Intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are found in most filarial nematodes, but are lacking in some species like Acanthocheilonema viteae. Due to their symbiotic nature and their role in the pathology of filarial infections they are considered to be potential targets for intervention against filarial infections in man. Infection of A. viteae (a species which does not naturally carry Wolbachia) with Wolbachia bacteria could allow comparative studies on the effect of the endobacterium on the parasite and on the host's immune systems. As a step towards such studies we microinjected adult female A. viteae with Wolbachia obtained from Litomosoides sigmodontis. The bacteria were isolated from L. sigmodontis by density-gradient centrifugation, microinjected into A. viteae worms and bacterial DNA detected by PCR with Wolbachia specific primers (ftsZ gene). Microinjected worms were cultured in vitro, and 81% survived for 10 days. Implantation of microinjected worms into Meriones unguiculatus, the rodent host of A. viteae resulted in 38% survival. The DNA of the microinjected worms recovered from jirds 8 weeks after implantation contained Wolbachia DNA as shown by PCR, suggesting that Wolbachia of L. sigmodontis can be horizontally transmitted to A. viteae.