Pesticides are widely used throughout the world to control agricultural pests. Owing to their well identified side-effects on wildlife, the release of high quantities of pesticides to the environment should always require responsible use of both science-based information and the precautionary principle, however decision making in wildlife management and conservation is not systematically supported by scientific evidence. This is particularly worrying when decision making involves release of toxic substances to the environment, as often occurs in rodent plague control. Poorly-informed management decisions to control a rodent plague can adversely affect wildlife, especially when chemical-based treatments are generically designed and applied on a broad scale, with high economic cost. Evidence-based and environmentally sustainable management should be used to control rodent plagues in Spain.