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Fossil charcoals from archaeological sites provide direct evidence for the relationship between environmental change and ancient peoples’ livelihoods in the past. Our identification of 5811 fossil charcoal fragments from 84 samples suggested temperate deciduous and mixed conifer-broadleaved forests as the dominant vegetation at the Erdaojingzi site in northeastern China ca. 3500 cal yr BP; the major representative taxa were Quercus, Pinus, and Ulmus. Four woody plants probably supplied humans with food resources at the Erdaojingzi site, including Quercus, Ulmus, Amygdalus/Armeniaca, and Ziziphus. The nuts of Quercus were utilized as staple foods because of their rich starch content. The leaves of Ulmus may have been used by humans because of their massive dietary fibre. Amygdalus/Armeniaca and Ziziphus probably provided fruits for humans. Based on the coexistence approach (CA) used on the fossil charcoals, we found that the MAT anomaly was 7.9 ± 5.9°C at ca. 3500 cal yr BP, which is almost the same as the modern one (7.8°C), while the MAP was halved from 772 ± 301 mm at ca. 3500 cal yr BP to 370 mm currently. The wet climate might have facilitated significant development of rain-fed agriculture, promoted the emergence of large settlements, and eventually facilitated the birth of civilization.
Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of ‘brain disconnection’ and ‘brain connectivity compensation’ to ‘brain connectivity decompensation’.
In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated.
We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network.
These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.
Exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with health abnormalities that persist in subsequent generations. However, transgenerational effects of BPA on metabolic health are not widely studied. In a maternal C57BL/6J mice (F0) exposure model using BPA doses that are relevant to human exposure levels (10 μg/kg/day, LowerB; 10 mg/kg/day, UpperB), we showed male- and dose-specific effects on pancreatic islets of the first (F1) and second generation (F2) offspring relative to controls (7% corn oil diet; control). In this study, we determined the transgenerational effects (F3) of BPA on metabolic health and pancreatic islets in our model. Adult F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring had increased body weight relative to Controls, however glucose tolerance was similar in the three groups. F3 LowerB, but not UpperB, males had reduced β-cell mass and smaller islets which was associated with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similar to F1 and F2 BPA male offspring, staining for markers of T-cells and macrophages (CD3 and F4/80) was increased in pancreas of F3 LowerB and UpperB male offspring, which was associated with changes in cytokine levels. In contrast to F3 BPA males, LowerB and UpperB female offspring had comparable body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin secretion as Controls. Thus, maternal BPA exposure resulted in fewer metabolic defects in F3 than F1 and F2 offspring, and these were sex- and dose-specific.
Although social harmony is one of the most important cultural values in many of Asian societies it has rarely been studied in the mainstream management literatures. Based on the group-value theory of justice we examined how group justice climates influence group effectiveness through group harmony. Analyses of data on 106 upper-level management teams from Chinese organizations showed that justice climates were positively associated with group harmony, which in turn was positively associated with team task performance and team helping behavior. Group harmony was found to significantly mediate the positive effect of both distributive and interactional justice climates on team helping behavior but only marginally on team task performance. Finally, in support of past research both at the group and individual level, procedural justice climate had the weakest effect on group processes and outcomes. By applying the group value theory on group harmony this paper aims to integrate Eastern and Western perspectives on one hand and the justice climates and group harmony research on the other. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Models of products and design processes are key to interacting with engineering designs and managing the processes by which they are developed. In practice, companies maintain networks of many interrelated models which need to be synthesised in the minds of their users when considering issues that cut across them. This article considers how information from product and design process models can be integrated with a view to help manage these complex interrelationships. A framework highlighting key issues surrounding model integration is introduced and terminology for describing these issues is developed. To illustrate the framework and terminology, selected modelling approaches that integrate product and process information are discussed and organised according to their levels and forms of integration. Opportunities for further work to advance integrated modelling in engineering design research and practice are discussed.
Here, we demonstrate the enhanced imaging capabilities of an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope to advance the understanding of ion track structure in pyrochlore structured materials (i.e., Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2TiZrO7). Track formation occurs due to the inelastic transfer of energy from incident ions to electrons, and atomic-level details of track morphology as a function of energy-loss are revealed in the present work. A comparison of imaging details obtained by varying collection angles of detectors is discussed in the present work. A quantitative analysis of phase identification using high-angle annular dark field imaging is performed on the ion tracks. Finally, a novel 3-dimensional track reconstruction method is provided that is based on depth-dependent imaging of the ion tracks. The technique is used in extracting the atomic-level details of nanoscale features, such as the disordered ion tracks, which are embedded in relatively thicker matrix. Another relevance of the method is shown by measuring the tilt of the ion tracks relative to the electron beam incidence that helps in knowing the structure and geometry of ion tracks quantitatively.
In individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had a 20–37 times higher risk of developing active TB compared to those without HIV infection. Systematic testing and treatment of latent TB infection are priorities in HIV-infected persons. In China, the prevalence of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) has gradually increased in the past decade. However, the prevalence of TB infection has been studied sparsely in HIV-infected MSM. Hence, we conducted a pilot study in MSM living with HIV infection in Xi'an city to evaluate TB infection status by means of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). A total of 182 HIV-infected MSM were included in this study, the prevalence of IGRA positivity was observed to be 8·79% (16/182). IGRA quantitative results were not statistically influenced by the CD4 cell counts of the study participants. However, IGRA positivity was found to be lower than our previously reported data from the general population. This suggests that immunological deficiency might decrease the sensitivity of IGRA and thus increase the number of false negatives. Our primary results, suggesting systematic testing and treatment of latent TB infection together with active case-finding, were equally important for TB control in persons living with HIV infection.
The discrete Fourier transform is among the most routine tools used in high-resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). However, when calculating a Fourier transform, periodic boundary conditions are imposed and sharp discontinuities between the edges of an image cause a cross patterned artifact along the reciprocal space axes. This artifact can interfere with the analysis of reciprocal lattice peaks of an atomic resolution image. Here we demonstrate that the recently developed Periodic Plus Smooth Decomposition technique provides a simple, efficient method for reliable removal of artifacts caused by edge discontinuities. In this method, edge artifacts are reduced by subtracting a smooth background that solves Poisson’s equation with boundary conditions set by the image’s edges. Unlike the traditional windowed Fourier transforms, Periodic Plus Smooth Decomposition maintains sharp reciprocal lattice peaks from the image’s entire field of view.
Thermal transport across interfaces is an important issue for microelectronics, photonics, and thermoelectric devices and has been studied both experimentally and theoretically in the past. In this paper, thermal interface resistance (1/G) between aluminum and silicon with nanoscale vacancies was calculated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). Both phonon-phonon coupling and electron-phonon coupling are considered in calculations. The results showed that thermal interface resistance increased largely due to vacancies. The effect of both the size and the type of vacancies is studied and compared. And an obvious difference is found for structures with different type/size vacancies.
While a broad line of the Fe Kα emission is commonly found in the X-ray spectra of typical Seyfert galaxies, the situation is unclear in the case of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s)—an extreme subset which are generally thought to harbor less massive black holes with higher accretion rates. We report results of our study of the assemble property of the Fe K line in NLS1s by stacking the X-ray spectra of a large sample of 51 NLS1s observed with XMM-Newton. We find in the stacked X-ray spectra a prominent, broad emission feature over 4–7 keV, which is characteristic of the broad Fe Kα line. Our results suggest that a relativistic broad Fe line may in fact be common in NLS1s. The line profile is used to study the average spin of the black holes in the sample. We find, for the first time, that their black holes are constrained to be likely spinning at averagely low or moderate rates as a population. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of the black hole growth in NLS1 galaxies.
Discovery of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) in the past 15 years blurs the once thought clear division between classic globular clusters (GCs) and early-type galaxies. The intermediate nature of UCDs, which are larger and more massive than typical GCs but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies, has triggered hot debate on whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin or merely the most extreme GCs. Previous studies of various scaling relations, stellar populations and internal dynamics did not give an unambiguous answer to the primary origin of UCDs. In this contribution, we present the first ever detailed study of global dynamics of 97 UCDs (rh ≳ 10 pc) associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. We found that UCDs follow a different radial number density profile and different rotational properties from GCs. The orbital anisotropies of UCDs are tangentially-biased within ~ 40 kpc of M87 and become radially-biased with radius further out. In contrast, the blue GCs, which have similar median colors to our sample of UCDs, become more tangentially-biased at larger radii beyond ~ 40 kpc. Our analysis suggests that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially-biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the scenario that most UCDs originated from the tidally threshed dwarf galaxies.
To test whether change in the frequency of fish intake at population level would affect the trends of death from CHD and how many CHD events could be prevented in Hong Kong, a population among those with the highest fish consumption and the lowest CHD mortality in the world.
Time trends analysis with data from repeated dietary surveys and death registration.
Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China.
A total of 3096 men and women aged 40–69 years who participated in territory-wide surveys in 1995 or 2003 were included in the analysis of changes in dietary fish intake; all adults aged 40–69 years in Hong Kong were included in the analysis of time trends of CHD mortality.
Over the period, the frequency of fish intake increased and CHD mortality decreased significantly in the population age group of 50–69 years, while in the age group of 40–49 years little change in both fish intake and CHD mortality was observed. It was estimated that 240 CHD deaths (or 29 % of the total) were avoided among the population aged 40–69 years in 2003, as more than half of the population consumed fish every day in Hong Kong.
The time trend of CHD mortality was inversely related to the trend of fish intake. The frequency of fish intake may have a substantial impact on the population for the prevention of CHD deaths in Hong Kong.
The Ca intake and food sources of Chinese postmenopausal women are quite different from those of their Western counterparts. But, little information on Ca metabolism is available in Chinese populations. We determined true fractional calcium absorption (TFCA), true Ca absorption ( = TFCA × Ca intake, Va), urinary Ca excretion (Vu) and the difference between Va and Vu (Va − u), in response to three dietary Ca intake levels. Twenty-one healthy postmenopausal Chinese women aged 49–64 years were recruited for this randomized crossover trial from a general community, Guangzhou, China. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 0, 500 and 1000 mg Ca/d for 5 weeks separated by 2-week washout periods. TFCA using Ca stable isotopes, total urinary Ca excretion and Ca intake were determined after 4 weeks of adaptation. Mean values for total Ca intake (Vi) of the three phases were 391 (sd 197), 880 (sd 130) and 1382 (sd 160) mg/d. On usual diet, TFCA, Vu, Va and Va − u were 0·57 (sd 0·12), 175 (sd 59) mg/d, 216 (sd 98) mg/d and 41 (sd 99) mg/d, respectively. With the supplementations of 500 and 1000 mg Ca/d, TFCA significantly decreased to 0·52 (sd 0·12) and 0·43 (sd 0·13) (P < 0·001); whereas urinary Ca (P = 0·003), Va and Va − u increased significantly (P < 0·001). Using a mixed-effects nonlinear regression model, it was estimated that Va − u was approaching a plateau when mean Ca intake reached 1300 mg/d. In conclusion, the present findings suggest postmenopausal Chinese women have high Ca absorption efficiency and a mean Ca intake of about 1300 mg/d is required to maximize the Va − u.