A 3-yr study was conducted in Wheatland County, Alberta to determine if agronomic practices of growers influenced the occurrence of herbicide resistance in wild oat. Wild oat seeds were collected in 33 fields in 1997 and in 31 fields in each of 1998 and 1999 (one field per grower). Seedlings were screened for resistance to two acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors, imazamethabenz, an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, and triallate, a thiocarbamate herbicide. A questionnaire on herbicide resistance awareness and management practices was completed by each grower. Both ACCase and ALS inhibitor resistance in wild oat were linked to a lack of crop rotation diversity. In addition, ALS inhibitor–resistant wild oat was associated with conservation-tillage systems and recent use of herbicides with that mode of action. Results of this study suggest that timely tillage and inclusion of fall-seeded and perennial forage crops in rotations will effectively slow the selection of resistance in this grass species.