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Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
In order to improve a large posterior glottal gap and/or aspiration, injections of augmentation substances should not only be administered at the mid-membranous vocal fold in the thyroarytenoid muscle, but also at the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold to make adduction arytenopexy possible.
Ten adult human larynges were investigated using the whole-organ serial section technique.
Vertical thickness of the posterior aspect of the thyroarytenoid muscle was relatively thin (3.4 ± 0.4 mm), especially in females (3.2 ± 0.3 mm). Consequently, care should be taken to ensure the correct depth of needle placement. If the needle is placed too deep, augmentation substances are injected into the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, located beneath the thyroarytenoid muscle, or into the paraglottic space, located inferolateral to the thyroarytenoid muscle.
The injection location and the amount of injected material should be modified based on the pathological conditions of the voice disorder and aspiration.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the forcing. Combinations of forcings can be closely approximated by linearly summing the contributions from single forcing experiments, suggesting that nonlinear feedbacks are modest. Our models indicate that Greenland is more sensitive than Antarctica to likely atmospheric changes in temperature and precipitation, while Antarctica is more sensitive to increased ice-shelf basal melting. An experiment approximating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s RCP8.5 scenario produces additional first-century contributions to sea level of 22.3 and 8.1 cm from Greenland and Antarctica, respectively, with a range among models of 62 and 14 cm, respectively. By 200 years, projections increase to 53.2 and 26.7 cm, respectively, with ranges of 79 and 43 cm. Linear interpolation of the sensitivity results closely approximates these projections, revealing the relative contributions of the individual forcings on the combined volume change and suggesting that total ice-sheet response to complicated forcings over 200 years can be linearized.
Molecular gas in the Galactic center region is spatially and kinematically complex, and its physical conditions are distinctively different from those of molecular gas in the Galactic disk (e.g., Morris 1996). Relative paucity of current star formation activity, despite the abundance of dense molecular gas in this region, is one of the problem at issue.
The cold HI cloud in the region of the M17SW giant molecular cloud comprises three major fragments with a mean size of ~ 30 pc. Their overall distribution is rather similar to that of CO gas, but one of the fragments does not seem to have a molecular counterpart. It is shown that such a cloud is also a future site of star formation.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
A large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both the LMC and the SMC, which has been established by the MOA project, is a useful resource to study variable stars. In our preliminary study, variables identified as β Lyrae type stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars have been found amongst blue stars.
A review of the MOA (Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics) project is presented. MOA is a collaboration of approximately 30 astronomers from New Zealand and Japan established with the aim of finding and detecting microlensing events towards the Magellanic Clouds and the Galactic bulge, which may be indicative of either dark matter or of planetary companions. The observing program commenced in 1995, using very wide band blue and red filters and a nine-chip mosaic CCD camera.
As a by-product of these observations a large database of CCD photometry for 1.4 million stars towards both LMC and SMC has been established. In one preliminary analysis 576 bright variable stars were confirmed, nearly half of them being Cepheids. Another analysis has identified large numbers of blue variables, and 205 eclipsing binaries are included in this sample. In addition 351 red variables (AGB stars) have been found. Light curves have been obtained for all these stars. The observations are carried out on a 61-cm f/6.25 telescope at Mt John University Observatory where a new larger CCD camera was installed in 1998 July. From this latitude (44° S) the Magellanic Clouds can be monitored throughout the year.
The liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, and the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis taichui, are prevalent in many Asian countries. This study analysed the patterns of infections of O. viverrini and H. taichui in Lahanam and Thakhamlien villages (Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR), in two cross-sectional investigations. Out of a total of 207 human participants, post-anthelmintic treatment positivity rates for expelled worms were 170 (82.1%) for H. taichui and 65 (31.4%) for O. viverrini. Both these species co-exist in the study villages. When each parasite was analysed separately, H. taichui infections reached a plateau among people aged >20 years. Opisthorchis viverrini infection rates were highest in the age group 21–30 years, with decreasing infection rates after the age of 30. Our findings indicated that fish-borne trematode infections were more prevalent among adults. Fish, common intermediate hosts, were acquired in the study area for analysis. The examination of 35 species of fish as intermediate hosts found O. viverrini metacercariae in only six species, and these were found mostly during the month of November. Many farmers who live on the rice fields obtain their food from their immediate environment, including these intermediate-host fish, potentially putting them at greater risk of O. viverrini infection. By contrast, H. taichui metacercariae were found in three species of fish obtained from the market, meaning that anyone could consume them and become infected. If people who work in rice fields limit the species of fish they consume, or avoid consuming raw fish during the month of November, they may reduce their risk of O. viverrini infection.
Many endemic species, particularly those on remote islands, have been driven to extinction or near extinction by anthropogenic influences. The short-tailed albatross Phoebastria albatrus once numbered in the millions but was thought to be extinct by the mid 20th century. Albatrosses, of the family Diomedeidae, are among the most threatened birds globally as a result of commercial exploitation, introduced predators, and mortality in commercial fisheries. We applied an experimental approach over 5 years to evaluate the translocation and hand-rearing of albatross chicks by comparing growth, physiological health indices, post-fledging survival, and migration patterns with a control group of naturally reared chicks in the source population. Hand-reared chicks had comparable or superior health and similar rates of immediate post-fledging mortality (15%), with mortality strongly female-biased in both groups. Hand-reared birds had longer post-fledging drift periods before attaining sustained flight (also female-biased) but comparable, albeit somewhat wider ranging, migration patterns to naturally reared chicks during their first 6 months at sea. Recruitment to the translocation site of a breeding pair that included a hand-reared bird occurred within 5 years of the first translocation. Success will ultimately depend on continued recruitment and breeding over the coming decades, given delayed breeding in these long-lived species. The results to date, however, have exceeded initial expectations and can inform potential reintroductions of other long-lived, migratory avian species with strong natal philopatry, and reintroductions of native species to former breeding islands.
We present a detailed study carried out on oxide buffer layers grown by Metal-Organic Decomposition (MOD) on metallic substrates for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductor applications. Precursor solutions have been made starting from acetates or pentanedionates and characterized by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses coupled with Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR). Thin buffer layers have been grown by spin-coating on Ni-5at.%W substrates. X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been employed in order to optimize buffer layers in terms of film microstructure and surface quality, with the final aims of producing a suitable template for YBCO growth. It will be shown that the optimization of the recrystallization process can lead to high quality buffer layer allowing the growth of YBCO films showing good superconductive properties.
The association between depression after myocardial infarction and increased risk of mortality and cardiac morbidity may be due to cardiac disease severity.
To combine original data from studies on the association between post-infarction depression and prognosis into one database, and to investigate to what extent such depression predicts prognosis independently of disease severity.
An individual patient data meta-analysis of studies was conducted using multilevel, multivariable Cox regression analyses.
Sixteen studies participated, creating a database of 10 175 post-infarction cases. Hazard ratios for post-infarction depression were 1.32 (95% CI 1.26–1.38, P<0.001) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI 1.14–1.24, P<0.001) for cardiovascular events. Hazard ratios adjusted for disease severity were attenuated by 28% and 25% respectively.
The association between depression following myocardial infarction and prognosis is attenuated after adjustment for cardiac disease severity. Still, depression remains independently associated with prognosis, with a 22% increased risk of all-cause mortality and a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular events per standard deviation in depression z-score.
In order to understand the vacancy behavior during incubation period before steady state void swelling, positron annihilation lifetime measurements was performed after isochronal annealing of austenitic stainless steel (Ti added modified SUS316SS) and ferritic stainless steel (F82H) irradiated by neutrons and electrons to a dose of 0.2 dpa. By electron and neutron irradiations below 363 K, vacancies and nano-voids containing of few vacancies were formed in both alloys. By increasing annealing temperatures, the lifetime decreased without forming nano-voids. The change of lifetime during the annealing indicated the formation and growth of staking fault tetrahedra (Ti added modified SUS316SS) and the annihilation of vacancies at precipitates (F82H).
To improve the conversion efficiency of polymer photodetectors (PDs) fabricated by solution process, the properties of fluorene-type polymer photodetectors doped with iridium (Ir) and platinum (Pt) complexes were investigated. The devices based on poly(dioctylfluorene) and poly(dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) had violet and blue sensitivity, respectively. Triplet materials can enhance the incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency of the devices utilizing the fluorene-type polymers when their triplet levels are lower than the lowest excited singlet states of the host and higher than the lowest excited triplet states of the host. The transmission of a moving picture was successfully demonstrated using the bilayer F8BT device with green Ir complex as an opto-electrical conversion device. We demonstrate that the polymer PDs fabricated by solution process can be applied to short-range optical communication fields, such as opto-electrical conversion devices for optical links.
Capillary type underfill is still the mainstream underfill for mass production flip chip applications. Flip chip packages are migrating to ultra low-k, Pb-free, 3D and fine pitch packages. Underfill selection is becoming more critical. This paper discusses the performance and potential of underfills using a novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymer technology.
Compared to eutectic and high lead solder, tin-silver-copper solder has lower C.T.E., higher elasticity and greater brittleness. In light of these properties, it is generally better to select high Tg and lower CTE underfill in order to prevent bump fatigue during reliability testing. Given the brittleness of low-k dielectric layers of flip chips, the destruction of low-k layers by stress inside the flip chip packages has become a major issue. Underfills for low-k packages should have low stress, and the warpage should be small. It is expected that as the low-k trend expands, the underfill is required to provide less stress. Low Tg underfill shows lower warpage. New chemical technologies have been developed to address the needs of underfills for low-k/Pb-free flip chip packages, specifically organic-inorganic hybrid polymer compounds. The organic-inorganic hybrid polymer provides excellent cure properties which enable a balanced combination of low stress and good bump protection. The material properties of the underfill were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA), and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). A daisy-chained test vehicle was used for reliability testing. A detailed study is presented on the underfill properties, reliability data, as well as finite element modeling results.