information gained from this work can help optimize labeling methods using dispersions of low-molecular-weight dyes in different monomer blend systems.
X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry were used to study the influence of precipitates on the magnetic properties of aged Fe–Cr–Mo alloys. XRD patterns and Mössbauer spectra showed that the alloys have body-centered cubic structure similar to that of α-Fe. Small amounts of precipitates were also identified with relative fraction found to be related to Mo content, aging times, and temperatures. Magnetic measurements showed that the increase in the density of precipitates contributes significantly to the increase in the magnetic hardness of the material. This mechanism is related to a process of pinning of magnetic domain walls. It was also found that saturation magnetization is affected by the Mo content in the alloy. The techniques used in this work were shown to be very useful to understand the mechanisms through which the formation of precipitates affects the magnetic properties of the alloys and may be used as complement to the usual microscopy-based techniques for this purpose.
New more selective and potent drugs are urgently need to treat Chagas disease (CD). Among the many synthetic compounds evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi, aromatic amidines (AAs) and especially arylimidamides (AIAs) have potent activity against this parasite. Presently, the effect of four mono-amidines (DB2228, DB2229, DB2292 and DB2294), four diamidines (DB2232, DB2235, DB2251 and DB2253) and one AIA (DB2255) was screened in vitro against different forms (bloodstream trypomastigotes – BT and intracellular forms) and strains from discrete typing unit (DTU) I and VI of T. cruzi and their cytotoxic profile on mammalian host cells. Except for DB2253, all molecules were as active as benznidazole (Bz), resulting in 50% of reduction in the number of alive BT, with EC50 ranging from 2·7 to 10·1 µm after 24 h of incubation. DB2255 was also the most potent against amastigotes (Tulahuen strain) showing similar activity to that of Bz (3 µm). In silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity analysis demonstrated probability of human intestinal adsorption, while mutagenicity and inhibition of hERG1 were not predicted, besides giving acceptable predicted volumes of distribution. Our findings contribute for better knowledge regarding the biological effect of this class of aromatic molecules against T. cruzi aiming to identify novel promising agent for CD therapy.
Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was carried out on extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy until an equivalent strain of ∼4 (corresponding to 4 passes) at 523K following route Bc. The effect of the deformation on both microstructure and texture was investigated by analysis of inverse pole figures and pole figures respectively, determined by EBSD. Additionaly, the mechanical properties were evaluated through tensile tests. The ECAPed processed ZK60 alloy showed the presence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process, correlated with a strong basal fiber texture. The presence of pyramidal slip was also observed, which can be correlated with the presence on twin-oriented boundaries in the material. Both the grain size reduction and the existence of texture influenced the ductility of the magnesium alloy processed by ECAP, as the ductility of the ZK60 alloy after four ECAP passes increased two times in comparation with the initial (un-processed) material.
The occurrence of cerrado (as tree and shrub savanna is called in Brazil) and forest formations side by side is common at the southern margin of the Brazilian Amazonian Forest, and previous studies have demonstrated the advance of forests over cerrado areas. The aim of the present study is to provide an accurate documentation of the transition process between the two major biomes. Tree data (≥ 5 cm diameter at 0.3 m above soil level) from three plots of cerrado sensu stricto lying near three of cerradão (the taller, denser form of cerrado) were inventoried starting in 2002 in an area of 1.5 ha made up of 150 subplots of 10 × 10 m (50 in each area). This showed that the most important species of the cerradão were invading areas previously occupied by smaller, lower forms of cerrado (although it is sometimes difficult to define which are ‘forest’ and which ‘cerrado’ species as many are flexible in size – for instance Emmotum nitens can often be intermediate, establishing in cerrado that develops into cerradão and on to forest). Some typical species such as Eriotheca gracilipes and Emmotum nitens, established since the first inventories, have increased their populations (between 27 and 210%). Tachigali vulgaris, a typical, weedy, adventive species of the Cerrado–Amazonian Forest transition, showed the largest increase in abundance in areas of cerrado sensu stricto (between 100 and 1200%), and is probably the most important pioneer species in the initial advance of the forest into cerrado at the Southern Amazonian border.
To analyse the relationship between skipping breakfast and haemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was carried out with information from an ongoing cohort study in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample comprised of 120 adolescents (11.7±0.8 years old) who met the following inclusion criteria: age between 11 and 14 years; enrolled in the school unit of elementary education; absence of any known disease; and no drug consumption. The parents or legal guardians of the patients signed a formal informed consent. Skipping breakfast was self-reported through face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, intima-media thickness, trunk fatness, total and fractional cholesterol levels – high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol – triacylglycerol levels, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were measured.
In this study, 47.5% (95% CI: 38.5–56.4%) of the adolescents reported skipping breakfast at least 1 day/week. Adolescents who skipped breakfast had higher values of trunk fatness and systolic blood pressure. Breakfast frequency was negatively related to systolic blood pressure (β −1.99 [−3.67; −0.31]) and z score dyslipidaemia (β −0.46 [−0.90; −0.01]), but this relationship was mediated by trunk fatness.
Skipping breakfast is related to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents, and this relationship was mainly mediated by trunk fatness.
Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis has greater sensitivity and specificity than culture and visualization of the parasite. This study compares PCR for the diagnosis of the genus and species of Leishmania with serological techniques used for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil, considering two regions. We analysed peripheral blood samples collected from 195 dogs in the Campinas (SP) and Teresina (PI) regions. ELISA was performed as a serological method and PCR was performed using specific primers for the genus Leishmania spp. and the species Leishmania chagasi. In Campinas, a greater sensitivity of PCR (88·24%) (P = 0·0455) compared to Teresina (14·71%) (P < 0·0001) was observed, and an agreement was observed for Cohen's kappa index (0·9096). Both PCR and ELISA showed discordance for sensitivity (Campinas 100%, Teresina 21·74%), specificity (Campinas 30·77%, Teresina 100%), positive predictive value (Campinas 68·97%, Teresina 100%), negative predictive value (Campinas 100%, Teresina 37·94%) and Cohen's kappa index (0·1238). This study confirms the importance of PCR in analysis of the canine reservoir, and as an effective method for the detection of active and recent infection.
In this paper we report on the 532 nm Nd:YAG laser-induced crystallization of 10 nm thick boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited on flexible polyimide and on rigid oxidized silicon wafers by hot-wire or by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The dark conductivity increased from ∼10-7 Ω-1cm-1, in the as-deposited films, to ∼10 and 50 Ω-1cm-1 after laser irradiation, on rigid and flexible substrates, respectively. Depending on type of substrate, laser power and fluence, a Raman crystalline fraction between 55 and 90 % was measured in HWCVD films, which was higher than observed in rf-PECVD films (35-55 %). Crystallite size remained small in all cases, in the range 6-8 nm. Due to a very high conductivity contrast (>7 orders of magnitude) between amorphous and crystallized regions, it was possible to define conductive paths in the a-Si:H matrix, by mounting the sample on a X-Y software-controlled movable stage under the laser beam, with no need for the usual lithography steps. The resistors scribed by direct laser writing had piezoresistive properties, with positive gauge factor ∼1. The details of the laser interaction process with the Si film were revealed by scanning electron microscopy imaging.
We aimed to evaluate aluminium (Al) effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of two rice cultivars with contrasting tolerances to Al. Nine-days-old seedlings were exposed to 0 or 1 mM Al for 10 days, and then dry mass, Al and chloroplastidic pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters were determined. Al accumulated mainly in the roots of the Al-treated plants. In the leaves, Al increased only in the sensitive cultivar, but there was no difference between the cultivars in Al-treated plants. The root and leaf dry mass, the net carbon assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentration were all reduced in response to Al application, but only in the sensitive cultivar. Both the initial fluorescence and potential photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were unresponsive to the Al treatments, regardless of the cultivar. In the Al-sensitive cultivar, Al provoked significant decreases in the photochemical quenching coefficient, quantum yield of photosystem II electron transport and apparent electron transport rate, in parallel to an unaltered non-photochemical quenching coefficient. All of these parameters remained at the control levels in the tolerant cultivar. The chloroplastidic pigment content increased only in the Al-tolerant cultivar, whereas it remained unaltered after Al treatment in the sensitive cultivar. In conclusion, Al induced stomatal and (most likely) photochemical constraints on photosynthesis but with no apparent signs of photoinhibition in the Al-sensitive cultivar. Despite the similar Al levels of the cultivars, unchanging biomass accumulation or photosynthetic performance in the tolerant cultivar challenged with Al highlights its higher intrinsic ability to cope with Al stress.