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The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the survival of hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients (hospitalised person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)). Hospitalised PLWHAs (n = 3724) between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled in the training cohort. HIV-infected inpatients (n = 1987) admitted in 2015 were included as the external-validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used to perform data dimension reduction and select the optimal predictors. The nomogram incorporated 11 independent predictors, including occupation, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Talaromyces marneffei, hypertension, septicemia, anaemia, respiratory failure, hypoproteinemia and electrolyte disturbances. The Likelihood χ2 statistic of the model was 516.30 (P = 0.000). Integrated Brier Score was 0.076 and Brier scores of the nomogram at the 10-day and 20-day time points were 0.046 and 0.071, respectively. The area under the curves for receiver operating characteristic were 0.819 and 0.828, and precision-recall curves were 0.242 and 0.378 at two time points. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis in the two sets showed good performance and a high net benefit of nomogram. In conclusion, the nomogram developed in the current study has relatively high calibration and is clinically useful. It provides a convenient and useful tool for timely clinical decision-making and the risk management of hospitalised PLWHAs.
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear.
Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function.
We found significant group differences of the gFCD in bilateral fusiform area (FFA), post-central and pre-central cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), rectal and superior temporal gyrus and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC); abnormal gFCDs in left STG were positively correlated with severity of depression in MDD group. Significant disease × COMT interaction effects were found in the bilateral calcarine gyrus, right vlPFC, hippocampus and thalamus, and left SFG and FFA. Further post-hoc tests showed a nonlinear modulation effect of COMT on gFCD in the development of MDD. Interestingly, an inverted U-shaped modulation was found in the prefrontal cortex (control system) but U-shaped modulations were found in the hippocampus, thalamus and occipital cortex (processing system).
Our study demonstrated nonlinear modulation of the interaction between COMT and depression on brain function. These findings expand our understanding of the COMT effect underlying the pathophysiology of MDD.
Many schizophrenia patients experience residual symptoms even after treatment. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is often used in medication-resistant schizophrenia patients when pharmacologic interventions have failed; however, the mechanism of action is unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are reduced in drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia and are increased by antipsychotic treatment. We tested the hypothesis that ECT increases serum BDNF levels by measuring BDNF concentrations in schizophrenia patients before and after they received ECT.
A total of 160 patients with schizophrenia were examined. The ECT group (n = 80) was treated with antipsychotics and ECT (eight to 10 sessions administered every other day). The drug therapy group (n = 80) received only antipsychotic treatment. A control group (n = 77) was recruited that served as the baseline for comparison.
Baseline serum BDNF level in ECT group was lower than in controls (9.7 ± 2.1 vs. 12.4 ± 3.2 ng/ml; P < 0.001), but increased after ECT, such that there was no difference between the two groups (11.9 ± 3.3 vs. 12.4 ± 3.2 ng/ml; P = 0.362). There was no correlation between patients’ Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score and serum BDNF level before ECT; however, a negative correlation was observed after ECT (total: r = −0.692; P < 0.01). From baseline to remission after ECT, serum BDNF level increased (P < 0.001) and their PANSS score decreased (P < 0.001). Changes in BDNF level (2.21 ± 4.10 ng/ml) and PANSS score (28.69 ± 14.96) were positively correlated in the ECT group (r = 0.630; P < 0.01).
BDNF level was lower in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls before ECT and medication. BDNF level increased after ECT and medication, and its longitudinal change was associated with changes in patients’ psychotic symptoms. These results indicate that BDNF mediates the antipsychotic effects of ECT.
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection has been a major public health threat globally. Monitoring and prediction of CT epidemic status and trends are important for programme planning, allocating resources and assessing impact; however, such activities are limited in China. In this study, we aimed to apply a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to predict the incidence of CT infection in Shenzhen city, China. The monthly incidence of CT between January 2008 and June 2019 in Shenzhen was used to fit and validate the SARIMA model. A seasonal fluctuation and a slightly increasing pattern of a long-term trend were revealed in the time series of CT incidence. The monthly CT incidence ranged from 4.80/100 000 to 21.56/100 000. The mean absolute percentage error value of the optimal model was 8.08%. The SARIMA model could be applied to effectively predict the short-term CT incidence in Shenzhen and provide support for the development of interventions for disease control and prevention.
The question of whether bilingualism conveys a broader advantage in executive functions has recently been controversially discussed, with the empirical findings presenting a complex pattern of positive and null results. Here we present results from three standard tasks measuring executive functions (Flanker; Simon; Spatial Stroop) in which we compared performance of English monolingual to Chinese–English bilingual young adults. Participants provided responses via movement of a computer mouse rather than the conventional key presses, which provides a rich signal of the unfolding response dynamics. Clear differences between bi- and monolinguals emerged, with the former providing more ‘efficient’ responses than the latter. Results are discussed regarding the extent to which these results can be characterised as a genuine “bilingual advantage”.
In the quest for dynamic multimodal probing of a material’s structure and functionality, it is critical to be able to quantify the chemical state on the atomic-/nanoscale using element-specific electronic and structurally sensitive tools such as electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Ultrafast EELS, with combined energy, time, and spatial resolution in a transmission electron microscope, has recently enabled transformative studies of photoexcited nanostructure evolution and mapping of evanescent electromagnetic fields. This article aims to describe state-of-the-art experimental techniques in this emerging field and its major uses and future applications.
The variation of transitional flow features past a micro-ramp is investigated when the Reynolds number is decreased approaching the critical regime. Experiments are conducted in the incompressible flow spanning from supercritical to subcritical roughness-height-based Reynolds number (
, 730, 460 and 320) with tomographic particle image velocimetry. The effect of
on three-dimensional flow behaviour is analysed in a domain encompassing 73 ramp heights in the streamwise direction. Above the critical
, the primary vortex pair and induced central low-speed region in the mean flow field are active over longer range when decreasing
. In the instantaneous flow, at
, the hairpin vortices induced by Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) instability progress gradually from close to the micro-ramp into the region where the overall shear layer is destabilized, indicating the correlation between the K–H instability and the onset of transition. The breakdown of K–H vortices as observed at
, does not occur at lower
, the secondary vortex structures make their first appearance significantly downstream, postponing the formation of sideward disturbances, which destabilize the local shear layer by ejection events. Two major types of eigenmodes with symmetric and asymmetric spatial distribution of velocity fluctuations in the near wake are clearly identified by proper orthogonal decomposition. The symmetric and asymmetric modes correspond to the presence of vortex shedding and a sinuous wiggling motion respectively. It is found that
is the key factor determining the importance of the symmetric mode. At
, the disturbance energy of the symmetric mode decays before the onset of transition, suggesting that it is relatively insignificant in the process. However, decreasing
to 730 and 460, the symmetric mode produces continuous growth of high level disturbance energy, leading to transition.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using Multiplex 3, a hand-held canopy fluorescence sensor, to determine rice nitrogen (N) status at different growth stages. In 2013, a paddy rice field experiment with five N fertilizer treatments and two varieties was conducted in Northeast China. Field samples and fluorescence data were collected simultaneously at the panicle initiation (PI), stem elongation (SE), and heading (HE) stages. Four N status indicators, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concentration (PNC), plant N uptake (PNU) and N nutrition index (NNI), were determined. The preliminary results indicated that different N application rates significantly affected most of the fluorescence variables, especially the simple fluorescence ratios (SFR_G, SFR_R), flavonoid (FLAV), and N balance indices (NBI_G, NBI_R). These variables were highly correlated with N status indicators. More studies are needed to further evaluate the accuracy of rice N status diagnosis using fluorescence sensing at different growth stages.
The early stage of three-dimensional laminar-to-turbulent transition behind a micro-ramp is studied in the incompressible regime using tomographic particle image velocimetry. Experiments are conducted at supercritical micro-ramp height
based Reynolds number
. The measurement domain encompasses 6 ramp widths spanwise and 73 ramp heights streamwise. The mean flow topology reveals the underlying vortex structure of the wake flow with multiple pairs of streamwise counter-rotating vortices visualized by streamwise vorticity. The primary pair generates a vigorous upwash motion in the symmetry plane with a pronounced momentum deficit. A secondary vortex pair is induced closer to the wall. The tertiary and even further vortices maintain a streamwise orientation, but are produced progressively outwards of the secondary pair and follow a wedge-type pattern. The instantaneous flow pattern reveals that the earliest unstable mode of the wake features arc-like Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) vortices in the separated shear layer. Under the influence of the K–H vortices, the wake exhibits a high level of fluctuations with a pulsatile mode for the streamwise momentum deficit. The K–H vortices are lifted up due to the upwash induced by the quasi-streamwise vortex pair, while they appear to undergo pairing, distortion and finally breakdown. Immediately downstream, a streamwise interval of relatively low vortical activity separates the end of the K–H region from the formation of new hairpin vortices close to the wall. The latter vortex structures originate from the region of maximum wall shear, induced by the secondary vortex pair causing strong ejection events which transport low-speed flow upwards. The whole pattern features a cascade of hairpin vortices along a turbulent/non-turbulent interface. The wedge-shaped cascade signifies the formation of a turbulent wedge. The turbulent properties of the wake are inspected with the spatial distribution of the velocity fluctuations and turbulence production in the developing boundary layer. Inside the wedge region, the velocity fluctuations approach quasi-spanwise homogeneity, indicating the development towards a turbulent boundary layer. The wedge interface is characterized by a localized higher level of velocity fluctuations and turbulence production, associated to the deflection of the shear layer close to the wall and the onset of coherent hairpin vortices inducing localized large-scale ejections.
Floral organ development influences plant reproduction and crop yield. The mechanism of floral organ specification is generally conserved in angiosperms as demonstrated by the ‘ABC’ model. However, mechanisms underlying the development of floral organs in specific groups of species such as grasses remain unclear. In the genus Oryza (rice), a spikelet consists of a fertile floret sub-tended by a lemma, a palea, two sterile lemmas and rudimentary glumes. To understand how the lemma is formed, a curve-shaped lemma-distortion1 (ld1) mutant was identified. Genetic analysis confirmed that the ld1 mutant phenotype was due to a single recessive gene mutation. Using a large F2 population, the LD1 gene was mapped between markers Indel-7-15 and Indel-7-18, which encompassed a region of 15·6 kilo base pairs (kbp). According to rice genome annotations, two putative genes, LOC_Os07g32510 and LOC_Os07g32520, were located in this candidate region. However, DNA sequencing results indicated only 1 base pair (bp) substitution (T⇨C) was found in LOC_Os07g32510 between the wild-type and the ld1 mutant. Thus LOC_Os07g32510, encoding a DNA binding with one zinc finger (DoF) containing protein, was the candidate gene for LD1. Further analysis showed that mutation of the amino acid cysteine (C) to arginine (R) was likely to lead to zinc finger protein deactivation. Phylogenetic and conservation analysis of the gene from different species revealed that cysteine was critical to LD1 function. As a new gene controlling lemma development, the study of LD1 could provide insights into rice floral organ formation mechanisms.
This study aimed to investigate the association of C-C chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9) and C-C motif chemokine 25 (CCL25) expression levels with clinical and tumour–node–metastasis stage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
A total of 42 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (nasopharyngeal carcinoma group) and 18 patients with a normal nasopharynx (control group) were included in this study. Tissues were collected during surgery and medical examinations. The CCR9 and CCL25 messenger RNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis.
CCR9 and CCL25 messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly increased in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Both CCR9 and CCL25 messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly higher in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stages III and IV) patients compared with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stages I and II) patients (p < 0.05).
The extent of CCR9 and CCL25 upregulation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma correlates with the tumour–node–metastasis stage.
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute contagious condition caused by a spectrum of human enteroviruses. HFMD reinfection is common in the absence of cross-protection from other virus subtypes. This study focused on reinfection in children in Anhui province, China between 2008 and 2013 using surveillance system data. We classified 8960 cases as reinfected, corresponding to a rate of 2·02%. The reinfection rate was higher in boys than in girls [odds ratio (OR) 1·27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·21–1·32, P < 0·001], children aged < 3 years (OR 3·82, 95% CI 3·58–4·07, P < 0·001), and children living in rural areas (OR 1·09, 95% CI 1·04–1·14, P = 0·001). The reinfection rate in children who were originally infected with non-enterovirus A71 (non-EVA71) enteroviruses was higher than those infected with EVA71 (OR 1·36, 95% CI 1·02–1·80, P = 0·034). Influential factors of reinfection rate included annual incidence (β coefficient = 0·715, P = 0·002) and the proportion of EVA71 in patients with mild HFMD (β coefficient = −0·509, P = 0·018). These results demonstrate that boys aged <3 years, especially those in rural areas or regions with a lower EVA71 proportion are more prone to reinfection, and specific health education programmes should be developed to protect these susceptible populations.
Ag–reduced graphene oxide (Ag/rGO) nanoparticle composites were synthesized through a facile one-step hydrothermal reaction using GO and silver carbonate (Ag2CO3) as raw materials. The homogeneous silver nanospheres with an average size of 50 nm well dispersed on the surface of rGO were obtained without other additives. During the formation process, GO both promotes the dispersion of Ag2CO3 in aqueous solution and acts as the substrate of silver cations, and the hydrolysis of Ag2CO3 provides silver cations and alkaline condition. Moreover, GO further serves as reducing agent to generate elemental silver in the alkaline condition. The as-prepared materials exhibit excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering activities when used to detect the Raman signals of R6G absorbed on the Ag/rGO substrate.
New-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus, ArArCcCc) with introgressed exotic subgenomic components from Brassica rapa (ArAr) and Brassica carinata (BcBcCcCc) showed strong heterosis in both vegetative and reproductive growth. The aim of the current study was to analyse the tolerance of the new-type B. napus with different exotic subgenomic contents to low nitrogen (N) stress. Under hydroponic culture and pot experiments, root system parameters, photosynthetic parameters, relative chlorophyll concentration (SPAD values), biomass, seed yield, seed yield components, N concentration and expressions of genes involved in N transport and assimilation were determined with two new-type B. napus genotypes (N-efficient genotype D4-15 and N-inefficient genotype D1-1) under high-N and low-N levels. Furthermore, N accumulation, N transfer efficiency and N use efficiency (NUE) were analysed in the two genotypes. The hydroponic and potted growth tests showed consistent characteristics in N uptake and utilization efficiency at the seedling stage, and N-efficient genotype (D4-15) showed better growth phenotypes across cultured conditions and N levels. Under the low-N condition, D4-15 produced a larger root system and accumulated more N, and had higher N transfer efficiency and NUE than D1-1. Moreover, D4-15 had significantly higher photosynthetic parameters, photosynthetic NUE and expression levels of the N transporter genes, BnNRT1·1, BnNRT2·5, BnNRT2·7 and BnAMT1·1, in roots or leaves, as well as higher seed yield than that of D1-1 under low-N supply. These results indicated that the N-efficient new-type B. napus D4-15 possessed excellent adaptability to low-N stress, which may be attributed to the highly introgressed exotic subgenomic components from B. rapa and B. carinata, suggesting the possibility of identifying high-nutrient-efficiency germplasm from inter-specific hybrids.
The microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations are exhibited by the GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system (2DES) under microwave and terahertz photo-excitation at liquid helium temperatures. Such oscillations are presently understood in terms of various theories. In order to identify the relative physical contributions, we have concurrently examined magnetotransport and microwave reflection from the 2DES. For the reflection measurements, a sensitive microwave detector was assimilated into the standard experimental setup. Here, we correlate changes in reflection with the concurrent transport response of the photo-excited 2DES.
It has been postulated that aging is the consequence of an accelerated accumulation of somatic DNA mutations and that subsequent errors in the primary structure of proteins ultimately reach levels sufficient to affect organismal functions. The technical limitations of detecting somatic changes and the lack of insight about the minimum level of erroneous proteins to cause an error catastrophe hampered any firm conclusions on these theories. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of DNA in whole blood of two pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 40 and 100 years old, by two independent next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Complete Genomics). Potentially discordant single-base substitutions supported by both platforms were validated extensively by Sanger, Roche 454, and Ion Torrent sequencing. We demonstrate that the genomes of the two twin pairs are germ-line identical between co-twins, and that the genomes of the 100-year-old MZ twins are discerned by eight confirmed somatic single-base substitutions, five of which are within introns. Putative somatic variation between the 40-year-old twins was not confirmed in the validation phase. We conclude from this systematic effort that by using two independent NGS platforms, somatic single nucleotide substitutions can be detected, and that a century of life did not result in a large number of detectable somatic mutations in blood. The low number of somatic variants observed by using two NGS platforms might provide a framework for detecting disease-related somatic variants in phenotypically discordant MZ twins.
An adaptive algorithm is presented for the wavelength calibration of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). The new algorithm can identify emission lines of calibration lamp without manual interaction and then fit relationship between the pixel positions and the wavelengths by utilizing a polynomial function. In this study, experiments are performed both on the actual data observed by LAMOST and the simulated data to analyze the accuracy and the robustness.The experimental results show that the proposed automatic algorithm can perform the lines identification exactly and acquire the wavelength solution accurately. Thus, an applicable approach is provided for the wavelength calibration of LAMOST.