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Intestinal barrier inflammatory damage is commonly accompanied by hypoxia. The hypothesis that dietary Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) might modulate HIF-1α signaling pathway and contribute to attenuate intestinal injury was tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. Thirty-six weaned pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups: (1) basal diet+saline challenge; (2) basal diet+LPS challenge; (3) basal diet with 800 mg/kg ASPS+LPS challenge. LPS was injected at 15, 18 and 21 d, and intestinal sections were sampled following blood collection at 21 d of the trial. The results showed ASPS administration reversed (P＜0.05) LPS-induced decrease in average daily feed intake and rise (P＜0.05) of diarrhea incidence and index. Biochemical index reflecting gut barrier damage and function involving ileal pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and enzymes activity (DAO and lactase), as well as circulatory D-xylose were normalized (P＜0.05) in LPS-challenged piglets receiving ASPS. ASPS also ameliorated intestinal morphological deterioration of LPS-challenged piglets, proven by elevated ileal villus height (P＜0.05) and improved appearance of epithelial villus and tight junction ultrastructure. Moreover, ASPS prevented LPS-induced amplification of inflammatory mediators, achieved by depressed mRNA abundance of TNF-α, iNOS, and concentration of IL-1β in ileum. Importantly, ileal protein expressions of HIF-1α, COX-2 and NFκB p65 were also suppressed with ASPS administration (P＜0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that the improvement of mucosal inflammatory damage and diarrhea in immune stress piglets are possibly associated with a novel finding where HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway down-regulation involved in NFκB p65-inducible releasing of inflammatory cytokines by dietary ASPS.
In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between fatigue crack deflection path and cross-sectional grain boundary (GB) arrangement of metallic nanolayered composites (NLCs), a stochastic model was established based on the interface-dominant fatigue damage for the ultrafine-scale NLCs. The model indicates that the crack deflection length decreases with decreasing GB arrangement deviation and grain size of constituent layers. The observation and quantitative analysis of fatigue cracking behavior of the Cu/W multilayers with a layer thickness of 5 and 20 nm was conducted to verify the model.
This letter presents a novel tunable coupling structure to simplify the design complexity of the miniaturized fully tunable filter by using open ring and varactors. Based on the proposed novel tunable coupling structure, a fully tunable bandpass filter is implemented with independently tunable operating frequency and bandwidth. The tunable resonator and tunable coupling structure can be easily combined to improve Out-of-band suppression performance. The design procedure of a fully tunable bandpass filter consists of five tunable cavities and tunable coupling rings is also proposed. A prototype of the proposed fully tunable filter is built to verify the design experimentally. Good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained.
Fatigue performance of metallic nanolayered composites (NLCs) has been gaining more and more attention due to the rapid development in the field of both micro-electro-mechanical systems and high-performance engineering structure materials and the increasing demand for long-term fatigue reliability. Metallic NLCs have exhibited different damage behaviors due to the effect of high-density heterogeneous interface compared with bulk materials and thin metal films. In this review paper, the cyclic deformation damage behavior, fatigue cracking feature, and fatigue properties of some metallic NLCs are reviewed. Effects of length scales, including layer thickness and grain size, on fatigue damage behaviors of the NLCs are revealed, and the transition of the fatigue cracking behavior and the corresponding damage mechanism are discussed. Then, the fatigue properties of some typical metallic NLCs are presented and compared with that of bulk materials and metal thin films. The effect of interface type and grain boundary alignment is also discussed to correlate with fatigue cracking resistance of the NLCs. Finally, some prospective research topics on fatigue performance of metallic NLCs are addressed.
This paper introduces recent activities on Marx-based compact repetitive pulsed power generators at the Institute of Applied Electronics (IAE), China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), over the period 2010–2018. A characteristic feature of the generators described is the use of a simplified bipolar charged Marx circuit, in which the normal isolation resistors or inductors to ground are removed to make the circuit simpler. Several pulse-forming modules developed to generate a 100 ns square wave output are introduced, including thin-film dielectric lines of different structures, a pulse-forming line based on a Printed Circuit Board, and non-uniform pulse-forming networks. A compact repetitive three-electrode spark gap switch with low-jitter, high-voltage, and high-current was developed and is used in the generators. A positive and negative series resonant constant current power supply with high precision and high power is introduced. As an important part of the repetitive pulse power generator, a lower jitter pulse trigger source is introduced. Several typical high-power repetitive pulsed power generators developed at IAE are introduced including a 30 GW low-impedance Marx generator, a compact square-wave pulse generator based on Kapton-film dielectric Blumlein line, a 20 GW high pulse-energy repetitive PFN-Marx generator, and a coaxial Marx generator based on ceramic capacitors. The research of key technologies and their development status are discussed, which can provide a reference for the future development and application of miniaturization of compact and repetitive Marx generators.
A kind of novel Ni–P gradient coating/stannate conversion film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy (AZ91D alloy) by an integrative method involved stannate conversion and electroless plating. The results indicated that using sodium hypophosphite concentrations varied as 5, 10, 22, 46, and 60 g/L in the bath, the electroless Ni–P gradient coating with typical cell morphologies was successfully prepared, and the structures transited from crystalline → microcrystalline → amorphous were obtained as increasing P content from 3.31 to 12.58 wt%. Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies, polarization curves, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy substrate was significantly improved and the corrosion resistance of Ni–P gradient coating was superior than that of stannate conversion film, which might be attributed to the gradient structure and rising P content with unique function.
Measurement of runaway electron beam (REB) is essential to investigate behavior of runaway electrons produced in nanosecond-pulse gas discharge. A Faraday cup is designed to measure the REB current in nanosecond-pulse discharge when the applied dV/dt is 75 kV/ns. The Faraday cup considers the impendence match with the oscilloscope and the design of the receiving part. The experimental results show that the measured REB current has a rise time of 348 ps and a full width at half maximum of 510 ps. The comparison of the measurement results by the Faraday cup and a REB collector confirm that the Faraday cup is able to measure REB current in nanosecond-pulse discharge. Furthermore, consecutive waveforms of the REB currents show stable results by using the designed Faraday cup. In addition, effects of the interelectrode gap, gas pressure, and cathode material on the REB current are investigated by the designed Faraday cup, and the measurement results provide characteristics of REB current under different conditions. The REB current decreases when the gap spacing or gas pressure increases. REB current increases with the cathode diameter. It indicates that the high-energy electrons are generated not only at the edge of the cathode but also on the side surface of the cathode.
The studies described in the Research Communication aimed to describe the feasibility of using coal fly ash to synthesize nano-zeolite, and the ammonium and phosphate adsorption efficiencies of the nanomaterial in dairy wastewater. Chemical treatment of coal fly ash was conducted and changes observed. Samples treated with NaOH had an increased cation exchange capacity and P sorption index compared to the initial fly ash, due to particle modification from smooth surface to plate- and rod-shape crystals, referred to as nano-zeolite. Batch experiments were conducted by mixing coal fly ash and nano-zeolite with synthesized wastewater to study the effect of sorption time, pH values and dosage of nano-zeolite on ammonium and phosphate removal efficiency. The adsorption process reached equilibrium in a very short time (less than 60 min), which suggests a potential for fast immobilization of pollutants. The concentration of ammonium decreased from 118 to 35 mg/l (71% removal) while the concentration of phosphate decreased from 52 to 45 mg/l. The removal efficiency of ammonium was 36·6, 51·8 and 70·9% at pH 3, 7 and 10, respectively whilst that of phosphate increased dramatically with decreased slurry pH (92·1, 47·3 and 12·3% at pH 3, 7 and 10, respectively). Nano-zeolite could be a potential absorbent for fast immobilization of ammonium but not phosphate. Surface modification of nano-zeolite could be introduced in order to enhance the pollutants removal efficiency.
Two series of binuclear metal phthalocyanine complexes M2(PcTN)2Nap and M2(PcTA)2Nap (M = Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Cu2+) were designed and synthesized through the liquid solvent method and amination reaction. Elemental analysis, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy were applied to characterize the compounds. To evaluate their catalytic performance, all the compounds were respectively added into the electrolyte of Li/SOCl2 battery systems as well as three-electrode systems for cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The research studies indicate that the average discharge voltage and discharge time of the battery could be effectively enhanced by 0.2440 V and 810.7 s when compared with the battery in the absence of the compounds. As for capacities of the batteries containing catalysts, they were also found to have an improvement of 51.78–91.62%. Among the effects of diverse metal ions on the catalytic performance of phthalocyanines, the complexes whose center metal ions were Mn2+ or Co2+ exhibited relatively high catalytic performance. Meanwhile, combined with experimental results of CV analyses, the suggested catalytic mechanism of binuclear phthalocyanines for catalyzing Li/SOCl2 batteries had been proposed.
Flexibility is a key parameter of device mechanical robustness. The most profound challenge for the realization of flexible electronics is associated with the relatively low flexibility of power sources. In this article, two kinds of energy applications, which have gained increasing attention in the field of flexibility in recent years, are introduced: the lithium-ion batteries and the supercapacitors. We overview the latest progresses in flexible materials and manufacturing technology. The performances of the energy devices based on flexible materials are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of different manufacturing processes are discussed systematically. We then focus on current technical difficulties and future prospects of research in flexibility.
Rats with a normal birth weight (NBW) or intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) were fed basic diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic diets supplemented with curcumin (NC and IC groups) from 6 to 12 weeks. The body weight of IUGR rats was lower (P<0·05) than that of the controls. Rats with IUGR showed higher (P<0·05) concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; higher (P<0·05) activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in their serum; and increased (P<0·05) concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) in the liver compared with the NBW rats. The livers of IUGR rats exhibited a lower (P<0·05) superoxide dismutase activity and decreased (P<0·05) metabolic efficiency of the hepatic glutathione redox cycle compared with those of the NBW rats. In response to dietary curcumin supplementation, concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and activities of AST and ALT in the serum and MDA, PC and 8-OHDG in the liver were lower (P<0·05), and the hepatic glutathione redox cycle in the liver was improved (P<0·05) in the IC group than in the IUGR group. These results were associated with lower (P<0·05) phosphorylated levels of the NF-κB pathway and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and higher (P<0·05) mRNA expression of genes involved in the nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (Nfe2l2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in the liver of the IC rats than that of the IUGR rats. Maternal undernutrition decreased birth weight and led to inflammation, oxidative damage and injury in rats. Curcumin appeared to be beneficial in preventing IUGR-induced inflammation, oxidative damage and injury by activating the expression of the NF-κB, JAK/STAT and Nfe2l2/ARE pathways in the liver.
This paper investigates a wideband and low axial ratio circularly polarized (CP) antenna, which is composed of a monopole on a novel polarization rotating reflective surface (PRRS) based on a corner-truncated artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure. By adjusting the dimensions of truncated corner properly, the PRRS has two polarization rotation (PR) frequency points. Then, a large PR band of 18% (5.55–6.65 GHz) can be achieved with two adjacent PR frequency points coming together. The profile of the newly PRRS is only0.04λ0. With corner-truncated AMC-based PRRS loading, a measured impedance bandwidth of 1.8 GHz (5.4–7.2 GHz) and the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 1 GHz (5.55–6.65 GHz) could be obtained by the monopole antenna and validated by measurements. The values of AR were well below 1 dB at most of the CP region, which show a perfect CP performance. Moreover, the proposed antenna has exhibited a large axial ratio beamwidth in both the xoz- and yoz-planes and a peak gain of 6.1 dBic within the operational bandwidth.
A model for calculating the force profile and the moment profile of a floating body in two dimensions with an arbitrary cross-section is proposed. Three types of cross-sections with different contact angles and densities are calculated by using the model to determine the vertical and rotational equilibria and their stabilities. Results show that the model can be applied to convex floating bodies with finitely many sharp edges. The study is then extended to investigate the surface tension effects on the vertical and rotational stabilities by varying the following parameters: the radii of curvature of the solid surface at the contact lines and the size of floating body. In general, the smaller the radii of curvature the better the vertical and rotational stabilities. However, for the contact angle
) the radii of curvature have no effect on the vertical stability of the floating body. By varying the size of the floating body, it is found that the vertical and rotational stabilities of mesoscale floating bodies vary continuously between the stabilities of the macroscale and microscale floating bodies with other parameters remaining unchanged.
Although previous studies have investigated the association of cruciferous vegetable consumption with breast cancer risk, few studies focused on the association between bioactive components in cruciferous vegetables, glucosinolates (GSL) and isothiocyanates (ITC), and breast cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and breast cancer risk according to GSL and ITC contents in a Chinese population. A total of 1485 cases and 1506 controls were recruited into this case–control study from June 2007 to March 2017. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ. Dietary GSL and ITC were computed by using two food composition databases linking GSL and ITC contents in cruciferous vegetables with responses to the FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI were assessed by unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for the potential confounders. Significant inverse associations were found between consumption of cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC and breast cancer risk. The adjusted OR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile were 0·51 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·63) for cruciferous vegetables, 0·54 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·67) for GSL and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·76) for ITC, respectively. These inverse associations were also observed in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis by hormone receptor status found inverse associations between cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC and both hormone-receptor-positive or hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer. This study indicated that consumption of cruciferous vegetables, GSL and ITC was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
A method for extracting the substrate-independent stress–strain curves of thin films was developed using spherical nanoindentation to investigate the yield behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with Young’s moduli of ∼73 GPa and ∼76 GPa. The resulting stress–strain curves showed that these films commence yielding at ∼13 GPa and ∼14 GPa, respectively. These yield strength values agree with the critical pressure necessary to initiate the transformation of sp2-bonded carbon into significantly harder sp3-bonded carbon, indicating that the yielding of the materials is associated with the sp2-to-sp3 phase transition. The ability of a DLC film to accommodate a progressively increasing contact stress with strain beyond the yield point while dissipating part of the accumulated strain energy, as evidenced in this work, implies a unique mechanism of the brittle material for passively mitigating contact deformation and fracture in tribological applications.
Grain production potential is mainly influenced by agroclimate and land use. In the present study, substantial regional differences associated with the impact of climate change were found (i.e. the degree of climate-related impacts varied among regions). Currently, there is an urgent need for effective responses and adaptations to different agricultural districts and agricultural production modes. Therefore, the aim was to examine ecotones and explore trends and influential factors associated with grain production potential change. Using the Global Agro-ecological Zone model, the grain production potential of West Jilin, China under different conditions during various years were estimated, considering meteorological, soil, topographic, land use and other data. The results showed that total grain production potential (TGrPP) of West Jilin increased continuously from 1976 to 2013. The average annual increase in TGrPP was higher in period 1 (1976–2000) than period 2 (2000–2013). In period 1, grain production potential was influenced mainly by irrigation percentage changes, followed by land use change. The conversion of grassland to farmland was the most important land use change factor that was associated with increased grain production potential. Climate change affected grain production potential in period 1 negatively. In period 2, climate change had the largest impact and land use imparted the smallest effect on grain production potential. Finally, the decrease in irrigation percentage resulted in reduced grain production potential.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
The novel visible-light-responsive direct solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4/BiOI heterojunction has been synthesized successfully by means of a solid phase calcination method and used for the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The layered g-C3N4 disperses on the surface of BiOI microspheres. The samples are characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, XPS, BET, PL, and Mott–Sckottky. The photocatalytic activity and photodegradation mechanism of the as-prepared g-C3N4/BiOI microsphere photocatalysts are conducted under visible light irradiation using MC-LR as the target pollutant. The g-C3N4/BiOI material exhibits superior photocatalytic performance when compared with pure BiOI, the possible reason is the efficient separation of photogenerated carriers at the interface between g-C3N4 and BiOI. The heterostructure is responsible for the improved separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and thus the higher photocatalytic activity. The possible photocatalytic mechanism is proposed based on relative band positions of these two semiconductors.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
Catalysts play essential roles in the chemical vapor deposition of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this article, we summarize studies on catalysts for the structure-controlled growth and mass production of SWCNTs, discussing the main progress and the remaining challenges.