To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
As apex predators, sharks are known to play an important role in marine food webs. Detailed information on their diet and trophic level is however needed to make clear inferences about their role in the ecosystem. A total of 335 stomachs of smooth hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna zygaena, were obtained from commercial fishing vessels operating in the Ecuadorian Pacific between January and December 2004. A total of 53 prey items were found in the stomachs. According to the Index of Relative Importance (%IRI), cephalopods were the main prey (Dosidicus gigas, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii and Lolliguncula [Loliolopsis] diomedeae). Sphyrna zygaena was thus confirmed to be a teutophagous species. The estimated trophic level of S. zygaena was between 4.6 and 5.1 (mean ± SD: 4.7 ± 0.16; males: 4.7; females: 4.8). Levin's index (BA) was low (overall: 0.07; males: 0.08; females: 0.09), indicating a narrow trophic niche. We found that sharks <150 cm in total length consumed prey of coastal origin, whereas sharks ≥150 cm foraged in oceanic waters and near the continental shelf. The analyses indicate that S. zygaena is a specialized predator consuming mainly squids.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) with clopidogrel imparts an increased risk for ischemic events in adults with coronary artery disease. Although more potent antiplatelet agents are available, clopidogrel remains the most commonly used P2Y12 inhibitor in Puerto Rico. Platelet reactivity varies with ethnicity and is influenced by both clinical and genetic variables; however, no clopidogrel pharmacogenetic studies with Puerto Rican patients have been reported. Therefore, we sought to identify clinical and genetic determinants of on-treatment platelet reactivity in a cohort of Puerto Rican patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a retrospective study of 111 Puerto Rican patients on 75 mg/day maintenance dose of clopidogrel. Patients were allocated into 2 groups: Group I, without HTPR; and Group II, with HTPR. Clinical data was obtained from the medical record. Platelet function was measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay and HTPR was defined as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU)≥230. Genotyping of CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, PY2R12, B4GALT2, CES1, and PEAR1 was performed using Taqman® Genotyping Assays. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The mean PRU across the cohort was 203±61 PRU (range, 8–324), and 42 (38%) patients had HTPR. One in four individuals carried at least 1 copy of the CYP2C19*2 variant allele. Hematocrit and PON1 p.Q192R variant were inversely correlated with platelet reactivity (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that 27% of the total variation in PRU was explained by a history of diabetes mellitus, hematocrit, CYP2C19*2, and PON1 p.Q192R. Body mass index (OR=1.15; CI: 1.03–1.27), diabetes mellitus (OR=3.46; CI: 1.05–11.43), hematocrit (OR=0.75; CI: 0.65–0.87), and CYP2C19*2 (OR=4.44; CI: 1.21–16.20) were the only independent predictors of HTPR. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In a representative sample of Puerto Rican patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hematocrit, CYP2C19*2, and PON1 p.Q192R were associated with on-treatment platelet reactivity. These factors may identify a subset of patients at higher risk for adverse events on clopidogrel in the Hispanic population.
Inclusions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) within alluvial isoferroplatinum nuggets from the Freetown Peninsula, Sierra Leone, are aligned with their shape determined by the structure of their host. The edges of the majority of the inclusions lie at 0°, 45° or 90° to external crystal edges of the nugget which shows that the inclusions are not randomly oriented earlier minerals incorporated within their host. The inclusions are later infills, probably formed at the surface of the nugget during growth and subsequently enclosed by the growing nugget. PGM on the present surface of the nugget represent the last stage of this partnership. A single nugget containing abundant inclusions is described here but similar features are observed in other nuggets from the same area. The inclusions contain laurite (RuS2), irarsite–hollingworthite (IrAsS–RhAsS), Pd–Te–Bi–Sb phases, Ir-alloy, Os-alloy, Pd-bearing Au, an Rh–Te phase, Pd–Au alloy and Pd–Pt–Cu alloy. PGM found on the nugget surface include laurite, irarsite and cuprorhodsite (CuRh2S4). The Pd–Te–Bi–Sb phases may include Sb-rich keithconnite (Pd20S7) and compositions close to the kotulskite–sobolevskite solid-solution series (PdTe–BiTe). Textural evidence suggests that formation of the nuggets began with the isoferroplatinum host and the voids were filled starting intergrowths of laurite and irarsite–hollingworthite with both laurite and irarsite–hollingworthite often showing compositional zonation and each of them replacing the other. Filling of the voids probably continued with Pd-Cu-bearing gold, Sb-rich keithconnite (Pd,Pt)20.06(Te,Sb,Bi)6.94, keithconnite, telluropalladinite Pd9(Te,Bi)4, RhTe and finally Ir-alloy and then Os-alloy. The nuggets are thought to be neoform growths in the organic- and bacterial-rich soils of the tropical rain forest cover of the Freetown intrusion. The mineralogical assemblage in the layered gabbros of the intrusion has been previously shown to differ from the alluvial assemblage in the rivers and these inclusions, not seen in Pt3Fe in the unaltered rocks, add a further item to the catalogue of differences.
Heavy mineral concentrates from rivers and river terraces near York, Freetown Peninsula, Sierra Leone have been examined for their platinum-group mineral (PGM) content. The alluvial PGM are 0.1 to 1.5 mm in size and include Cu-bearing isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe) and disordered Pt3–xFe (x ≤ 0.38), tulameenite (Pt2FeCu), hongshiite (PtCu), cooperite–vysotskite (PtS–PdS), laurite (RuS2), erlichmanite (OsS2), Os-Ir alloy, Os-Ru alloy and native copper.
Are the alluvial nuggets primary or a neoformation? Comparison of the PGM mineralogy of fresh rocks, weathered rocks and the saprolite, with the alluvial suite shows strongly contrasting features highlighted by the mineral assemblage. Cooperite in the fresh rocks is rare in the alluvium whilst Pt-Fe alloys become more abundant. Oxidized PGM are a feature only of the weathering process and disordering of the Pt-Fe alloys develops during weathering. Palladium is much less abundant in the alluvial suite than in the primary minerals whereas Cu, present as Cu-sulfides in the fresh rocks, occurs in the alluvium as a minor component of the Pt-Fe alloys and as hongshiite alteration to the Pt-Fe alloys. The size difference is striking; the primary mineralogy is micrometre-sized whereas the alluvial PGM are three orders of magnitude larger. Delicate PGM with alteration textures are seen only in the weathered rocks whilst delicate dendritic PGM are reported only from the alluvial suite. An organic coating to the alluvial PGM may be indicative of an organic or bacterial involvement. Some alluvial PGM occur in a drainage basin devoid of outcrops of PGE-bearing horizons.
Together these contrasting features of the primary and placer PGM support the proposal that the Freetown nuggets developed as a result of breakdown of the primary PGM during weathering, movement of the PGE in solution, and growth of new PGM in placers with a different mineral assemblage, mineralogy and mineral chemistry.
Only five planetary nebulae (PNe) have been confirmed to emit water masers. They seem to be very young PNe. The water emission in these objects preferentially traces circumstellar toroids, although in K 3-35 and IRAS 15103-5754, it may also trace collimated jets. We present water maser observations of these two sources at different epochs. The water maser distribution changes on timescales of months to a few years. We speculate that these changes may be due to the variation of the underlying radio continuum emission, which is amplified by the maser process in the foreground material.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to measure the association of CYP2C19 (*1-*8,*17), ABCB1(C3435T; rs1045642), PON1 (p.Q192R; rs662), and B4GALT2 (c.909 C>T and c.366 G>C) gene polymorphisms in the Caribbean Hispanic population with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients of Caribbean Hispanic ethnicity from all geographic regions of the Island of Puerto Rico, male and female, aged >21 will be recruited. Cases will consist of patients receiving a daily clopidogrel dose of 75 mg following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who experience a MACE within the first year of treatment. Control study patients must have received clopidogrel 75 mg daily for a minimum of 1 year without experiencing MACE. Genomic DNA samples will be genotyped to determine the frequency distribution of major CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, and B4GALT2 gene polymorphisms. Observed frequencies will be compared with other reported populations. An association study will be performed between genetic variables and MACE and a multivariable logistic regression model (additive) will be constructed. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate finding a significant association between major genetic determinants of clopidogrel response and MACE where cases with MACE will carry higher frequency of CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, and B4GALT2. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: As the range of multiloci allelic combinations in admixed Caribbean Hispanics is higher than in other populations due to its unique 500-year history of genomic admixture, a wide spectrum of genetic variances is expected to be present in the study population. Determining the prevalence and effect of CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1, and B4GALT2 polymorphisms holds the potential to personalize anti-platelet treatment for Caribbean Hispanic patients requiring treatment after ACS.
We present polarimetric observations of the 4 ground-state transitions of OH, toward a sample of maser-emitting planetary nebulae (PNe) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This sample includes confirmed OH-emitting PNe, confirmed and candidate H2O-maser-emitting PNe. Polarimetric observations provide information related to the magnetic field of these sources. Maser-emitting PNe are very young PNe and magnetic fields are a key ingredient in the early evolution and shaping process of PNe. Our preliminary results suggest that magnetic field strengths may change very rapidly in young PNe.
The 11 September 2001 (9/11) attacks were unprecedented in magnitude and mental health impact. While a large body of research has emerged since the attacks, published reviews are few, and are limited by an emphasis on cross-sectional research, short time frame, and exclusion of treatment studies. Additionally, to date, there has been no systematic review of available longitudinal information as a unique data set. Consequently, knowledge regarding long-term trajectories of 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among highly exposed populations, and whether available treatment approaches effectively address PTSD within the context of mass, man-made disaster, remains limited.
The present review aimed to address these gaps using a systematic review of peer-reviewed reports from October 2001 to May 2016. Eligible reports were of longitudinal studies of PTSD among highly exposed populations. We identified 20 reports of 9/11-related PTSD, including 13 longitudinal prevalence studies and seven treatment studies.
Findings suggest a substantial burden of 9/11-related PTSD among those highly exposed to the attack, associated with a range of sociodemographic and back-ground factors, and characteristics of peri-event exposure. While most longitudinal studies show declining rates of prevalence of PTSD, studies of rescue/recovery workers have documented an increase over time. Treatment studies were few, and generally limited by methodological shortcomings, but support exposure-based therapies.
Future directions for research, treatment, and healthcare policy are discussed.
Monitoring of ice-shelf and sub-ice-shelf ocean temperatures represents an important component in understanding ice-sheet stability. Continuous monitoring is challenging due to difficult surface access, difficulties in penetrating the ice shelf, and the need for long-term operation of non-recoverable sensors. We aim to develop rapid lightweight drilling and near-continuous fiber-optic temperature-monitoring methods to meet these challenges. During November 2011, two instrumented moorings were installed within and below the McMurdo Ice Shelf (a sub-region of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica) at Windless Bight. We used a combination of ice coring for the upper portion of each shelf borehole and hot-point drilling for penetration into the ocean. The boreholes provided temporary access to the ice-shelf cavity, into which distributed temperature sensing (DTS) fiber-optic cables and conventional pressure/temperature transducers were installed. The DTS moorings provided near-continuous (in time and depth) observations of ice and ocean temperatures to a depth of almost 800 m beneath the ice-shelf surface. Data received document the presence of near-freezing water throughout the cavity from November through January, followed by an influx of warmer water reaching ∼150 m beneath the ice-shelf base during February and March. The observations demonstrate prospects for achieving much higher spatial sampling of temperature than more conventional oceanographic moorings.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Studies aimed to assess up to what extent farming and transport previous to slaughtering might affect physiology and meat quality in young goat kids are needed, with the ultimate purpose of promoting practices that minimize stress in these animals. In this regard the effects of on-farm management and transport duration on some physiological responses and meat quality parameters in goat kids were assessed. Two farms representing ‘high’ and ‘low’ welfare-friendly management practices were selected. In total, 32 suckling kids were withdrawn from each farm, transported by road for 2 or 6 h, and then slaughtered. Blood samples were collected both on-farm and in the slaughterhouse, and biochemistry, cell counts and haematocrit were determined. After slaughtering, carcass quality parameters were measured. Longissimus dorsi muscle was dissected and pH, colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force were measured throughout 8-day ageing period. Results indicate that, regardless its duration, transport caused significant effects on some blood parameters suggesting stress in live animals, like glucose, cortisol or creatine kinase. Despite the marked stress status in animals, this condition was not decisively reflected on L. dorsi quality parameters, but some effects were observed regarding fat cover in carcasses and colour parameters. The results suggest that postmortem changes throughout ageing were more decisive in terms of meat quality than stressful management either on-farm or during transport.
Over the last few decades the number of radiocarbon dates available for West Central Africa has increased substantially, even though it is still meagre compared with other areas of the continent. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the Iron Age of this area we present and analyze a total of 22 radiocarbon dates obtained from sites from the island of Corisco (Equatorial Guinea). By comparing them with those from Equatorial Guinea, southern Cameroon, and coastal Gabon and Congo we intend to clarify the picture of the West Central African Iron Age and propose a more accurate archaeological sequence.
In 2007, a partnership was initiated between a small-volume paediatric cardiac surgery unit located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and a large-volume cardiac surgery unit located in Milan, Italy. The main goal of this partnership was to provide surgical treatment to children with CHD in the Canary Islands.
An operative algorithm for performing surgery in elective, urgent, and emergency cases was adopted by the this joint programme. Demographic and in-hospital variables were collected from the medical records of all the patients who had undergone surgical intervention for CHD from January, 2009 to March, 2013. Data were introduced into the congenital database of the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database and the database was interrogated.
In total, 65 surgical mission trips were performed during the period of this study. The European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database documented 214 total patients with a mean age at operation of 36.45 months, 316 procedures in total with 198 cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 46 non-cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 26 cardiovascular cases without cardiopulmonary bypass, 22 miscellaneous other types of cases, 16 interventional cardiology cases, six thoracic cases, one non-cardiac, non-thoracic procedure on a cardiac patient with cardiac anaesthesia, and one extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case. The 30-day mortality was 6.07% (13 patients).
A joint programme between a small-volume centre and a large-volume centre may represent a valid and reproducible model for safe paediatric cardiac surgery in the context of a peripheral region.
In this work we propose a preliminary seismic investigation of δ Scuti stars in the Pleiades cluster, focusing on potential diagnostics of convection and core-overshooting. Taking into account the effect of fast rotation in the modelling, we compare observed frequencies for 4 δ Scuti stars with radial linear instability predictions. A satisfying agreement is reached between the predicted ranges of unstable modes and those derived from observations for “low-mass” stars (∼ 1.55M⊙). However, a strong disagreement is found for “high-mass” stars (∼ 1.77M⊙), whatever the mixing length (α) value. These results are compared with previous ones obtained for Praesepe.
Some results of the photometry multi-site observations of two δ Scuti stars, V624 Tau and HD 23194, are presented. The observations were carried out in the framework of a STEPHI network in 1999. We collected 343 hours of useful data and detected seven frequencies in V624 Tau and two frequencies in HD 23194.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
To support tropical maize (Zea mays L.) breeding efforts, the current work aimed to assess harvest index (HI) in modern hybrids and determine the effect of different planting densities on grain yield and HI under well-fertilized (HN) and nitrogen (N) deficient conditions. Harvest index and grain yield of 34 hybrids on average reached 0·42 and 7·06 t/ha (five environments), indicating a large potential for improvement in HI relative to temperate hybrids. Ear weight (r = 0·88), HI (r = 0·78) and shoot dry weight (r = 0·68) were strongly associated with grain yield. In the second experiment, seven hybrids were evaluated at planting densities of 5, 7, 9 and 11 plants/m2 under HN (six environments) and N deficient (LN) conditions (four environments) to assess the effect of planting density on grain yield and HI. Grain yield increased by 40·4 and 21·8% under HN and LN conditions when planting density was increased relative to the lowest planting density. Harvest index increased from 0·42 at 5 plants/m2 to 0·45 at 11 plants/m2 under HN conditions and decreased from 0·44 at 5 plants/m2 to 0·42 at 9 plants/m2 under LN conditions. Harvest index was maximized at planting densities of 8·33 plants/m2 and 5·30 plants/m2 under HN and LN conditions, respectively, while grain yield was maximized at 9·93 plants/m2 and 7·89/m2. Optimal planting density maximizing both HI and grain yield were higher than planting densities currently used in tropical germplasm. It can be concluded that productivity in tropical maize could be increased both under intensive (+40·4%) and lower-input management (+21·8%) by increasing planting densities above those currently used in smallholder agriculture in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa, in environments targeted by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.