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Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.
A study of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) can provide data of interest about cortical alterations in psychotic illnesses. Although a decreased NAA level in the cerebral cortex is a replicated finding in chronic schizophrenia, the data are less consistent for bipolar disease. On the other hand, it is likely that NAA values in schizophrenia may differ in men and women.
We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to examine NAA levels in the prefrontal cortex in two groups of male patients, one with schizophrenia (n = 11) and the other with bipolar disorder (n = 13) of similar duration, and compared them to a sample of healthy control males (n = 10). Additionally, we compared the degree of structural deviations from normal volumes of gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Compared to controls, schizophrenia and bipolar patients presented decreased NAA to creatine ratios, while only the schizophrenia group showed an increase in CSF in the dorsolateral prefrontal region. There were no differences in choline to creatine ratios among the groups.
These data suggest that the decrease in NAA in the prefrontal region may be similar in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, at least in the chronic state. However, cortical CSF may be markedly increased in schizophrenia patients.
People with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are more likely to smoke, smoke more cigarettes per day and have greater mortality from smoking-related disease than those in the general population.
To describe the sample and to identify the relationship between the pattern of tobacco use and psychopathology.
Multicenter, observational, prospective, 12-month follow up study to assess the clinical efficacy of a multicomponent smoking cessation program specifically designed for patients with severe mental illness.
65 patients from 3 Mental Health Centers sited in Spain [64.6% males; mean age (SD) = 44.63 (8.93)].
(1) Pattern of tobacco use: Fargerstrom Test for Nicotine physical Dependence; Glover-Nilsson Test for Nicotine psychological Dependence; expired carbon monoxide (CO); n° cigarettes/day; n° smoking years.
Schizophrenia 64.6% and bipolar 26.2%; suicide attempts 36.9% (2.83 mean of suicide attemps); economically active 7.7%. There is no differences: in psychopatology severity between “heavy smokers” (ppm ≥ 26 or n° cigarettes/day ≥ 30) and “non heavy smokers” (ppm < 26 or n° cigarettes/day < 30) and in the pattern of tobacco use between schizophrenia and bipolar patients. There is no relationship between psychopatology severity and the pattern of tobacco use in schizophrenia patients. Finally, there is relationship between depressive symptoms (Hamilton) and nicotine psychological dependence (Glover-Nilsson Test) in bipolar disorder patients (r = 0.72, p = 0.004).
In bipolar disorder patients, there is relationship between the severity of depressive symptoms and the dependence of nicotine.
It is necessary to explore the possibilities of brief intervention of smoking cessation in bipolar disorder (BD) that may act on the level of motivation for change.
Assess the effectiveness of the 3 A's intervention (Ask, Advise and Assess) in a sample of euthymic BD patients.
260 patients diagnosed with BD that were in the euthymic phase and attended the Community care centers of Spain that have been evaluated for their history of smoking habits and current use.
Patients who consumed in the last month qualified for the level of motivation for change (measured by URICA scale); before and after conducting a brief intervention of no more than 30 minutes in total, divided in three contacts during a month, two face to face and one phone contact.
The 49% of the evaluated patients showed an actual use of cigarettes with an average of 28.73 (SD 11.82) years of consumption, with a mean consumption of 21.00 (SD 10.40) cigarettes per day and a level of nicotine dependency of 5.72 (SD 3.03). The 67% of patients were in the Contemplation stage of change, after the intervention 18% progressed to the stage of motivation and 14% ended up in the Stage of Ready for Change. In the third appointment the 21.4% of the smokers reported a reduction of the consumption.
The results seem to confirm its effectiveness, although it should be considered the possibility of carrying out specific tools of brief intervention for this sort of patients.
This study was performed to identify the predictive factors of functional capacity assessed by the Spanish University of California Performance Skills Assessment (Sp-UPSA) and real-world functioning assessed by the Spanish Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP) in outpatients with schizophrenia.
Naturalistic, 6-month follow-up, multicentre, validation study. Here, we report data on 139 patients with schizophrenia at their baseline visit. Assessment: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Sp-UPSA and PSP. Statistics: Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationships between variables, and multivariable stepwise linear regression analyses to identify predictive variables of Sp-UPSA and PSP total scores.
Functional capacity: scores on the PSP and PANSS-GP entered first and second at P < 0.0001 and accounted for 21% of variance (R2 = 0.208, model df = 2, F = 15.724, P < 0.0001). Real-world functioning: scores on the CGI-S (B = −5.406), PANSS-N (B = −0.657) and Sp-UPSA (B = 0.230) entered first, second and third, and accounted for 51% of variance (model df = 3, F = 37.741, P < 0.0001).
In patients with schizophrenia, functional capacity and real-world functioning are two related but different constructs. Each one predicts the other along with other factors; general psychopathology for functional capacity, and severity of the illness and negative symptoms for real-world functioning. These findings have important clinical implications: (1) both types of functioning should be assessed in patients with schizophrenia and (2) strategies for improving them should be different.
Smoking is a serious health problem for people with mental illness like the bipolar disorder patients. The developmental of motivational tools such as brief intervention it is necessary in the context of community care.
Evaluating the change in motivational stage after brief intervention and evaluating the clinical and smoking factors in relation with this.
Two hundred and twenty patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (according DSM-5 criteria) that were in the euthymic phase (defined as less than 7 points in YMRS and 10 points in HDRS) and attended the community care centers of three provinces of Andalusia (Spain). Patients who consumed in the last month qualified for the level of motivation for change (measured by URICA scale).
After brief intervention the 29.3% of the smoking patients change in their motivational stage. The results of the multivariate analysis showed three factors in relation with dificultar the progression of the evolution of motivation to change. The high punctuation in Hamilton anxiety scale (OR = 0.53; IC95%, P = 0.002), the high puntuation in the Fageström scale (OR = 0.56, IC95%, P = 0.01), and have high autoperception of the capacity of change (OR = 0.52; IC95%, P = 0.002).
The anxiety (measure with Hamilton anxiety scale) plus factors in relation with smoking, like the puntuation in Fagestrom scale and the autoperception of the capacity of change decrease the possibilities to change.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
El estudio de la concentración de N-acetil-aspartato (NAA) proporciona datos interesantes sobre las alteraciones corticales en las enfermedades psicóticas. Aunque la reducción de la concentración de NAA en la corteza cerebral es un resultado habitual en la esquizofrenia crónica, es menos constante en la enfermedad bipolar. Por otra parte, es probable que los valores de NAA puedan ser diferente en hombres y mujeres con esquizofrenia.
Mediante con espectroscopia por resonancia magnética protónica ('H MRS) calculamos las concentraciones de NAA en la corteza prefrontal de dos grupos de hombres, uno con esquizofrenia (n = 11) y otro con trastorno bipolar (n = 13) de similar duración y los comparamos con una muestra de hombres sanos que usamos como grupo control (n = 10). Además, comparamos el grado de desviaciones estructurales de los volúmenes normales de sustancia gris (SG) y líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) en la corteza prefrontal dorsolateral.
Comparados con los controles, los pacientes con esquizofrenia y trastorno bipolar tuvieron un cociente NAA/creatina más bajo, y sólo el grupo de pacientes con esquizofrenia mostró un aumento de LCR en la región prefrontal dorsolateral. No hubo ninguna diferencia entre los grupos en el cociente colina/creatina.
Estos datos sugieren que la disminución de NAA en la región prefrontal pueda ser similar en la esquizofrenia y en el trastorno bipolar, al menos, en estados crónicos. Sin embargo, el LCR cortical puede aumentar significativamente en pacientes con esquizofrenia.
Decreased metabolic activity in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive activation is a recurrent finding and a likely functional marker of schizophrenia.
To investigate the occurrence of hypofrontality in patients with first-episode psychosis, with or without evolution to schizophrenia.
We used fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography during the performance of an attention task and magnetic resonance imaging to study the dorsolateral prefrontal region in 13 men with a first episode of psychosis. Data from patients who progressed to schizophrenia were compared with those of patients who did not meet criteria for this diagnosis after 2 years.
Patients who developed schizophrenia demonstrated a significant hypofrontality in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in comparison with the non-schizophrenia and control groups.
Our results suggest that hypofrontality could be a marker of schizophrenia at the time of the first psychotic episode, in agreement with neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia.
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