To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Superior and inferior rice grains have different weights and are located on the upper primary branch and lower secondary branches of the panicle, respectively. To study differences in germination vigour of these two types of grain, a number of factors were investigated from 0 to 48 h of germination. The present study demonstrated that in inferior grains the starch granule structure was looser at 0 h, with full water absorption at 48 h, while in superior grains the structure was tight and dense. Relative water content increased, and dry matter decreased, more rapidly in inferior grains than in superior ones. Abscisic acid and gibberellin levels, as well as α-amylase activity, also changed more rapidly in inferior grains, while soluble sugar content and amylase coding gene expression increased more rapidly in inferior than superior grains during early germination. The expression of OsGAMYB was higher in inferior grains at 24 h but higher in superior grains at 48 h. The phenotypic index of seedlings was higher in seedlings from superior grains at the two-leaf stage. However, the thousand-grain weight and yield per plant in superior and inferior plants showed no significant difference at harvest. The present study indicates that inferior grains germinate faster than superior ones in the early germination stage. Although inferior grains produced weaker seedlings, it is worthwhile using them in rice production due to their comparative yield potential over that of superior grains.
Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB.
IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.
Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)-Protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol. However, the mechanism of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism of goose liver was poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway regulating lipid metabolic homeostasis in goose hepatocytes. Goose primary hepatocytes were treated with different PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin and NVP-BEZ235) for 24 h. The results showed that these inhibitors evidently inhibited PI3K-Akt-mTOR downstream signaling. Meanwhile, these PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression and protein content of genes involved in the de novo fatty acid synthesis, while increased the transcriptional and protein level of key factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. Conclusion: These findings suggested that the reduction of lipids accumulation induced-by inhibiting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was closely linked to the decrease of lipogenesis, the increase of fatty acids oxidation, and the increase of VLDL assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes.
This study aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy of intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion treatment for intractable Ménière's disease.
A retrospective analysis of 17 intractable Ménière's disease patients treated with intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion was performed. Treatment efficacy was evaluated according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria. Short and long-term control or improvement rates were calculated after 6 and 24 months, respectively.
Sixteen patients were followed for more than two years. Short- and long-term vertigo control rates were 94 per cent and 81 per cent, respectively; short- and long-term functional activity improvements were 94 per cent and 88 per cent, respectively. The pure tone average was 53 ± 14 dB before treatment, and 50 ± 16 dB at 6 months and 52 ± 20 dB at 24 months after intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion. Tinnitus was controlled or improved in five patients over the two-year follow-up period.
Intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion can effectively control vertigo and improve functional activity in intractable Ménière's disease patients with good hearing preservation. It may therefore be a viable alternative treatment for intractable Ménière's disease.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
The effects of laser incidence angle on lateral fast electron transport at front target surface, when a plasma is preformed, irradiated by intense (>1018 W/cm2) laser pulses, are studied by Kα imaging technique and electron spectrometer. A horizontally asymmetric Kα halo, resulting from directional lateral electron transport and energy deposition, is observed for a large incidence angle (70°). Moreover, a group of MeV high energy electrons is emitted along target surface. It is believed that the deformed preplasma and the asymmetrical distribution of self-generated magnetic field, at large incidence angle, play an important role in the directional lateral electron transport.
Site studies have proved Dome C to be an excellent site for optical interferometry, maybe the only possible site on Earth for the deployement of a large post-VLTI interferometric facility, like KEOPS. Indeed, recent studies have shown the possiblity of interferometric observations of faint objects, high sensitivity and high precision observations, direct imaging and nulling interferometry. However the achievement of this ambitious project assumes the pavement of a roadmap, including different steps. The first one should be a demonstrator, called Mykerinos. Mykerinos is a diluted aperture interferometer composed of at least two light collecting units with a baseline between 40 to 100 m (or more) consisting of 50 cm diameter telescopes. The telescope design is directly derived from our Laboratory's experience in the ASTEP experiment. Mykerinos will be equipped with a dual field focal instrument which is a pre-requisite for its site testing, as well as for its science demonstration purposes.
Runaway electron ream instabilities have been observed in Ohmic plasmas in the HT-7 tokamak. The instability regime is characterized by relaxations in the electron cyclotron emission due to the relativistic anomalous Doppler resonance effect which transfers energy from parallel to perpendicular motion. Two types of instabilities in the slide-away regime have been observed in the HT-7 tokamak. The scaling of the threshold value for the instabilities to occur has been derived. It is found that the threshold value is linearly dependent on the plasma current and independent of the toroidal magnetic field strength.
An experimental study on the angular distribution and conversion of multi-keV X-ray sources produced from 2 ns-duration 527nm laser irradiated thick-foil targets on Shenguang II laser facility (SG-II) is reported. The angular distributions measured in front of the targets can be fitted with the function of f(θ) = α+ (1−α)cosβθ (θ is the viewing angle relative to the target normal), where α = 0.41 ± 0.014, β = 0.77 ± 0.04 for Ti K-shell X-ray sources (~4.75 keV for Ti K-shell), and α = 0.085 ± 0.06, β = 0.59 ± 0.07 for Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources (2–2.8 keV for Mo L-shell, 2.8–3.5 keV for Pd L-shell, and 3–3.8 keV for Ag L-shell). The isotropy of the angular distribution of L-shell emission is worse than that of the K-shell emission at larger viewing angle (>70°), due to its larger optical depth (stronger self-absorption) in the cold plasma side lobe surrounding the central emission region, and in the central hot plasma region (emission region). There is no observable difference in the angular distributions of the L-shell X-ray emission among Ag, Pd, and Mo. The conversion efficiency of Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources is higher than that of the Ti K-shell X-ray sources, but the gain relative to the K-shell emission is not as high as that by using short pulse lasers. The conversion efficiency of the L-shell X-ray sources decreases with increasing atomic numbers (or X-ray photon energy), similar to the behavior of the K-shell X-ray source.
The space mission PEGASE, proposed to the CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales = French Space Agency) in the framework of its call for scientific proposals : “formation flying missions”, is a 2-aperture interferometer, composed by 3 free flying satellites (2 siderostats and 1 beam combiner), allowing baselines from 50 to 500 m in both nulling and visibility modes. With an angular resolution of a few mas and a spectral resolution of several tens in the spectral range 2.5-5 microns, PEGASE has several goals:
science : spectroscopy of hot jupiters (Pegasides) and brown dwarves, exploration of the inner part of protoplanetary disks
technology : validation in real space conditions of formation flying, nulling and visibility interferometry concepts.
PEGASE has been studied at a 0-level. In this paper, we summarize the scientific program and associated technological and mission trade-off coming from this 0-level study. We also discuss how PEGASE can be considered as a TPF/DARWIN pathfinder in an international roadmap towards more complex space interferometry missions such as DARWIN/TPF.
The 1N/M7.6 flare of 24 October 2003 at S19E72 were well observed by RHESSI, TRACE, NORH, and the Spectrograph at the Purple Mountain Observatory. After analyzing all the data collected, we established a scenario of the flare and compared it with the standard cartoon of solar flares (e.g., Dennis 1988).To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
In a previous contribution, we implemented a finite locus model (FLM) for estimating additive and
dominance genetic variances via a Bayesian method and a single-site Gibbs sampler. We observed
a dependency of dominance variance estimates on locus number in the analysis FLM. Here, we
extended the FLM to include two-locus epistasis, and implemented the analysis with two genotype
samplers (Gibbs and descent graph) and three different priors for genetic effects (uniform and
variable across loci, uniform and constant across loci, and normal). Phenotypic data were
simulated for two pedigrees with 6300 and 12300 individuals in closed populations, using several
different, non-additive genetic models. Replications of these data were analysed with FLMs
differing in the number of loci. Simulation results indicate that the dependency of non-additive
genetic variance estimates on locus number persisted in all implementation strategies we
investigated. However, this dependency was considerably diminished with normal priors for genetic
effects as compared with uniform priors (constant or variable across loci). Descent graph sampling
of genotypes modestly improved variance components estimation compared with Gibbs sampling.
Moreover, a larger pedigree produced considerably better variance components estimation,
suggesting this dependency might originate from data insufficiency. As the FLM represents an
appealing alternative to the infinitesimal model for genetic parameter estimation and for inclusion
of polygenic background variation in QTL mapping analyses, further improvements are warranted
and might be achieved via improvement of the sampler or treatment of the number of loci as an
Estimation of variance components with the finite polygenic model (FPM) was evaluated.
Phenotypic data for a 6300-pedigree simulated under a wide range of additive genetic models were
analysed with constant homozygote difference across loci using deterministic Maximum Likelihood
(DML) and a Bayesian method implemented via Gibbs sampling (BGS). Results indicate that
under no selection, both DML and BGS accurately estimated the variance components, with a
FPM of 5 loci or more. When both analysis methods were applied to equivalent data sets on
populations that had undergone selection, the DML method produced upward biased estimates of
additive genetic variation and heritability due to its use of pedigree loop cutting, while BGS
provided more accurate estimation. BGS was extended to non-additive FPMs with variable
homozygote differences and dominance effect across loci. This method was used to analyse data
simulated under two genetic models with positive, completely dominant gene action at all loci.
Results indicate that the estimates of additive and dominance variances slowly increase as the
number of loci in the FPM for analysis increases, while accuracy of predicting individual breeding
values and dominance deviations remains unaffected. For the simulated pedigree structure, a FPM
with 10 loci or slightly fewer appears to be appropriate for variance component estimation in the
presence of dominance.
Copolymer latexes of poly(styrene/acrylic acid) were closely packed into two-dimensional arrays on glass, mica and silicon substrates respectively. When the small latexes were negatively charged due to −SO4− and −COO− groups on the surface, their film formation, in some degree, was affected by the electrostatic interaction between two particles as well as capillary force. Different electrolytes were added into the colloid to adjust the particle interaction so that the attractive and the repulsive forces were properly balanced and the ordered arrays were achieved. Thin metal film was deposited on the latex monolayer through thermal evaporation in vacuum. Then, the spheres were dissolved away to leave behind a surface with features located where the interstitial spaces between the densely packed spheres had been. This process depended upon the interaction between the microspheres and the substrates, and the adhesion between the film materials and the substrates. Different patterns of honeycomb net, triangle islands and separate spots can be obtained by controlling the ultrasonic time and intensity.
A two temperature finite difference model has been developed and is used to describe the response of materials under ultrafast femtosecond laser pulses in the energy regime where melting and vaporization can occur. In applying this model to silicon it is observed that, for 800 nm light, laser pulse intensities that are just sufficient to achieve threshold for vaporization are also at the level of optical electric field strength where electron avalanche breakdown at the surface of the material can occur. For sub-picosecond pulses the physical response of the material is associated with a strongly temperature dependent coupling coefficient connecting electron and phonon thermal distributions. The results of these analyses demonstrate that a very thin near solid density plasma, caused by avalanche ionization, is responsible for the surface heating and subsequent thermodynamic response of the material. This interpretation is consistent throughout the pulse duration range from 80 femtoseconds to 0.2 nanoseconds. The proposed mechanism for absorption, at the near infra-red wavelength being used here, is very different from the types of mechanisms usually considered for nanosecond laser heating of semiconductors. Surface damage threshold is determined by atomic force microscopy and the threshold for plasma optical emission by photomultiplier detection . Melt deths are probed with SIMS impurity diffusion profiles and high resolution cross sectional TEM.
Crystallization and texture formation of a number of layered perovskite thin films prepared by the MOD method has been investigated. The crystallization temperature increases with increasing complexity of the structure, rendering it more difficult to obtain c-axis oriented films. Texture formation can be facilitated by the introduction of a seeding layer, such as PbBi2Nb2O9, which has a somewhat lower crystallization temperature, and by multiple coatings, which allow successive crystallization. Grain size is also reduced by the above practice. These results are compared with similar findings in PZT thin films to conclude that texture development in layered perovskites is nucleation controlled.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.