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Empirical work has shown that patients and physicians have markedly divergent understandings of treatability statements (e.g., “This is a treatable condition,” “We have treatments for your loved one”) in the context of serious illness. Patients often understand treatability statements as conveying good news for prognosis and quality of life. In contrast, physicians often do not intend treatability statements to convey improvement in prognosis or quality of life, but merely that a treatment is available. Similarly, patients often understand treatability statements as conveying encouragement to hope and pursue further treatment, though this may not be intended by physicians. This radical divergence in understandings may lead to severe miscommunication. This paper seeks to better understand this divergence through linguistic theory—in particular, H.P. Grice’s notion of conversational implicature. This theoretical approach reveals three levels of meaning of treatability statements: (1) the literal meaning, (2) the physician’s intended meaning, and (3) the patient’s received meaning. The divergence between the physician’s intended meaning and the patient’s received meaning can be understood to arise from the lack of shared experience between physicians and patients, and the differing assumptions that each party makes about conversations. This divergence in meaning raises new and largely unidentified challenges to informed consent and shared decision making in the context of serious illness, which indicates a need for further empirical research in this area.
The Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies, developed in 2017 (CFDET 2017), aims to unify and facilitate agreement regarding the identification, structure, and relationships between various evaluation typologies found in the disaster setting. A peer-reviewed validation process sought input from international experts in the fields of disaster medicine, disaster/emergency management, humanitarian/development, and evaluation. This paper discusses the validation process, its results, and outcomes.
Previous frameworks, identified in the literature, lack validation and consistent terminology. To gain credibility and utility, this unique framework needed to be validated by international experts in the disaster setting.
A mixed methods approach was designed to validate the framework. An initial iterative process informed an online survey which used a combination of a five-point Likert scale and open-ended questions. Pre-determined consensus thresholds, informed by a targeted literature review, provided the validation criteria.
A sample of 33 experts from 11 countries responded to the validation process. Quantitative measures largely supported the elements and relationships of the framework, and strongly supported its value and usefulness for supporting, promoting, and undertaking evaluations, as well as its usefulness for teaching evaluation in the disaster setting. Qualitative input suggested opportunities to strengthen and enhance the framework. There were limited responses to better understand the barriers and enablers of undertaking disaster evaluations. A potential for self-selection bias of respondents may be a limitation of this study. The attainment of high consensus thresholds, however, provides confidence in the validity of the results.
For the first time, a framework of this nature has undergone a rigorous validation process by experts in three related disciplines at an international level. The modified framework, CFDET 2018, provides a unifying framework within which existing evaluation typologies can be structured. It gives evaluators confidence to choose an appropriate strategy for their particular evaluation in the disaster setting and facilitates consistency in reporting across the different phases of a disaster to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Future research could create a series of toolkits to support improved disaster evaluation processes and to evaluate the utility of the framework in the real-world setting.
Ten compounds are found in the Ba0-Y203-CuOx system. High temperature (≈950-1000°C) phases identified as Ba4Y2O7 , Ba2Y2O5 , Ba3Y4O9 , BaY2O4 , Y2Cu2O5 , BaCuO2+x, Ba3YCu2OZ BaY2Cu05 and BazYCu306+x are formed in this temperature range. In addition, a new compound with composition of 2BaO:CuO, which possibly has a melting point below 950°C, was prepared at 850°C. A summary o£ the crystallographic data of these 10 phases is given. In particular, results of x-ray studies pertaining to four compounds, BazYCu306+x, which is currently the most promising high To' superconductor material, Ba2Cu03 , BaY2Cu05 , and Ba3YCu20Z are reviewed.
Phase equilibria of two superconductor phases, namely the 20K Raveau phase (Bi2.2-xSr1.8+xCuOz, currently referred to as the 11905 phase) and the 80K 2212 phase of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 system were investigated. The amount of Ca-substitution of the Raveau solid solution was determined and the solid solution region can be approximately described as Bi2.2+xSr1.8-X-Y CayCu1±x/2Ow (referred to as the Ca-Raveau phase or the 119x5, ‘ with 0<x<0.15, 0<y<0.5. To determine the melting equilibria of the 2212 phase, a procedure involving the use of a wicking technique to capture the melt was applied. X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) and quantitative energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyse the phases present in the residual and melt, respectively. The approximate primary crystallization field of the incongruently melting 2212 phase was illustrated.
A 15-month-old child underwent percutaneous expansion of a Melody transcatheter pulmonary valve in the mitral position to accommodate growth after initial surgical implantation during infancy, but transiently decompensated after valvuloplasty owing to stent malformation. The Melody valve in the mitral position of small patients can be further expanded by percutaneous dilation, but there are a number of potential complications and technical improvements to consider.
We present observations of 50 deg2 of the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, covering Galactic longitudes l = 300–350° and latitudes |b| ⩽ 0.5°. These data have been taken at 0.6 arcmin spatial resolution and 0.1 km s−1spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the Southern Galactic Plane in the 109–115 GHz J = 1–0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O.
We present a series of velocity-integrated maps, spectra, and position-velocity plots that illustrate Galactic arm structures and trace masses on the order of ~106 M⊙ deg−2, and include a preliminary catalogue of C18O clumps located between l = 330–340°. Together with the information about the noise statistics of the survey, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the PASA data store.
The main goal of this paper is to provide insights into swash flow dynamics, generated by a non-breaking solitary wave on a steep slope. Both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the details of runup and rundown processes. Special attention is given to the evolution of the bottom boundary layer over the slope in terms of flow separation, vortex formation and the development of a hydraulic jump during the rundown phase. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the flow velocity fields by means of high-speed particle image velocimetry (HSPIV). Detailed pathline patterns of the swash flows and free-surface profiles were also visualized. Highly resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out. Numerical results are compared with laboratory measurements with a focus on the velocities inside the boundary layer. The overall agreement is excellent during the initial stage of the runup process. However, discrepancies in the model/data comparison grow as time advances because the numerical model does not simulate the shoreline dynamics accurately. Introducing small temporal and spatial shifts in the comparison yields adequate agreement during the entire rundown process. Highly resolved numerical solutions are used to study physical variables that are not measured in laboratory experiments (e.g. pressure field and bottom shear stress). It is shown that the main mechanism for vortex shedding is correlated with the large pressure gradient along the slope as the rundown flow transitions from supercritical to subcritical, under the developing hydraulic jump. Furthermore, the bottom shear stress analysis indicates that the largest values occur at the shoreline and that the relatively large bottom shear stress also takes place within the supercritical flow region, being associated with the backwash vortex system rather than the plunging wave. It is clearly demonstrated that the combination of laboratory observations and numerical simulations have indeed provided significant insights into the swash flow processes.
While previous work showed that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention toolkit for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can reduce spread regionally, these interventions are costly, and decisions makers want to know whether and when economic benefits occur.
Orange County, California
Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA)-generated agent-based model of all inpatient healthcare facilities, we simulated the implementation of the CRE toolkit (active screening of interfacility transfers) in different ways and estimated their economic impacts under various circumstances.
Compared to routine control measures, screening generated cost savings by year 1 when hospitals implemented screening after identifying ≤20 CRE cases (saving $2,000–$9,000) and by year 7 if all hospitals implemented in a regional coordinated manner after 1 hospital identified a CRE case (hospital perspective). Cost savings was achieved only if hospitals independently screened after identifying 10 cases (year 1, third-party payer perspective). Cost savings was achieved by year 1 if hospitals independently screened after identifying 1 CRE case and by year 3 if all hospitals coordinated and screened after 1 hospital identified 1 case (societal perspective). After a few years, all strategies cost less and have positive health effects compared to routine control measures; most strategies generate a positive cost-benefit each year.
Active screening of interfacility transfers garnered cost savings in year 1 of implementation when hospitals acted independently and by year 3 if all hospitals collectively implemented the toolkit in a coordinated manner. Despite taking longer to manifest, coordinated regional control resulted in greater savings over time.
Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance.
Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. Participants were matched in age, gender and estimated intelligence quotient. The verbal-based Faux Pas Task and the visual-based Yoni Task were utilised to examine first- and higher-order, affective and cognitive ToM. The task/item difficulty of two paradigms was examined using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Multiple ANOVAs and mixed model ANOVAs were used to examine group differences in ToM.
The Faux Pas Task was more difficult than the Yoni Task. High-functioning autism patients showed more severely impaired verbal-based ToM in the Faux Pas Task, but shared similar visual-based ToM impairments in the Yoni Task with schizophrenia patients.
The findings that individuals with high-functioning autism shared similar but more severe impairments in verbal ToM than individuals with schizophrenia support the autism–schizophrenia continuum. The finding that verbal-based but not visual-based ToM was more impaired in high-functioning autism patients than schizophrenia patients could be attributable to the varied task/item difficulty between the two paradigms.
On 1 December 2011 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core project reached its final depth of 3405 m. The WAIS Divide ice core is not only the longest US ice core to date, but is also the highest-quality deep ice core, including ice from the brittle ice zone, that the US has ever recovered. The methods used at WAIS Divide to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the US National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NICL are described and discussed.
Background: Few studies have explored the effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on electroencephalograph (EEG) findings during the assessment of seizure management. Although a patient may reach seizure freedom, EEG results may continue to be abnormal. Further information is required to understand the trend of EEG findings during seizure treatment. Methods: This is a retrospective study based on chart reviews. Patients who had epilepsy evaluations at the Royal University Hospital in Saskatoon between January 2012 and December 2015, were selected. The relationships among time of initiating AEDs, EEG findings, and seizure outcome on follow-ups, have been evaluated. Results: 151 patients had first seizure clinic assessments, in which 75 patients had an EEG before starting AEDs. Among the 75 patients, 54 (72%) had abnormal EEGs. From those, 38 (70.3%) patient’s EEGs became normal and 16 (29.7%) patients continued to have abnormal EEGs after the introduction of AEDs. The seizure freedom was 81.5% among those who had normal EEG on follow-up, and 43.7% of those who continued to have abnormal EEGs. Conclusions: Although patients with normal EEGs after starting AEDs may encounter a higher chance of seizure freedom, the seizure free patients with abnormal EEGs indicate that EEG is not completely sufficient in predicting seizure status.
The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level.
While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies.
The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions.
Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and “grey literature”) was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting.
No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a “Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies” that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected.
The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single framework. This unique, unifying framework has relevance at an international level and is expected to benefit the disaster, humanitarian, and development sectors. The next step is to undertake a validation process that will include international leaders with experience in evaluation, in general, and disasters specifically. This work promotes an environment for constructive dialogue on evaluations in the disaster setting to strengthen the evidence base for interventions across the disaster spectrum. It remains a work in progress.
WongDF, SpencerC, BoydL, BurkleFMJr., ArcherF. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):501–514.
Screening for depression in older adults is recommended.
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Two-Question Screen for older adults and compare it with other screening instruments for depression.
We undertook a literature search for studies assessing the diagnostic performance of depression screening instruments in older adults. Combined diagnostic accuracy including sensitivity and specificity were the primary outcomes. Potential risks of bias and the quality of studies were also assessed.
A total of 46506 participants from 132 studies were identified evaluating 16 screening instruments. The majority of studies (63/132) used various versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and 6 used the Two-Question Screen. The combined sensitivity and specificity for the Two-Question Screen were 91.8% (95% CI 85.2–95.6) and 67.7% (95% CI 58.1–76.0), respectively; the diagnostic performance area under the curve (AUC) was 90%. The Two-Question Screen showed comparable performance with other instruments, including clinician-rated scales. The One-Question Screen showed the lowest diagnostic performance with an AUC of 78%. In subgroup analysis, the Two-Question Screen also had good diagnostic performance in screening for major depressive disorder.
The Two-Question Screen is a simple and short instrument for depression screening. Its diagnostic performance is comparable with other instruments and, therefore, it would be favourable to use it for older adult screening programmes.
To study the association between gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
We analyzed 31,526 patients with prospective collection of fecal specimens for CPE screening: upon admission (targeted screening) and during hospitalization (opportunistic screening, safety net screening, and extensive contact tracing), in our healthcare network with 3,200 beds from July 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Specimens were collected at least once weekly during hospitalization for CPE carriers and subjected to broth enrichment culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Of 66,672 fecal specimens collected, 345 specimens (0.5%) from 100 patients (0.3%) had CPE. The number and prevalence (per 100,000 patient-days) of CPE increased from 2 (0.3) in 2012 to 63 (8.0) in 2015 (P<.001). Male sex (odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.15–3.18], P=.013), presence of wound or drain (3.12 [1.70–5.71], P<.001), and use of cephalosporins (3.06 [1.42–6.59], P=.004), carbapenems (2.21 [1.10–4.48], P=.027), and PPIs (2.84 [1.72–4.71], P<.001) in the preceding 6 months were significant risk factors by multivariable analysis. Of 79 patients with serial fecal specimens, spontaneous clearance of CPE was noted in 57 (72.2%), with a median (range) of 30 (3–411) days. Comparing patients without use of antibiotics and PPIs, consumption of both antibiotics and PPIs after CPE identification was associated with later clearance of CPE (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17–0.73], P=.005).
Concomitant use of antibiotics and PPIs prolonged duration of gastrointestinal colonization by CPE.
Background: Deep brain stimulation for epilepsy is becoming an effective option for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. This is the case of a 19-year-old male patient who has had refractory seizures since 2.5 years old. Seizures occur up to 100 times per day, including gelastic, complex partial, and generalized tonic-clonic types. Methods: Continuous video-EEG monitoring, technetium 99 m ECD SPECT, PET-CT and 3T MRI are used for localization. Depth electrodes are implanted in right frontal orbital, cingulate and lateral frontal regions. Results: Video-EEG records 79 seizures arising from the right frontocentral region. Clinically, patient assumes a fencing posture, with left arm extension. Some seizures undergo secondary generalization. SPECT reveals subtle asymmetric hyperperfusion in right mesial frontal area, while PET-CT and MRI do not show focal lesion(s).Stereo-EEG recording and stimulation confirm seizure onset and trigger zone in the premotor cingulate posterior region. Treatment with stimulation in this region at 130-150 Hz, 4-5 mA, and pulse duration 0.1 ms reduces seizure frequency from 100/day to 3/week. Seizures last only 2-3 seconds, without postictal confusion leading to improvements in neuropsychological function. AED dosages are not reduced. Conclusions: Successful intracranial EEG localization of otherwise non-lesional non-resectable seizure focus permits the use of deep brain stimulation that effectively reduces refractory seizure frequency.
To determine the longitudinal changes in viral load of hepatitis B virus (HBV)–infected healthcare workers (HCWs) and its consequences for exclusion of infected HCWs performing exposure-prone procedures, various HBV DNA safety thresholds, and the frequency of monitoring.
Retrospective cohort study June 1, 1996–January 31, 2013.
In the Netherlands, chronically HBV-infected HCWs performing exposure-prone procedures are notified to the Committee for Prevention of Iatrogenic Hepatitis B. Of the 126 notified HCWs, 45 had 2 or more HBV DNA levels determined without antiviral therapy.
A time-to-event analysis for HBV-infected HCWs categorized in various viremia levels surpassing a HBV DNA threshold level of 1×105 copies/mL, above which exposure-prone procedures are not allowed in the Netherlands.
Fluctuations of HBV DNA in follow-up samples ranged from −5.4 to +2.2 log10 copies/mL. A high correlation was seen for each HBV DNA level with the 3 previous levels. In a time-to-event analysis, after 6 months 7.2%, 6.5%, and 14.3% of individuals had surpassed the threshold of 1×105 copies/mL for viral load categories 4.8×103 to 1.5×104; 1.5×104 to 4.0×104; and 4.0×104 to 1.0×105, respectively.
We propose standard retesting every 6 months, with more frequent retesting just below the high threshold value (1×105 copies/mL), and prolonging this standard interval to 1 year after 3 consecutive levels below the threshold in policies with lower safety thresholds (1×103 or 1×104 copies/mL).
High-mass stars usually form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) as part of a young stellar cluster, but some isolated O/B stars are observed. What are the initial conditions that lead to the formation of these objects? The aim of this study is to measure the distribution and basic physical properties of the neutral gas associated with isolated intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
As part of the SAGE Spitzer Legacy program for the LMC, we have identified and confirmed YSOs using Spitzer IRAC photometry and IRS spectroscopy. By examining the spatial coincidence between the YSOs and 12CO(1–0) emission detected by the NANTEN mapping survey, we identified more than one hundred intermediate/massive YSOs in the LMC that appear to be isolated, i.e. not associated with CO emission. Deeper follow-up CO observations by our team with the higher resolution by Mopra Telescope (beam=30”) detected CO emission at the YSO positions for ~80% of the isolated LMC YSOs. We obtained ALMA data of some of the targets during Cycle 2. We targeted a small but representative (in terms of their association with neutral gas tracers) sample of the isolated high-mass YSOs that we have been studying in the LMC. All of our 12 targets are separated by more than 200 pc from known CO clouds. Our analysis of the ALMA data shows that a compact molecular cloud whose mass is a few thousand solar masses or smaller is associated with most of the YSOs.