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Early, conforming antibiotic treatment in elderly patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a key factor in the prognosis and mortality. The objective was to examine whether empirical antibiotic treatment was conforming according to the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery guidelines in these patients. Multicentre study in patients aged ⩾65 years hospitalised due to CAP in the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. We collected socio-demographic information, comorbidities, influenza/pneumococcal vaccination history and antibiotics administered using a questionnaire and medical records. Bivariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression were made. In total, 1857 hospitalised patients were included, 82 of whom required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatment was conforming in 51.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1–53.8%) of patients without ICU admission and was associated with absence of renal failure without haemodialysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95) and no cognitive dysfunction (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.25–2.35), when the effect of the autonomous community was controlled for. In patients with ICU admission, treatment was conforming in 45.1% (95% CI 34.1–56.1%) of patients and was associated with the hospital visits in the last year (<3 vs. ⩾3, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03–7.12) and there was some evidence that this was associated with season. Although the reference guidelines are national, wide variability between autonomous communities was found. In patients hospitalised due to CAP, health services should guarantee the administration of antibiotics in a consensual manner that is conforming according to clinical practice guidelines.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
The interval from calving to first ovulation is a major factor affecting reproductive and productive efficiency in beef cows. While this interval is affected by pre- and post-partum nutrition, the maternal-offspring bond is generally considered to be the major cause of delayed ovulation in beef cows. The endocrine and physiological mechanisms by which these factors either singularly or interactively control the duration of the post-partum anovulatory period are not well established, although they most likely involve the regulation of pulsatile LH release. The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of pre- and post-partum nutrition on LH secretion and follicle wave dynamics following acute calf isolation and once-a-day suckling (restricted access), after emergence of the fourth follicular wave post partum.
The prolonged interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows is primarily due to the suckling-mediated inhibition of pulsatile LH release. Undernutrition both before and after calving also suppresses LH release, reduces ovarian follicular growth and delays ovulation. The interactive effects of these factors on the interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows were quantified by studying the incidence of ovulation, following acute calf isolation and once-a-day suckling (restricted access), after emergence of the fourth follicular wave post partum in cows in differing body condition at calving and offered low or high planes of nutrition after calving.
The experiment was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, in which the factors were body condition score at calving (Low v. Moderate), feeding level after calving (0.6 v. 1.0 MJ ME/d/kg M0.75), and restricted (once-a-day) v. ad libitum access and suckling. The experiment, duplicated at each of the four participating sites, involved 16 Simmental, 16 Sarda, 16 Brown Swiss and 16 Hereford x Friesian multi-parous cows. Follicle growth was monitored daily from day 21 post partum until the earlier of second ovulation or Day 90 post partum using transrectal ovarian ultrasonography.
We prove strong convergence and asymptotic normality for the record and the weak record rate of observations of the form Yn = Xn + Tn, n ≥ 1, where (Xn)n ∈ Z is a stationary ergodic sequence of random variables and (Tn)n ≥ 1 is a stochastic trend process with stationary ergodic increments. The strong convergence result follows from the Dubins-Freedman law of large numbers and Birkhoff's ergodic theorem. For the asymptotic normality we rely on the approach of Ballerini and Resnick (1987), coupled with a moment bound for stationary sequences, which is used to deal with the random trend process. Examples of applications are provided. In particular, we obtain strong convergence and asymptotic normality for the number of ladder epochs in a random walk with stationary ergodic increments.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1–4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme.
High quality AlN layers with full widths at half maximum values of 10 arcmin and average surface roughness (rms) of 48Å were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. A systematic study and optimization of the growth conditions was performed in order to use these AlN layers as buffers in the growth of GaN films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to determine the surface and structural quality of the layers. Best AlN films were obtained at high substrate temperatures (Tsubs>900°C) and III/V ratios close to stoichiometry. Growth conditions with III/V ratios beyond stoichiometry (Al-rich) did not further improve the crystal quality. In these cases a higher substrate temperature is needed to prevent condensation of Al on the surface. GaN films with full width at half maximum of 10 arcmin and improved optical properties were grown on top of optimized AlN buffer layers.
Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ∼50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P⩽0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P⩽0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P⩽0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P⩽0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P⩽0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P⩽0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P⩽0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P⩽0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal barrier and supplementing ZnAA at the appropriate dose can improve aspects of small intestinal integrity during severe HS.
Serrana de Teruel is an endangered cattle breed raised traditionally in the mountainous areas of Southern Aragon (Spain). With the aim of recovering the breed, a characterization was carried out to determine the morphology, husbandry and genetic values of the Serrana de Teruel breed. Individuals showed a medium to high degree of homogeneity and harmony, most of the animals being of straight profile, and eumetrical and sublongilineal individuals, although smaller in size than other phylogenetically proximate breeds. Biodiversity studies showed good diversity values despite the breed's low effective population size (240 individuals in 2010). These studies provided the basis for a sustainable programme of genetic conservation. In order to guarantee long-term maintenance, germplasm banks contain 6400 doses of semen and 74 embryos. Concurrently, the commercial viability of the breed was studied by means of an analysis of carcass and meat quality from three commercial categories – yearling, bull and steer (castrated at 9 months old) – with ages at slaughter of 12, 22 and 22 months and live weights of 470, 720 and 660 kg,, respectively. Good performances and high-quality products with no commercial constraints in the beef market were obtained. Finally, a prospective study for a new beef quality product labelled ‘Serrana de Teruel’ was performed, according to the opinions of experts. These studies provide the standard requirements for the alternative production of a labelled beef product that might create an incentive for the production of the Serrana de Teruel breed among other breeds, and thus favour the conservation of the breed in the medium term.
We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic normality of Nn, the number of records among the first n observations from a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables, with general distribution F. In the case of normality we identify the centering and scaling sequences. Also, we characterize distributions for which the limit is not normal in terms of their discrete and continuous components.
Lithium mobility in LiM2(PO4)3 compounds, with M= Ge, Ti, Sn, Zr and Hf, has been investigated by 7Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the temperature range 100-500 K. From the analysis of 7Li NMR quadrupole interactions (CQ and η parameters), Li sites occupancy and exchange processes between structural sites have been studied. Below 250K, Li ions are preferentially located at M1 sites in rhombohedral phases, but occupy M12 sites in triclinic ones. At increasing temperatures, Li mobility has been deduced from spin-spin () and spin-lattice relaxation () rates. In this analysis, the presence of two relaxation mechanisms in plots has been associated with departures of conductivity from the Arrhenius behavior. At high temperatures, residence times at M12−T11−T11−T1 and M12 sites become similar and conductivity significantly increase. This superionic state can be achieved by enlarged order-disorder transformations in rhombohedral phases, or by sharp first order transitions in triclinic ones. Results described in the LiTi2(PO4)3 sample have been compared with those obtained in rhombohedral Li1+xTi2-xAlx(PO4)3 and LiTi2-xZrx(PO4)3 series showing respectively higher and lower conductivities. In the case of Li1.2Ti1.8Al0.2(PO4)3, displaying the highest reported conductivity, NMR results are discussed in relation with those obtained by Neutron Diffraction (ND) and Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). Diffusion coefficients determined by NMR Pulse Field Gradient (PFG) technique are similar to those deduced from Impedance Spectroscopy and NMR relaxation data.
The influence of the substrate on composition and CuPt-type spontaneous order of MOVPE lattice matched InGaP/GaAs layers was studied. The study was carried out by microRaman and microphotoluminescence. The order was determined by the band gap, while the Raman parameters were also contributed by the surface topography that was also related to the type of substrate. The spontaneous order increases with Si- doping of the substrates. Doping the layers with Zn randomises the alloy.
A high resolution spatially resolved photocurrent system to study bulk non homogeneities in semiinsulating GaAs and InP is described. [Fe+3] distribution is studied in InP. In undoped LEC semiinsulating GaAs a study of the relation of Photoquenching (PQ) and Enhanced Photocurrent (EPC) to the dislocation atmosphere is done.
LiNbO3 is a relevant material to prepare a number of electrooptic (bulk and waveguide) devices. Moreover, its photorefractive (PR) behavior is also potentially useful for optoelectronic applications such as holographic storage and coherent optical amplification. For a full understanding and optimization of the PR effect, the lattice location and valence state of the active impurities is essential, since they determine the ionization and trapping capabilities for free carriers. So far, the information obtained with spectroscopic techniques (EPR, ENDOR, Mossbauer, optical) is not conclusive, except manganese and possible iron.
Fe- doped InP is studied by a spatially resolved photocurrent technique, probing electronic transitions related to the iron impurity levels. This scanning technique allows to get information on bulk homogeneity regarding to the electrically active iron impurity distribution. The presence of doping growth striations is revealed with a high sensitivity. Also results about the local photocurrent at the Cottrell atmospheres of the dislocations are shown. The role played by other defect levels in the photocurrent contrast is also discussed.
Electroless metal deposition based upon the addition of fluoride anions to the metal salt aqueous solution have been developed recently on the assumption that the cleanness of the substrate will be guaranteed and the deposit will be of high purity. In this work, platinum is deposited on silicon (100) from fluorinated solution at two different pH's. The influence of pH is analyzed using Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM) to characterize the main morphological properties of the deposit. Combined TMAFM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are presented and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) allows us to identify the chemical nature of the silicon surface.