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This Companion provides a comprehensive overview of American Catholicism's historical development and distinctive features. The essays - all specially commissioned for this volume - highlight the inner diversity of American Catholicism and trace the impact of American Catholics on all aspects of society, including education, social welfare, politics, and intellectual life. The volume also addresses topics of contemporary concern, such as gender and sexuality, arts and culture, social activism, and the experiences of Black, Latinx, Asian-American, and cultural Catholics. Taken together, the essays in this Companion provide context for understanding American Catholicism as it is currently experienced, and help to situate present-day developments and debates within their longer trajectory.
In addition to quantitative neutrophil abnormalities, innate immunity, and thus risk of infection in a neonate, may be negatively impacted by qualitative phagocyte defects. The term phagocyte stems from the Greek “phagein” meaning “to eat or devour” and “cyte” meaning “cell” and refers to hematopoietic derived cells, namely monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils capable of engulfing and digesting microorganisms, foreign particles, and cellular debris. Neutrophils are also classified as granulocytes, given the characteristic presence of granules in their cytoplasm that play a key role in neutrophil function.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
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Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
Whereas scholars have typically modeled climate change as a global collective action challenge, we offer a dynamic theory of climate politics based on the present and future revaluation of assets. Climate politics can be understood as a contest between owners of assets that accelerate climate change, such as fossil fuel plants, and owners of assets vulnerable to climate change, such as coastal property. To date, obstruction by “climate-forcing” asset holders has been a large barrier to effective climate policy. But as climate change and decarbonization policies proceed, holders of both climate-forcing and “climate-vulnerable” assets stand to lose some or even all of their assets' value over time, and with them, the basis of their political power. This dynamic contest between opposing interests is likely to intensify in many sites of political contestation, from the subnational to transnational levels. As it does so, climate politics will become increasingly existential, potentially reshaping political alignments within and across countries. Such shifts may further undermine the Liberal International Order (LIO); as countries develop pro-climate policies at different speeds and magnitudes, they will have incentives to diverge from existing arrangements over trade and economic integration.
Recent work in structure–processing relationships of polymer semiconductors have demonstrated the versatility and control of thin-film microstructure offered by meniscus-guided coating (MGC) techniques. Here, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative aspects of solution shearing, a model MGC method, using coating blades augmented with arrays of pillars. The pillars induce local regions of high strain rates—both shear and extensional—not otherwise possible with unmodified blades, and we use fluid mechanical simulations to model and study a variety of pillar spacings and densities. We then perform a statistical analysis of 130 simulation variables to find correlations with three dependent variables of interest: thin-film degree of crystallinity and transistor field-effect mobilities for charge-transport parallel (μpara) and perpendicular (μperp) to the coating direction. Our study suggests that simple fluid mechanical models can reproduce substantive correlations between the induced fluid flow and important performance metrics, providing a methodology for optimizing blade design.
One interesting way to discern how Carolingian ninth-century Italy actually was is to look at major narrative sources produced in Italy at that time and see how often and in what ways they talked about the Carolingians. This chapter looks in particular at History of the Lombards in the Gotha Codex, the history of Andreas of Bergamo, the Roman Liber Pontificalis, Agnellus of Ravenna’s Book of Pontiffs, the Chronicle of Benedict of Monte Casino and the History of the Lombards of Benevento by Erchempert. One finds that Carolingians are mentioned surprisingly infrequently apart from the era of Louis II, and he turns out to have been a rather polarizing figure. Major wars and political struggles in southern Italy feature Carolingians only tangentially. Carolingians appear sporadically on the Roman scene. Carolingians appear infrequently in accounts fo development sin northern Italy. Reading the narrative sources would not lead one to speak of a 'Carolingian' Italy.
The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is commonly used to assist with post-concussion return-to-play decisions for athletes. Additional investigation is needed to determine whether embedded indicators used to determine the validity of scores are influenced by the presence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs).
This study examined standard and novel ImPACT validity indicators in a large sample of high school athletes (n = 33,772) with or without self-reported ND.
Overall, 7.1% of athletes’ baselines were judged invalid based on standard ImPACT validity criteria. When analyzed by group (healthy, ND), there were significantly more invalid ImPACT baselines for athletes with an ND diagnosis or special education history (between 9.7% and 54.3% for standard and novel embedded validity criteria) when compared to athletes without NDs. ND history was a significant predictor of invalid baseline performance above and beyond other demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and sport), although it accounted for only a small percentage of variance. Multivariate base rates are presented stratified for age, sex, and ND.
These data provide evidence of higher than normal rates of invalid baselines in athletes who report ND (based on both the standard and novel embedded validity indicators). Although ND accounted for a small percentage of variance in the prediction of invalid performance, negative consequences (e.g., extended time out of sports) of incorrect decision-making should be considered for those with neurodevelopmental conditions. Also, reasons for the overall increase noted here, such as decreased motivation, “sandbagging”, or disability-related cognitive deficit, require additional investigation.
We review evidence of racial discrimination as a critical and understudied form of adversity that has the potential to impact stress biology, particularly hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. We highlight ethnic racial identity (ERI) as a positive regulatory influence on HPA axis activity, as indexed by levels of salivary cortisol. In past research by our group, Black individuals with high adolescent discrimination had low adult cortisol levels (hypocortisolism). Here, we present new analyses showing that ERI, measured prospectively from ages 12 through 32 in 112 Black and white individuals, is related to better-regulated cortisol levels in adulthood, particularly for Black participants. We also describe ongoing research that explores whether the promotion of ERI during adolescence can reduce ethnic–racial disparities in stress biology and in emotional health and academic outcomes.
The chapter discusses the important role that repatriation plays in career development or an international assignee’s personal and professional career outcomes acquired, developed, and accumulated over time. Attention is devoted to understanding how different types of career resources and competencies, categorized as “knowing how”, “knowing whom”, and “knowing why”, are developed as a function of living and working in another country. The chapter continues by drawing on the traditional bounded and emerging proactive career perspectives to help us understand why returning home is often more complex and difficult than perceived. Next, the chapter examines repatriation “success” from both the organizational and the individual repatriate’s points of view, highlighting objective and subjective interpretations of career success. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the challenges facing the repatriation process at the individual-, team-, organizational-, and country-levels and suggests interventions that could be considered in an effort to improve the likelihood of repatriation success. Implications for future research are also discussed.
Cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. In this report, we describe 3 clusters of COVID-19 infections among healthcare workers (HCWs), not associated with patient exposure, and the interventions undertaken to halt ongoing exposure and transmission at our cancer center.
A cluster of cases was defined as 2 or more cases of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–positive COVID-19 among HCWs who work in the same unit area at the same time. Cases were identified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Contact tracing, facility observations, and infection prevention assessments were performed to investigate the 3 clusters between March 1 and April 30, 2020, with subsequent implementation of containment strategies.
The initial cluster involved HCWs from an ancillary services unit, with contacts traced back to a gathering in a break room in which 1 employee was symptomatic, although not yet diagnosed with COVID-19, with subsequent transmission to 7 employees. The second cluster involved 4 employees and was community related. The third cluster involved only 2 employees with possible transmission while working in the same office at the same time. A step-up approach was implemented to control the spread of infection among employees, including universal masking, enhanced cleaning, increase awareness, and surveillance testing. No nosocomial transmission to patients transpired.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a hospital-based cluster of COVID-19 infections among HCWs in a cancer hospital describing our steps to mitigate further transmission.
This paper considers the effects of smoothly varying chordwise porosity of a finite perforated plate on turbulence–aerofoil interaction noise. The aeroacoustic model is made possible through the use of a novel Mathieu function collocation method, rather than a traditional Wiener–Hopf approach which would be unable to deal with chordwise-varying quantities. The main focus is on two bio-inspired porosity distributions, modelled from air flow resistance data obtained from the wings of barn owls (tyto alba) and common buzzards (buteo buteo). Trailing-edge noise is much reduced for the owl-like distribution, but, perhaps surprisingly, so too is leading-edge noise, despite both wings having similar porosity values at the leading edge. A general monotonic variation is then considered indicating that there may indeed be a significant acoustic impact of how the porosity is distributed along the whole chord of the plate, not just its values at the scattering edges. Through this investigation, it is found that a plate whose porosity continuously decreases from the trailing edge to a zero-porosity leading edge can, in fact, generate lower levels of trailing-edge noise than a plate whose porosity remains constant at the trailing-edge value.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Disparities exist in the health, livelihood, and opportunities for the 46-60 million people living in America’s rural communities. Rural communities across the United States need a new energy and focus concentrated around health and health care that allows for the designing capturing, and spreading of existing and new innovations. This paper aims to provide a framework for policy solutions to build a healthier rural America describing both the current state of rural health policy and the policies and practices in states that could be used as a national model for positive change.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ethical dilemma of prioritising financial resources to expensive biological therapies. For this purpose, the four principles of biomedical ethics formulated by ethicists Tom Beauchamp and James Childress were used as a theoretical framework. Based on arguments of justice, Beauchamp and Childress advocate for a health care system organised in line with the Danish system. Notably, our study was carried out in a Danish setting.
Increasing emphasis is given on involving patients in health technology assessment (HTA). While this is mainly done at the level of regional and national HTA agencies, this tendency is also emerging in local HTA units. In this study, we provide the results of a survey conducted in local HTA units in the province of Quebec, Canada. The aim of the survey was to provide an overview of local HTA unit practices to involve patients, users, caregivers, and citizens in their process, their interest in doing so, and their information needs for this.
The survey was conducted in 2017 with a response rate of eleven units over a possibility of twelve.
Three units out of eleven (27.3 percent) never involved patients or members of the public in their processes and all indicated that they will involve them in the next few years. The three most important needs for support identified in the HTA units were in: recruiting and selecting patients; integrating experiential knowledge; and knowing and implementing the best methods and practices for partnership.
Patient involvement in local HTA units is quickly evolving and that is why they urgently need tools to involve more effectively patients and members of the public in their process.
Using an ensemble of close- and long-range remote sensing, lake bathymetry and regional meteorological data, we present a detailed assessment of the geometric changes of El Morado Glacier in the Central Andes of Chile and its adjacent proglacial lake between 1932 and 2019. Overall, the results revealed a period of marked glacier down wasting, with a mean geodetic glacier mass balance of −0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e.a−1 observed for the entire glacier between 1955 and 2015 with an area loss of 40% between 1955 and 2019. We estimate an ice elevation change of −1.00 ± 0.17 m a−1 for the glacier tongue between 1932 and 2019. The increase in the ice thinning rates and area loss during the last decade is coincident with the severe drought in this region (2010–present), which our minimal surface mass-balance model is able to reproduce. As a result of the glacier changes observed, the proglacial lake increased in area substantially between 1955 and 2019, with bathymetry data suggesting a water volume of 3.6 million m3 in 2017. This study highlights the need for further monitoring of glacierised areas in the Central Andes. Such efforts would facilitate a better understanding of the downstream impacts of glacier downwasting.
The current study aims to describe the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence across the US regions, and explore the predictive factors of MD adherence among US adults.
Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. MD adherence score (0–9) was calculated using the Block 98 FFQ. Hot spot analysis was conducted to describe the geospatial distribution of MD adherence across the US regions. Logistic regression explored predictors of MD adherence.
Nationwide community-dwelling residency in the USA.
Adults aged ≥45 years (n 20 897) who participated in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study and completed baseline assessment during January 2003 and October 2007.
The mean of MD adherence score was 4·36 (sd 1·70), and 46·5 % of the sample had high MD adherence (score 5–9). Higher MD adherence clusters were primarily located in the western and northeastern coastal areas of the USA, whereas lower MD adherence clusters were majorly observed in south and east-north-central regions. Being older, black, not a current smoker, having a college degree or above, an annual household income ≥ $US 75K, exercising ≥4 times/week and watching TV/video <4 h/d were each associated with higher odds of high MD adherence.
There were significant geospatial and population disparities in MD adherence across the US regions. Future studies are needed to explore the causes of MD adherence disparities and develop effective interventions for MD promotion in the USA.
This study provides a morphological and phylogenetic characterization of two novel species of the order Haplosporida (Haplosporidium carcini n. sp., and H. cranc n. sp.) infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas collected at one location in Swansea Bay, South Wales, UK. Both parasites were observed in the haemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas. The prevalence of clinical infections (i.e. parasites seen directly in fresh haemolymph preparations) was low, at ~1%, whereas subclinical levels, detected by polymerase chain reaction, were slightly higher at ~2%. Although no spores were found in any of the infected crabs examined histologically (n = 334), the morphology of monokaryotic and dikaryotic unicellular stages of the parasites enabled differentiation between the two new species. Phylogenetic analyses of the new species based on the small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene placed H. cranc in a clade of otherwise uncharacterized environmental sequences from marine samples, and H. carcini in a clade with other crustacean-associated lineages.