Oxidative modification of LDL is thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Susceptibility of LDL to peroxidation may partly depend on the compositional characteristics of the antioxidant and fatty acid content. The aim of this study was to examine the association between levels of antibodies to oxidized LDL and the various serum fatty acids in women. A total of 465 women aged 18–65 years were selected randomly from the adult population census of Pizarra, a town in southern Spain. Measurement of anti-oxidized-LDL was done by ELISA and the fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids was determined by GC. The levels of anti-oxidized-LDL antibodies were significantly related with age (r − 0·341, P < 0·001), BMI (r − 0·239, P < 0·001), waist:hip ratio (r − 0·285, P < 0·001), glucose (r − 0·208, P < 0·001), cholesterol (r − 0·243, P < 0·001), LDL-cholesterol (r − 0·185, P = 0·002), EPA (r − 0·159, P = 0·003), DHA (r − 0·121, P = 0·026), and the sum of the serum phospholipid n-3 PUFA (r − 0·141, P = 0·009). Multiple regression analysis showed that the variables that explained the behaviour of the levels of anti-oxidized-LDL antibodies were age (P < 0·001) and the serum phospholipid EPA (P < 0·001). This study showed that the fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids, and especially the percentage of EPA, was inversely related with the levels of anti-oxidized-LDL antibodies.