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Buffalo milk production has become of significant importance on the world scale, however, there are few studies involving biotechnological tools specifically for buffalo. To verify the effects caused by subclinical mastitis on the components of milk and to study the innate immune system in the udder of dairy buffaloes with subclinical mastitis, we evaluated the levels of expression of the lactoferrin (LTF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and toll-like receptors 2 (TLR-2) and 4 (TLR-4) genes in buffaloes with and without subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were collected for the determination of milk components: somatic cell score (SCS), fat, protein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat (SNF), as well as for RNA extraction of milk cells, complementary DNA synthesis, and expression profile quantification by quantitative real-time PCR. For gene expression, the ΔΔCt was estimated using contrasts of the target genes expression adjusted for the expression of the housekeeping genes between both groups. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the genes studied and the milk components. Subclinical mastitis induced changes in the fat, lactose and SNF in milk of buffaloes, and the messenger RNA abundance was upregulated for TLR-2, TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 genes in milk cells of buffaloes with subclinical mastitis, whereas the LTF gene was not differentially expressed. Results of linear regression analysis showed that TLR-2 gene expression most explains the variation in SCS, and the change in a unit of ΔCt of the TNF-α gene would result in a higher increase in SCS. The study of these immune function genes that are active in the mammary gland is important to characterize the action mechanism of the innate immunity that occurs in subclinical mastitis in dairy buffaloes and may aid the development of strategies to preserve the health of the udder.
Results of Einstein Observations of SS433 are discussed which address both the nature of the diffuse X-ray lobes and the relationships between SS433 and W50 as well as the time variability and nature of the central X-ray source. The diffuse X-ray lobes extend out to the quasi-spherical shell seen in the radio maps of W50 and suggest that the X-ray lobes are powered by the interaction of shock-heating from the SS433 jets and the denser material in the W50 shell. The central X-ray source in SS433 is time variable but only on timescales ≳ 500–1000 sec. Flares, in which the non-thermal spectrum hardens, are detected at two preferred phases in the 13.08 day binary orbit. Constraints on the central X-ray source size as well as a possible eclipse by the companion star suggest the compact object in SS433 may be an ~10 M⊙ black hole.
Leibovich et al. claim that number representations are non-existent early in life and that the associations between number and continuous magnitudes reside in stimulus confounds. We challenge both claims – positing, instead, that number is represented independently of continuous magnitudes already in infancy, but is nonetheless more deeply connected to other magnitudes through adulthood than acknowledged by the “sense of magnitude” theory.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a known food pathogen, which main reservoir is the intestine of ruminants. The abundance of different STEC lineages in nature reflect a heterogeneity that is characterised by the differential expression of certain genotypic characteristics, which in turn are influenced by the environmental conditions to which the microorganism is exposed. Bacterial homeostasis and stress response are under the control of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), which intrinsic levels varies across the E. coli species. In the present study, 50 STEC isolates from healthy sheep were evaluated regarding their ppGpp content, cytotoxicity and other relevant genetic and phenotypic characteristics. We found that the level of ppGpp and cytotoxicity varied considerably among the examined strains. Isolates that harboured the stx2 gene were the least cytotoxic and presented the highest levels of ppGpp. All stx2 isolates belonged to phylogroup A, while strains that carried stx1 or both stx1 and stx2 genes pertained to phylogroup B1. All but two stx2 isolates belonged to the stx2b subtype. Strains that belonged to phylogroup B1 displayed on average low levels of ppGpp and high cytotoxicity. Overall, there was a negative correlation between cytotoxicity and ppGpp.
The aims of the 1973 Great Barrier Reef Expedition's radiocarbon dating programs were: 1) to collect live specimens from various reef environments to serve as modern reference standards, 2) to evaluate suitability of materials from drilling, geomorphic, and sediment programs for dating purposes, and 3) to date appropriate samples related to those programs. Radiometric ages provide a time scale for evolution of reefs and reef islands, and the history of sea level in the area.
Over the last year we obtained X-ray (ROSAT, BeppoSAX and ASCA) and optical (at ESO and at the Astronomical Observatory of Loiano) to infra-red (AAO) observations of a sample of newly discovered X-ray pulsars. Among this sample we discovered the likely optical counterpart of three of them located in the Galactic plane: GS 0834–43, 1WGA J1958.2+3232 and AX J1820.5–1434.
The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a fundamental astrophysical quantity that impacts a wide range of astrophysical problems from heavy element distribution to galactic evolution to planetary system formation. However, the origin and universality of the IMF are hotly debated both observationally and theoretically. I review recent observations of the IMF across a variety of environments. These suggest the IMF is surprisingly invariant between star-forming regions, star clusters, and spiral galaxies but that it may also vary under extreme conditions, including within the Galactic center and early type galaxies.
LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) is one of the four candidate missions currently
under assessment study for the M3 mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision program to be launched in
2024. LOFT will carry two instruments with prime sensitivity in the 2–30 keV range: a 10
m2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1° collimated field of view
and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle,
and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of
the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide field of
view and good energy resolution of <500 eV, the WFM will be an excellent instrument
for detecting and studying GRBs and X-ray flashes. The WFM will be able to detect
~150 gamma ray bursts per year, and a burst alert system will enable the
distribution of ~100 GRB positions per year with a ~1 arcmin location
accuracy within 30 s of the burst.
We present new imaging and spectral analysis of the recently discovered extended X–ray emission around the high-magnetic-field rotating radio transient RRAT J1819–1458. We used two Chandra observations, taken on 2008 May 31 and 2011 May 28. The diffuse X–ray emission was detected with a significance of ~19σ in the image obtained by combining the two observations. Long-term spectral variability has not been observed. Possible scenarios for the origin of this diffuse X–ray emission, further detailed in Camero–Arranz et al. (2012), are here discussed.
A new laser direct-write process for patterning of metal on multichip modules has been developed. The process involves the laser modification of the non-conductive surface of a seed multilayer, converting it to a conductive surface, which can be electroplated with metal. The seed multilayer is composed of a TiW adhesion layer, onto which a Au film is sputtered, followed by an a-Si layer, which forms the non-conductive surface. The laser modifies the surface by alloying (or mixing) the Si and Au to form the conductive surface. This laser process has been shown to be capable of writing speeds of 2.5 m/s. With a silicon dioxide interlevel dielectric layer, the process works over a large range of laser power (Pmax/Pmin ∼ 5). A polyimide interlevel dielectric layer can be used without damage or loss of adhesion, although the process margin is substantially reduced (Pmax/Pmin ∼ 2).
The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) can be used to selectively deposit material from a gaseous precursor compound. Ultrasmall (less than a 100 nm across) spatial dimensions for selective area deposition may be achieved by this means. In this paper we outline a scheme forselecting and designing main group cluster compounds and organometallics for this type of selective area deposition using nido-decaborane(14) as an example.
We describe pyrolytic laser assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of copper onto silicon using a copper(I) hexafluoroacetylacetonate trimethylvinylsilane organometallic complex with 514.5 nm radiation from an Ar+ laser. Growth rates of 0.4-40 μm/min were obtained and at intermediate laser powers, the Cu lines had a resistivity comparable to that of bulk Cu. The line shape and morphology was strongly dependent upon laser power with volcano shapes appearing at higher powers. The growth was sensitive to the nature of the substrate suggesting that film nucleation was a critical element in the writing process.
The effects of Ar post-bombardment on the dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonitrides present in implanted 1020 low carbon steel are investigated using conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The results are compared with similar experiments where samples of the same steel were post-bombarded with He. The experimental data show that the Ar is more efficient in the dissolution of precipitates and also more efficient in the precipitate retention at 450 °C, for the same peak concentration.
It has been recognized since the 1960's that bombardment of a growing thin film by energetic particles strongly influences film properties. Particle bombardment has generally been accomplished by accelerating ions into the growing film. However, it has also been recognized since the 1960's that energetic particles reflected from the target influence the characteristics of films grown by physical sputtering and many experiments have been interpreted on this basis. A systematic study of the energy reflected from the surface by normally incident, singly charged noble-gas ions on five substrates of different masses has recently been published. This data along with sputter yields from the literature allow estimates to be made which were previously unavailable. The energy reflected from the target is carried away by electrons, sputtered particles and reflected ions (neutrals). The purpose of this paper is to provide basic information which will allow thin film scientists to estimate the influence of various experimental parameters on the amount of energy arriving at the growing film. The energy reflected from the target per sputtered atom will be given as a function of ion mass, target mass, and ion energy. TRIM.SP Monte Carlo calculations will be used to estimate the ratio of the energy carried away by sputtered atoms to that carried away by reflected ions. Calculations will also be used to estimate the average energy of the sputtered atoms as a function of ion mass, substrate mass and ion energy. It will be shown how this information can be used to guide the adjustment of experimental parameters in sputtering environments so as to control film characteristics.
Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages).
Methods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity.
Results: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains.
Conclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.