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Up-to techniques are a well-known method for enhancing coinductive proofs of behavioural equivalences. We introduce up-to techniques for behavioural metrics between systems modelled as coalgebras, and we provide abstract results to prove their soundness in a compositional way.
In order to obtain a general framework, we need a systematic way to lift functors: we show that the Wasserstein lifting of a functor, introduced in a previous work, corresponds to a change of base in a fibrational sense. This observation enables us to reuse existing results about soundness of up-to techniques in a fibrational setting. We focus on the fibrations of predicates and relations valued in a quantale. To illustrate our approach, we provide an example on distances between regular languages.
Symmetric monoidal theories (SMTs) generalise algebraic theories in a way that make them suitable to express resource-sensitive systems, in which variables cannot be copied or discarded at will. In SMTs, traditional tree-like terms are replaced by string diagrams, topological entities that can be intuitively thought of as diagrams of wires and boxes. Recently, string diagrams have become increasingly popular as a graphical syntax to reason about computational models across diverse fields, including programming language semantics, circuit theory, quantum mechanics, linguistics, and control theory. In applications, it is often convenient to implement the equations appearing in SMTs as rewriting rules. This poses the challenge of extending the traditional theory of term rewriting, which has been developed for algebraic theories, to string diagrams. In this paper, we develop a mathematical theory of string diagram rewriting for SMTs. Our approach exploits the correspondence between string diagram rewriting and double pushout (DPO) rewriting of certain graphs, introduced in the first paper of this series. Such a correspondence is only sound when the SMT includes a Frobenius algebra structure. In the present work, we show how an analogous correspondence may be established for arbitrary SMTs, once an appropriate notion of DPO rewriting (which we call convex) is identified. As proof of concept, we use our approach to show termination of two SMTs of interest: Frobenius semi-algebras and bialgebras.
In this paper, we address the problem of proving confluence for string diagram rewriting, which was previously shown to be characterised combinatorially as double-pushout rewriting with interfaces (DPOI) on (labelled) hypergraphs. For standard DPO rewriting without interfaces, confluence for terminating rewriting systems is, in general, undecidable. Nevertheless, we show here that confluence for DPOI, and hence string diagram rewriting, is decidable. We apply this result to give effective procedures for deciding local confluence of symmetric monoidal theories with and without Frobenius structure by critical pair analysis. For the latter, we introduce the new notion of path joinability for critical pairs, which enables finitely many joins of a critical pair to be lifted to an arbitrary context in spite of the strong non-local constraints placed on rewriting in a generic symmetric monoidal theory.
We present a systematic study of bisimulation-up-to techniques for coalgebras. This enhances the bisimulation proof method for a large class of state based systems, including labelled transition systems but also stream systems and weighted automata. Our approach allows for compositional reasoning about the soundness of enhancements. Applications include the soundness of bisimulation up to bisimilarity, up to equivalence and up to congruence. All in all, this gives a powerful and modular framework for simplified coinductive proofs of equivalence.
The paper is devoted to an analysis of the concurrent features of asynchronous systems. A preliminary step is represented by the introduction of a non-interleaving extension of barbed equivalence. This notion is then exploited in order to prove that concurrency cannot be observed through asynchronous interactions, i.e., that the interleaving and concurrent versions of a suitable asynchronous weak equivalence actually coincide. The theory is validated on some case studies, related to nominal calculi (π-calculus) and visual specification formalisms (Petri nets). Additionally, we prove that a class of systems which is deemed (output-buffered) asynchronous, according to a characterization that was previously proposed in the literature, falls into our theory.
In this paper we focus on the synthesis of labelled transition systems (LTSs) for process calculi using Mobile Ambients (MAs) as a testbed. Our proposal is based on a graphical encoding: a process is mapped into a graph equipped with interfaces such that the denotation is fully abstract with respect to the standard structural congruence. Graphs with interfaces are amenable to the synthesis mechanism based on borrowed contexts (BCs), which is an instance of relative pushouts (RPOs). The BC mechanism allows the effective construction of an LTS that has graphs with interfaces as states and labels, and such that the associated bisimilarity is a congruence. We focus here on the analysis of an LTS over processes as graphs with interfaces: we use the LTS on graphs to recover an LTS directly defined over the structure of MA processes and define a set of SOS inference rules capturing the same operational semantics.
This special issue of Mathematical Structures in Computer Science contains a selection of papers presented at three satellite events of CONCUR'09, which was held between 31 August and 5 September 2009 in Bologna (Italy). Specifically, it contains three papers from the 16th International Workshop on Expressiveness in Concurrency (EXPRESS'09), one paper from the 2nd Interaction and Concurrency Experience (ICE'09) and two papers from the 6th Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics (SOS'09).
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