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A laser-welded blank (LWB) offers several notable benefits including decreased part weight, reduced manufacturing costs, increased environmental friendliness and improved dimensional consistency. However, in order to take advantage of these benefits, designers need to overcome the formability of LWBs and be able to accurately predict the LWB forming characteristics early in the design process. We present a new approach to predict the maximum elongation of the laser seam; for example, for Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS)-based LWBs. This approach is based on a coupling model taking into account the thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. A comparison of numerical and experimental results shows very good agreement. These approaches offer a considerable advantage in obtaining the formability limits for all configurations.
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of the bump-on-tail instability (BoTI) is studied for plasma subject to one-dimensional mechanical compression. It is shown that the final state of BoTI differs from that described by quasilinear theory for stationary bulk plasma and can depend on the compression history. The transformation of thermal energy into wave energy increases the plasma compressibility, thereby decreasing the amount of mechanical work required to compress the plasma to a specified size. Also, the energy spectrum of the excited modes can be tailored by choosing a particular compression scenario, offering a new technique for manipulating plasmas mechanically.
The model of two-fluid, axisymmetric, ambipolar magnetized plasma detachment from thruster guide fields is extended to include plasmas with non-zero injection angular velocity profiles. Certain plasma injection angular velocity profiles are shown to narrow the plasma plume, thereby increasing exhaust efficiency. As an example, we consider a magnetic guide field arising from a simple current ring and demonstrate plasma injection schemes that more than double the fraction of useful exhaust aperture area, more than halve the exhaust plume angle, and enhance magnetized plasma detachment.
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