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Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) is an important target for discovering new herbicides that interfere with the synthesis of porphyrin. In order to discover new PPO inhibitor herbicides with improved biological activity, a series of new diphenyl ethers containing tetrahydrophthalimide are designed and synthesized. Among them, J6.1 (IC50=4.7 nM) and J6.3 (IC50=30.0 nM) show higher maize (Zea mays L.)PPO inhibitory activity than the commercial herbicides, i.e., oxyfluorfen (IC50=117.9 nM) and flumioxazin (IC50=157.1 nM). The greenhouse herbicidal activity of J6.3 is comparable to that of oxyfluorfen, and it is greater than that of flumioxazin. Even at a dose of 300 g active ingredients/hectare (a.i/ha), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) show greater tolerance to J6.3, suggesting that J6.3 could be used for further development of new herbicide candidates in those fields. In addition, molecular docking has been used to further study its mechanism of action. The results show that the introduction of nitro group and tetrahydrophthalimide into the diphenyl ether structure is beneficial to biological activity.
To explore the associations between dietary tastes and chronic diseases quantitatively.
We used the Geodetector method to establish associations between seven tastes and a variety of chronic diseases from the perspective of spatial stratified heterogeneity and explained the effects of dietary tastes on the spatial distribution of chronic diseases.
We used crowdsourcing online recipe data to extract multiple taste information about cuisines, combined with point of interest data on categorised restaurant data in different regions, to quantitatively analyse the taste preferences of people in different regions.
Crowdsourcing online recipe data and restaurant data in different regions.
The results showed that sixteen diseases were significantly associated with dietary tastes among the seventy-one types of chronic diseases. Compared with the effects of individual tastes, the interactions of tastes increased the risk of sixteen diseases, and many combinations of tastes produced nonlinear enhancement effects on the risk for diseases.
This study presents a quantitative study approach based on the crowdsourcing of data to explore potential health risk factors, which can be applied to the exploratory analysis of disease aetiology and help public health authorities to develop corresponding interventions.
This paper is concerned with the travelling waves for a class of non-local dispersal non-cooperative system, which can model the prey-predator and disease-transmission mechanism. By the Schauder's fixed-point theorem, we first establish the existence of travelling waves connecting the semi-trivial equilibrium to non-trivial leftover concentrations, whose bounds are deduced from a precise analysis. Further, we characterize the minimal wave speed of travelling waves and obtain the non-existence of travelling waves with slow speed. Finally, we apply the general results to an epidemic model with bilinear incidence for its propagation dynamics.
A kind of novel Ni–P gradient coating/stannate conversion film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy (AZ91D alloy) by an integrative method involved stannate conversion and electroless plating. The results indicated that using sodium hypophosphite concentrations varied as 5, 10, 22, 46, and 60 g/L in the bath, the electroless Ni–P gradient coating with typical cell morphologies was successfully prepared, and the structures transited from crystalline → microcrystalline → amorphous were obtained as increasing P content from 3.31 to 12.58 wt%. Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies, polarization curves, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy substrate was significantly improved and the corrosion resistance of Ni–P gradient coating was superior than that of stannate conversion film, which might be attributed to the gradient structure and rising P content with unique function.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function.
Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
MnOx–CeO2/t-ZrO2 catalyst was prepared by impregnation of nanotetragonal zirconia. The NO conversion of 5 wt% MnOx–CeO2/t-ZrO2 catalyst was 68.1% at 100 °C while that of 30 wt% MnOx–CeO2/t-ZrO2 catalyst was 97.4%. The x-ray diffraction, Brunner–Emmet–Teller measurements (BET), and H2-TPR showed surface properties of the prepared catalysts were good for selective catalytic reduction reactions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that Mn4+ and Ce4+ oxidation states were predominant on the surface of the catalyst and so was lattice oxygen which was conducive to Lewis acid sites. NH3-TPD test results demonstrated that Lewis acid sites are predominant on the surface of catalyst. The presence of SO2 reduced the catalyst activity. The realized conversion dramatically decreased to 47% from nearly 100% after 8 h. Characterization of fresh and spent catalysts indicated the deterioration of active component and deposition of NH4HSO4 or (NH4)2SO4 contribute to SO2 poisoning.
The Nihewan Basin is a key region for studying the Palaeolithic archaeology of East Asia. However, because of the lack of suitable dating methods and representative lithic technologies in this region, the ‘Middle Palaeolithic’ sites in this basin have been designated based mainly on stratigraphic correlation, which may be unreliable. In this study, three Palaeolithic sites, Motianling, Queergou and Banjingzi, which have been assigned previously to the ‘Middle Palaeolithic’, are dated based on luminescence dating of K-feldspar grains. Our results show that the cultural layers at Motianling, Queergou and Banjingzi have ages of 315 ± 13, 268 ± 13 and 86 ± 4 ka (corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages 9, 8 and 5), respectively, suggesting that Motianling and Queergou should be assigned to the Lower Palaeolithic, while the age of Banjingzi is consistent with a Middle Palaeolithic attribution. Our results suggest that reassessing the age of ‘Middle Palaeolithic’ sites in the Nihewan Basin, and elsewhere in North China, is crucial for understanding the presence or absence of the Middle Palaeolithic phase in China. Our dating results also indicate that the Sanggan River developed sometime between about 270 and 86 ka ago.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
The unsteady flow separation of airfoil with a local flexible structure (LFS) is studied numerically in Lagrangian frames in detail, in order to investigate the nature of its high aerodynamic performance. For such aeroelastic system, the characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme combined with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework is developed firstly for the numerical analysis of unsteady flow, and Galerkin method is used to approach the flexible structure. The local flexible skin of airfoil, which can lead to self-induced oscillations, is considered as unsteady perturbation to the flow. Then, the ensuing high aerodynamic performances and complex unsteady flow separation at low Reynolds number are studied by Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs). The results show that the LFS has a significant influence on the unsteady flow separation, which is the key point for the lift enhancement. Specifically, the oscillations of the LFS can induce the generations of moving separation and vortex, which can enhance the kinetic energy transport from main flow to the boundary layer. The results could give a deep understand of the dynamics in unsteady flow separation and flow control for the flow over airfoil.
Compound effects of B and Y additions on the microstructures and properties of a new type of high-strength and high-conductivity (HSHC) Cu–Mg–Te alloys are investigated on the aspects of purification and precipitation. Because of the purification function of B and Y additions, the tensile strength increased superlatively by the amplitude of 21.7% with a similar increase of elongation and the electrical conductivity of 4.2%. By comparison of the calculated decomposition pressures of B2O3 and Y2O3 at different temperatures, it can be concluded that the boron oxide is more stable than the yttrium oxide in the copper liquid, indicating the superior deoxygenization purification of the rare earth yttrium. The dispersive distribution of the Y–B compounds (YB6) was another factor for the improvement of the mechanical properties of the copper alloy. Finally, the copper alloy treated by hot rolling, cold rolling, and annealing processes in sequence exhibits HSHC with the tensile strength of 610.7 MPa and the electrical conductivity of 53.1%IACS.
In this paper, we present ink-jet printing as an attractive alternative to lithography and etching methods for the development of multi-filamentary YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors. Our research is mainly focused on the study of the influence of rheological parameters on the printability of water-based inks in order to produce superconducting patterns on SrTiO3 and CeO2-La2Zr2O7-Ni5at%W substrates. An aqueous YBCO precursor ink with a total metal ion concentration of 1.1 mol/L with a viscosity of 6.79 mPa s and a surface tension of 67.9 mN/m is developed. Its printing behavior using several ink-jet printing devices is verified using a camera with strobed illumination to quantify droplet velocity and volume. After optimization of the deposition parameters, YBCO tracks with different dimensions could be printed on both types of substrates. Their shape and dimensions were determined using optical microscopy and non-contact profilometry, showing 100-200 nm thick and 40-200 µm wide tracks. Finally, resistivity measurements were performed on the widest tracks on SrTiO3 showing a clear drop in the resistivity starting from 88.6 K with a ∆Tc of 1.4 K.
In this paper, we combine the use of Drop-on-Demand (DOD) ink-jet printing with completely water- based inks as a novel approach to the CSD process for coated conductors. This method holds the promise of improved scalability due to lower ink losses, continuous processing and a drastically increased precursor lifetime due to the prevention of solvent evaporation and dust incorporation. Moreover, ink-jet printing has the potential to switch quite easily from continuous coatings to a multi-filamentary pattern, which is particularly important for alternating current (AC) or field applications of coated conductors. The fluid properties, often expressed with dimensionless constants, like the Reynolds and Weber numbers, for printable liquids were determined. For proof-of-concept, single crystals of SrTiO3 with a low mismatch towards YBCO, were used as substrates.
A traditional assumption is that schistosome cercariae lose their tails at the onset of penetration. It has, however, recently been demonstrated that, for Schistosoma mansoni, cercarial tails were not invariably being shed as penetration took place and a high proportion of tails entered human skin under experimental conditions. This phenomenon was termed delayed tail loss (DTL). In this paper, we report that DTL also happens with S. japonicum cercariae during penetration of mouse skin. It occurred at all cercarial densities tested, from as few as 10 cercariae/2·25 cm2 of mouse skin up to 200 cercariae. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that there was a density-dependent increase in DTL as cercarial densities increased. No such density-dependent enhancement was shown for percentage attachment over the same cercarial density range.
The U–Pb geochronology of 687 detrital zircons from the voluminous Upper Neoproterozoic–Ordovician succession in the Wuyishan Fold Belt of South China reveals a common dominant c. 1200–950 Ma group, indicative of an outboard provenance terrane with a Grenville-age province to the southeast during the late Neoproterozoic–Early Palaeozoic. Compared with coeval samples from the Gondwanan and eastern Laurentian margins, our data show a scarcity of distinctive Gondwanan provenances (c. 650–500 Ma) and reveal some Laurentian signatures. These results argue against the peri-Gondwanan setting for South China during the late Neoproterozoic–Ordovician, instead implying a Laurentian affinity.
The Yangtze Platform preserves relatively thick carbonate successions and excellent fossil records across the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary interval. The intensely studied Meishucun section in East Yunnan was one of the Global Stratotype Section candidates for the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary. However, depositional breaks were suspected in the section and the first appearance of small shelly fossils could not be verified. The Laolin section located in NE Yunnan is more continuous and shows great potential for global correlation of carbon isotope features across the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary. However, the stratigraphic framework and correlations were controversial. We studied and systematically sampled the Laolin section and present here new carbon isotope data for this section. The Laolin section consists of, in ascending order, the Baiyanshao dolostone of the Dengying Formation, the Daibu siliceous dolostone, Zhongyicun dolomitic phosphorite, lower Dahai dolostone and upper Dahai limestone of the Zhujiaqing Formation, and the black siltstone of the Shiyantou Formation. Our data reveal a large negative δ13C excursion (−7.2‰, L1′) in the Daibu Member, which matches the previously published data for the Laolin section, and a large positive excursion (+3.5‰, L4) in the Dahai Member, which was not shown in the published data. The excursion L1′ correlates well with the similarly large negative excursion near the first appearance of small shelly fossils in Siberia and Mongolia. Similar magnitude excursions are also known from Morocco and Oman, for which there are no robust fossil constraints but from where volcanic ash beds have been dated precisely at 542 Ma, thus confirming a global biogeochemical event near the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary. Our data also indicate that deposition was more continuous at the Laolin section compared with the Meishucun section, where there are no records of a comparable negative excursion near the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary, nor any comparable positive excursion in the Dahai Member. Therefore, the Laolin section has proven potential to be a supplementary Global Stratotype Section for the Ediacaran–Cambrian boundary on the Yangtze Platform.
A parent strain of Aspergillus niger LW-1 producing β-mannanase, preserved in our laboratory, was isolated. A strain, N-9, was screened out and further treated with vacuum microwave irradiation and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). A mutant strain, E-30, producing a high and stable yield of β-mannanase was obtained through screening by solid-state cultivation on the basic fermentation medium and several generations of bevel subculture. Its enzyme activity (36 675 U/g) was increased by 2.15 times compared to that of A. niger LW-1 (17 048 U/g). The production of high-yield β-mannanase by E-30 remained stable when maintained at 4°C for 2 months.
Yi, a term denoting one of the primary
concepts of Confucian ethics, has proven to be one
of the most difficult terms to interpret and
translate. It has been rendered as ‘righteousness’,
‘rightness’, ‘right conduct’, ‘propriety’,
‘justice’, ‘morality’, ‘duty’, ‘sense of duty’,
‘obligation’, and so forth. The aim of this article
is to open new avenues to discuss the original and
extended meanings of yi by the
means of paleographic, archaeological, and
Understanding the habitat needs of White Eared-pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon and Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus is important for their conservation. We carried out field surveys of the two pheasants around Zhujie Monastery, Daocheng County, Sichuan Province, China, using line transects. In total, 172 200 × 200 m grid squares were obtained, including 56 active and 116 inactive ones for White Eared-pheasant and 45 active and 127 inactive ones for Blood Pheasant. We analysed the occurrence of both species by logistic multiple regression. The most important variables in model 1 for White Eared-pheasant were distance to nearest permanent water, shrub cover, tree cover, tree height and herb cover. In model 2 for Blood Pheasant, distance to nearest permanent water, shrub cover, herb cover and herb height were most important. The occurrence of both pheasants was negatively related to distance to nearest permanent water and herb cover, and positively related to shrub cover. The occurrence of White Eared-pheasant was positively related to tree cover and tree height, and that of Blood Pheasant to herb height. Water, food and predation risk were the main ecological factors affecting the species' distribution. Based on the two predictive models, conservation management was proposed, to include management of selectively-logged areas and substituting other energy sources, such as electricity, for firewood.