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In this article, an extremely wideband, isolation-enhanced, low-profile “Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output” (MIMO) antenna along with dual-band-notched features has been investigated. The antenna proposed herein, possesses two mutually orthogonal staircase-etched radiators for achieving a wide bandwidth. The radiating elements are placed mutually perpendicular in order to achieve polarization diversity and high isolation, i.e. for minimization of mutual coupling effect between adjacent radiating elements. The antenna exhibits an extremely wide frequency bandwidth covering 1.2–19.4 GHz except two frequency band notches centered at 3.5 and 5.5 GHz, respectively, originated due to the incorporation of a “Rectangular Complementary Split Ring Resonator (RCSRR)” structure and by etching dual “L-shaped” slits in the ground plane. The center frequency of the notched bands is adjusted by fine tuning of the dimensions of the incorporated band-notching structures. Isolation level (S21) better than −20 dB has been obtained due to the insertion of a “T-shaped” parasitic element as a decoupling structure. A prototype of the proposed antenna having dimension of 20 mm × 20 mm (0.08 λo × 0.08 λo) is fabricated and the antenna responses have been measured. Obtained results show that the miniaturized MIMO diversity antenna is undoubtedly a capable contender for communications supporting an extremely wide impedance bandwidth along with band-notched features for WLAN and WiMAX.
Values of ammonia concentration in rumen liquid have been used as an index of nitrogen requirements of rumen microflora even though ammonia requirements seem to depend on the type of diet. Cellulollitic flora mainly use ammonia as N source, while bacteria that ferment non-structural carbohydrates use either ammonia or protein nitrogen. The aim of this experiment was to establish the minimum concentration of ammonia to optimise microbial synthesis in the rumen of steers fed concentrate-based diets.
Manipulation of amino acids (AA) supply to the duodenum is constrained in ruminants by insufficient knowledge on the AA profile of undegradable protein. There is evidence that rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of individual AA may differ from that of nitrogen (N) or total AA (TAA) (Erasmus et al., 1994, O'Mara et al., 1997) although differences in intestinal digestibility are probably of relevance only in roughage and overheated feeds (Van Straalen et al., 1997). The objective of this experiment was to provide more information about the relative influence of rumen degradation and intestinal digestion on the AA profile of the absorbed fraction of four protein sources commonly used in beef cattle rationing.
A numerical study of the saturation process inside a rectangular open cavity is presented. Previous experiments and linear stability analysis of the problem completely described the flow in its onset, as well as in a saturated regime, characterized by three-dimensional centrifugal modes. The morphology of the modes found in the experiments matched the ones predicted by linear analysis, but with a shift in frequencies for the oscillating modes. A three-dimensional incompressible direct numerical simulation (DNS) is employed for a detailed investigation of the saturation process inside a cavity with dimensions similar to the one used in the experiments, to further explain the behaviour of these modes. In this work, periodic boundary conditions are first imposed to better understand the effect of the saturation process far from the walls. Then, the effects of spanwise solid wall boundary conditions are investigated with a DNS reproducing the full dynamics of the experiments. The main flow structures are identified using the dynamic mode decomposition technique and compared with previous experimental and linear stability analysis results. The main reason for the aforementioned shift in frequency is explained in this paper, as it is a function of the velocity of the main recirculating vortex.
It is widely accepted that purine bases (PB) could overestimate microbial production when used as microbial markers as result of rumen by-pass of dietary PB. Free nucleic acids are rapidly degraded when incubated in rumen content either in vitro or in vivo (McAllan and Smith, 1973) and nylon bag disappearance of food PB seems to confirm their low contribution to duodenal flow (Pérez et al. 1996). However isotopic labelling of microbial PB (Pérez et al. 1997) have resulted in much higher estimates of non microbial PB arriving to duodenum, which were attributed to differential uptake of dietary PB by bacterial and protozoal populations leading to lack of representativeness of the reference bacterial sample. The present experiment aimed to know if estimation of microbial contribution to duodenal PB could be biased by differences between rumen bacterial and protozoal populations in 15N enrichment of PB.
Because of its high pectin content, citrus pulp provides with readily fermentable energy for rumen microbial synthesis and promotes a more favourable environment for fibre digestion than starch supplements (Barrios et al., 1996). However, we are unaware of data comparing efficiency of microbial synthesis with cereals or citrus pulp. This work compares digestibility and efficiency of microbial synthesis of mixed straw diets with increasing substitution of barley by citrus pulp, at two feeding levels.
Diets included equal parts of ammoniated barley straw (10.5 g N/kg DM) and a concentrate made up by different ratios of barley (18.2 g N/kg DM) and citrus pulp (11.1 g N/kg DM), namely M1 (100:0), M2 (66:33), M3 (33:66) and M4 (0:100).
Assessment of Tar Spot Complex (TSC) severity in maize breeding experiments is conducted visually and may sometimes result in inconsistencies due to human interpretation. Disease scoring using remote sensing technologies may help bring more precision to the phenotyping process. An experiment for assessment of grain yield losses due to TSC was conducted at the Aguafria Experimental Station of the International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement – CIMMYT in Mexico. Twenty-five maize genotypes were planted in spring of 2016 under a fungicide treatment to control TSC development and no fungicide treatment in a square lattice design with three replications. Four flights were carried out using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a multispectral (550, 660, 735, 790 nm) and a thermal camera, simultaneously with the visual disease scorings and the yield was measured after harvesting. The preliminary results of the study indicated that the use of remote sensing in disease resistance phenotyping may be as effective as visual disease scoring since both correlate highly with the grain yield. Structural and chlorophyll vegetation indices (VIs) proved to be a good alternative for the estimation of yield losses caused by TSC in experimental field conditions, which may be potentially used for screening for resistance to this disease in maize genotypes, hypothetically reducing the need for visual disease scoring in the field.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
The phenotypic activity of two 5-nitroindazolinones, i.e. 2-benzyl-1-propyl (22) and 2-benzyl-1-butyl (24) derivatives, previously proposed as anti-Trypanosoma cruzi prototypes, was presently assayed on bloodstream trypomastigotes (BT) of the moderately drug-resistant Y strain. Further exploration of putative targets and cellular mechanisms involved in their activity was also carried out. Therefore, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution respirometry and flow cytometry procedures were performed on BT treated for up to 24 h with the respective EC50 value of each derivative. Results demonstrated that although 22 and 24 were not as active as benznidazole in this in vitro assay on BT, both compounds triggered important damages in T. cruzi that lead to the parasite death. Ultrastructural alterations included shedding events, detachment of plasma membrane and nuclear envelope, loss of mitochondrial integrity, besides the occurrence of a large number of intracellular vesicles and profiles of endoplasmic reticulum surrounding cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondrion. Moreover, both derivatives affected mitochondrion leading to this organelle dysfunction, as reflected by the inhibition in oxygen consumption and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Altogether, the findings exposed in the present study propose autophagic processes and mitochondrial machinery as part of the mode of action of both 5-nitroindazolinones 22 and 24 on T. cruzi trypomastigotes.
By means of the world function an approximate transformation showing the Riemann tensor between the Fermi coordinates associated to two non-rotating local reference frames is derived in a General Relativistic space-time. One of the observer’s world lines is resticted to be a time-like geodesic of the space-time, and the other is a time-like curve of a general character. The space-time where the transformation is evaluated is supposed to be of small curvature, and the calculations are carried out in a first order of approximation with respect to the Riemann tensor.
The positions of circumstellar molecular masers relative to each other, to the central star, and to the compact extragalactic sources are of astrophysical and astrometrical interest. The SiO masers at λ = 7 mm are especially interesting as the maser spots are located very close to the photosphere of the star. For astrometry we would like to see a proper distribution of the maser spots and several epochs of observations in order to estimate the position of the central star and eventual motions of the spots.
The optical position of this star can be determined with ground-based astrometric facilities, and many of the stars showing SiO emission are in the Hipparcos catalogue. A link between the Optical and Radio Reference Frames is achieved in a second step relating the maser spot positions to the Extragalactic Reference Frame (EGRF) established with VLBI (Baudry et al., 1984).
This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT–PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50–83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.
To support tropical maize (Zea mays L.) breeding efforts, the current work aimed to assess harvest index (HI) in modern hybrids and determine the effect of different planting densities on grain yield and HI under well-fertilized (HN) and nitrogen (N) deficient conditions. Harvest index and grain yield of 34 hybrids on average reached 0·42 and 7·06 t/ha (five environments), indicating a large potential for improvement in HI relative to temperate hybrids. Ear weight (r = 0·88), HI (r = 0·78) and shoot dry weight (r = 0·68) were strongly associated with grain yield. In the second experiment, seven hybrids were evaluated at planting densities of 5, 7, 9 and 11 plants/m2 under HN (six environments) and N deficient (LN) conditions (four environments) to assess the effect of planting density on grain yield and HI. Grain yield increased by 40·4 and 21·8% under HN and LN conditions when planting density was increased relative to the lowest planting density. Harvest index increased from 0·42 at 5 plants/m2 to 0·45 at 11 plants/m2 under HN conditions and decreased from 0·44 at 5 plants/m2 to 0·42 at 9 plants/m2 under LN conditions. Harvest index was maximized at planting densities of 8·33 plants/m2 and 5·30 plants/m2 under HN and LN conditions, respectively, while grain yield was maximized at 9·93 plants/m2 and 7·89/m2. Optimal planting density maximizing both HI and grain yield were higher than planting densities currently used in tropical germplasm. It can be concluded that productivity in tropical maize could be increased both under intensive (+40·4%) and lower-input management (+21·8%) by increasing planting densities above those currently used in smallholder agriculture in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, in environments targeted by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
The present study investigated the effects of crotamine, a cell-penetrating peptide from rattlesnake venom, at different exposure times and concentrations, on both developmental competence and gene expression (ATP1A1, AQP3, GLUT1 and GLUT3) of in vitro fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos. In Experiment 1, presumptive zygotes were exposed to 0.1 μM crotamine for 6, 12 or 24 h and control groups (vehicle and IVF) were included. In Experiment 2, presumptive zygotes were exposed to 0 (vehicle), 0.1, 1 and 10 μM crotamine for 24 h. Additionally, to visualize crotamine uptake, embryos were exposed to rhodamine B-labelled crotamine and subjected to confocal microscopy. In Experiment 1, no difference (P > 0.05) was observed among different exposure times and control groups for cleavage and blastocyst rates and total cells number per blastocyst. Within each exposure time, mRNA levels were similar (P > 0.05) in embryos cultured with or without crotamine. In Experiment 2, concentrations as high as 10 μM crotamine did not affect (P > 0.05) the blastocyst rate. Crotamine at 0.1 and 10 μM did not alter mRNA levels when compared with the control (P > 0.05). Remarkably, only 1 μM crotamine decreased both ATP1A1 and AQP3 expression levels relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Also, it was possible to visualize the intracellular localization of crotamine. These results indicate that crotamine can translocate intact IVF bovine embryos and its application in the culture medium is possible at concentrations from 0.1–10 μM for 6–24 h.
In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.
In the present study, carried out in South-eastern Spain, a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) was introduced through drip irrigation to inoculate Crimson grapevines. Their effects on the physiological and nutritional activity were evaluated for 2 years (2011–12). Additionally, during the second year of experimentation, the persistence of mycorrhizae on the grapevine and their effects were innovatively analysed.
The AMF satisfactorily colonized the Crimson grapevine roots, improved the plants water status, induced an improvement in the photosynthetic performance that increased the water use efficiency, promoted the uptake of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) and led to a mobilization of starch reserves in the apex in winter, which was possibly responsible for enhancing root development. Moreover, inoculated plants had significantly increased yield and improved quality of grapes, which led to early grape maturation. Overall, the persistent effect of AMF during the second year produced similar positive effects, although to a lesser extent, to those obtained in the inoculated treatment.
The results found in the present study show that this AMF application technique can be recommended for sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas. Moreover, as a result of the competition with the native mycorrhizae, periodic monitoring of the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization and re-inoculation in order to obtain all the positive effects evidenced in the inoculated treatment is recommended.
A theoretical study of linear global instability of incompressible flow over a rectangular spanwise-periodic open cavity in an unconfined domain is presented. Comparisons with the limited number of results available in the literature are shown. Subsequently, the parameter space is scanned in a systematic manner, varying Reynolds number, incoming boundary-layer thickness and length-to-depth aspect ratio. This permits documenting the neutral curves and leading eigenmode characteristics of this flow. Correlations constructed using the results obtained collapse all available theoretical data on the three-dimensional instabilities.
Three-dimensional instabilities arising in open cavity flows are responsible for complex broad-banded dynamics. Existing studies either focus on theoretical properties of ideal simplified flows or observe the final state of experimental flows. This paper aims to establish a connection between the onset of the centrifugal instabilities and their final expression within the fully saturated flow. To that end, a linear three-dimensional modal instability analysis of steady two-dimensional states developing in an open cavity of aspect ratio
(length over depth) is conducted. This analysis is performed together with an experimental study in the same geometry adding spanwise endwalls. Two different Reynolds numbers are investigated through spectral analyses and modal decomposition. The physics of the flow is thoroughly described exploiting the strengths of each methodology. The main flow structures are identified and salient space and time scales are characterised. Results indicate that the structures obtained from linear analysis are mainly consistent with the fully saturated experimental flow. The analysis also brings to light the selection and alteration of certain wave properties, which could be caused by nonlinearities or the change of spanwise boundary conditions.
This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different freezing extenders on two lines selected for hyperprolificacy and longevity (H and LP, respectively). In extender A, dimethyl sulphoxide (Me2SO) and sucrose were used as cryoprotectants. In extenders B and C, the sucrose was replaced by 20% egg yolk, and in extender C the Me2SO was substituted by acetamide. Semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and cooled at 5°C for 45 min, and then was frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min before being plunged into the liquid nitrogen. Thawing was carried out by immersing the straws in a water bath at 50°C for 10 s. Frozen-thawed semen characteristics and reproductive parameters were affected by freezing. Extender C showed significantly lower post-thawing quality traits than any of the three extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly improved when Me2SO was used as cryoprotectant. Sucrose replacement by 20% egg yolk had no effect on acrosome integrity but provided significantly lower sperm motility and viability. Freezing extender affected fertility rate, total born, number of implantation sites and gestational losses, obtaining better results when extender A was used. The acrosomal integrity after frozen-thawed process showed a significant correlation with fertility at 12th day and also at birth, indicating that an increase in acrosomal integrity leads to an increase in both fertilities (12th day and at birth). A positive correlation between motility of semen and implantation sites was found. The post-thawing quality traits of semen were not affected by the genetic line, although LP line showed higher total born and lower foetal and gestational losses. The findings of this study suggest that freezing extender composition has a significant effect on the success of rabbit sperm for preservation, and when Me2SO was used as permeable cryoprotectant sucrose provided better protection compared with egg yolk and improved reproductive traits, and, on the other hand, the male genotypes used in the present study had no effect on frozen-thawed sperm parameters but negatively affected some of the reproductive parameters.