Disparities in cancer survival rates have been identified for rural patients in Canada and are thought to be due to inequities in access to care. The objective was to perform the first examination of urban and rural brain cancer survival in Canada. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed using Canadian Cancer Registry data for patients diagnosed with a primary brain cancer from 1996-2008. Seven major brain cancer histology groups used were glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, glioma (not otherwise specified), oligodendroglioma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligoastrocytic tumours, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma as categorized by the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS). Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival estimates and Cox Proportional Hazards Regression were performed, adjusting for sex, histology, age group, region, and urban-rural residence. Rural residence was defined using Statistics Canada’s “Rural and Small Town” definition of living in a region with a population of less than 10,000 people. Results: No significant difference between urban and rural residence was identified in crude KM survival estimates. Though not significant, 5-year survival was generally better among rural residents than urban residents, except for rural residents with anaplastic astrocytoma. There remained no significant difference for Cox hazard ratios after adjustment for age, sex, or region. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the effect of urban-rural residence on brain cancer survival. No significant differences for any histology were found, indicating equitable access to care for brain cancer patients in Canada, regardless of their location of residence.