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Using time-resolved laser-scanning confocal microscopy and ultrafast optical pump/THz probe spectroscopy, we measure photoluminescence (PL) and THz-conductivity in perovskite micro-crystals and films. PL quenching and lifetime variations occur from local heterogeneity. Ultrafast THz-spectra measure sharp quantum transitions from excitonic Rydberg states, providing weakly bound excitons with a binding energy of ~13.5 meV at low temperatures. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations give a direct band gap of 1.64 eV, a dielectric constant of ~18, heavy electrons, and light holes, resulting in weakly bound excitons, consistent with the binding energies from the experiment. The complementary spectroscopy and simulations reveal fundamental insights into perovskite light-matter interactions.
Flavonoids are natural compounds derived from different types of vegetables, fruits, and medicinal herbal plants. Hesperidin, a flavanone (a class of flavonoids) glycoside is found abundantly in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons tangerines and limes and is known to possess significant benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, antioxidant, growth promoting, anticancer and immunological properties. Hesperidin enhances mucosal and humoral immunity by increasing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers, lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen and bursa) indices, as well as improving anti-avian influenza and anti-Newcastle disease antibody titres in poultry. In addition, hesperidin is a strong chain-breaking antioxidant that provides potent cellular antioxidant defence against the damaging effects induced by peroxide hydrogen. As a natural antioxidant, hesperidin could help mitigate heat stress during summer by decreasing heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, and quenching reactive oxygen species generated by summer heat stress. The aim of this review was to elucidate the biological effects and health benefits of hesperidin as an alternative of synthetic immune boosters and growth promoters in poultry diets.
Echinacea purpurea is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs that is of interest to animal scientists due to its valuable immuno-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It is thought that it activates the immune system through stimulating T-cell production, lymphocytic activity, phagocytosis, cellular respiration and inhibiting the secretion of the hyaluronidase enzyme. Chicoric acid (CA) is a major active constituent of Echinacea purpurea. The CA content in roots ranges between 16.80-24.30 mg/g which has gained a lot of renown due to its promising bio-activities. CA has shown to simulate growth promoters and have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, anti-bacterial, hypoglycaemic and hepatocyte protective properties. There have been very few studies relevant to CA and its use in poultry diets. Previously published studies have included pharmacological and nutritional investigations in the poultry industry. CA could be used as an alternative to antibiotics, and may improve meat quality and health status in broiler chickens.
We compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of an active case-finding (ACF) programme for household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases enrolled in first-line treatment to routine passive case-finding (PCF) within an established national TB programme in Peru. Decision analysis was used to model detection of TB in household contacts through: (1) self-report of symptomatic cases for evaluation (PCF), (2) a provider-initiated ACF programme, (3) addition of an Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test for a single sputum sample from household contacts, and (4) all strategies combined. CE was calculated as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in terms of US dollars per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Compared to PCF alone, ACF for household contacts resulted in an ICER of $2155 per DALY averted. The addition of the Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test resulted in an ICER of $3275 per DALY averted within a PCF programme and $3399 per DALY averted when an ACF programme was included. Provider-initiated ACF of household contacts in an urban setting of Lima, Peru can be highly cost-effective, even including costs to seek out contacts and perform an Xpert/MTB RIF test. ACF including Xpert MTB/RIF was not cost-effective if TB cases detected had high rates of default from treatment or poor outcomes.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
Monozygotic (MZ) twins provide a natural system for investigating developmental plasticity and the potential epigenetic origins of disease. A major difference in the intrauterine environment between MZ pairs is whether they share a common placenta or have separate placentas. Using DNA methylation measured at >400,000 points in the genome on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array, we demonstrate that the co-twins of MZ pairs (average age of 14) that shared a common placenta (n = 18 pairs) have more similar DNA methylation levels in blood throughout the genome relative to those with separate placentas (n = 16 pairs). Functional annotation of the genomic regions that show significantly different correlation between monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) MZ pairs found an over-representation of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, neuronal development, and cellular differentiation. These results support the idea that prenatal environmental exposures may have a lasting effect on an individual's epigenetic landscape, and the potential for these changes to have functional consequences.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge. (JINS, 2015, 21, 768–779)
There is limited evidence and lack of consensus whether second-hand smoke (SHS) increases risk of tuberculosis (TB), which has substantial implications for unrestricted smoking indoors and TB control policies. We aimed to establish the association between SHS and the risk of acquiring and worsening of TB in non-smokers. We identified 428 articles in the initial search and 12 comparative epidemiological studies met our inclusion criteria. Exposure to SHS was found to have a higher risk of TB infection [risk ratio (RR) 1·19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·90–1·57] compared to non-exposure; however, this did not reach statistical significance. There was marked variability (I2 = 74%, P = 0·0008) between studies’ results, which could be explained by the differences in the diagnostic criteria used. Exposure to SHS was found to be statistically significantly associated (RR 1·59, 95% CI 1·11–2·27) with the risk of TB disease. There was significant heterogeneity (I2 = 77%, P = 0·0006) between studies’ results, which was sourced to the internal characteristics of the studies rather than combining different study designs. We did not find any studies for SHS and TB treatment-related outcomes. Thus, we conclude that SHS exposure may increase the risk of acquiring TB infection and progression to TB disease; however, the evidence remains scanty and weak.
In general, tuberculosis (TB) is more common in men than women. However, for reasons currently not understood, women are 1·5–2 times more likely to report TB compared to men in Pashtun region (Afghanistan, adjacent provinces Pakistan and Iran). We explored whether or not gender disparity in TB notifications in the Pashtun region of Pakistan can be explained by Pashtun ethnicity. Using an ecological linear regression design, we estimated the effect of Pashtun ethnicity on female-to-male ratio (FMR) in TB notifications after adjusting for other determinants of women's health, in Pakistan. Districts with a high proportion of women of Pashtun ethnicity had a 44% (95% confidence interval 27–61) increase in FMR of notified TB cases compared to those with low proportions, after controlling for confounders. Genetic predisposition and distinct socio-cultural determinants could be possible causative factors. However, these hypotheses need further evaluation through rigorous longitudinal studies.
The world poultry industry is under great stress due to parasitic diseases; coccidiosis being one which is responsible for substantial economic losses worldwide. In 1948 the first research paper was published about the treatment of coccidiosis with sulphaquinoxaline. After six decades, researcher's attention has focused on DNA vaccination, especially as certain anticoccidials have failed due to drug resistance and residues. Thus far vaccination is partially successful but is accompanied by disadvantages: e.g. instability, inferiority control, cost-effectiveness, and inefficiency in opposition to a large number of coccidian strains which are prevalent in different geographical areas. Due to developments whereby genetically engineered DNA can be administered in vaccine form to provoke cellular and humoral immune responses; there has been huge development in the practical application of this field. In the last decade a number of DNA vaccines employing different strategies have been tested to produce appropriate immune responses against coccidiosis. The DNA fragments taken from all the four important species, E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina were able to provoke appropriate immune responses against challenging infections with homologous species; however, most of them were not able to provoke a response with heterologous infection. The shared DNA antigen in two different species of Eimeria; E. tenella and E. acervulina was able to produce sufficient immune responses, not only against these species but also against E. necatrix, but not against E. maxima. E. maximum is the biggest and most complex of all the seven species and it has come ahead as a challenge for DNA vaccine researchers.
The emergence of invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) in combat casualties led to development of a combat trauma-specific IFI case definition and classification. Prospective data were collected from 1133 US military personnel injured in Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011). The IFI rates ranged from 0·2% to 11·7% among ward and intensive care unit admissions, respectively (6·8% overall). Seventy-seven IFI cases were classified as proven/probable (n = 54) and possible/unclassifiable (n = 23) and compared in a case-case analysis. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the proven/probable and possible/unclassifiable cases. Possible IFI cases had shorter time to diagnosis (P = 0·02) and initiation of antifungal therapy (P = 0·05) and fewer operative visits (P = 0·002) compared to proven/probable cases, but clinical outcomes were similar between the groups. Although the trauma-related IFI classification scheme did not provide prognostic information, it is an effective tool for clinical and epidemiological surveillance and research.
The purpose of this paper was to prepare purified Na- bentonite with improved properties for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Calcium bentonite from the Shagia region of Karak district, Pakistan, was activated with various proportions of sodium carbonate (2, 3, 5 and 8 wt.%) and purified by sedimentation to remove impurities, especially quartz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and swelling volume confirmed the conversion of raw bentonite to sodium bentonite by using 5% Na2CO3. The sodium bentonite (K5) obtained by activation met the chemical and microbiological requirements set by the pharmacopeias regarding the toxic trace elemental content (Pb and As), absence of E. coli, total aerobic microbial contents and physicochemical properties such as swelling volume, pH and sedimentation volume. Therefore K5 bentonite could be designated as potentially suitable for pharmaceutical applications. The CEC, surface area, porosity, pH, gel formation and swelling volume indicated that K5 bentonite could be used in the formulation of oral suspension and in topical application.
The present study considers the influence of the trophic status of three Kashmir Himalayan lakes on the patterns of helminth infracommunities in populations of three species of fish during 2006 to 2008. Data were collected from three lakes of differing trophic status in the Kashmir Himalayas, namely Anchar, a hyper(eu)trophic lake; Dal, a eutrophic lake; and Manasbal, a meso(eu)trophic lake. Three species of fish examined included the native fish Schizothorax niger Heckel and two exotic species – Carassius carassius (Linnaeus) and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. The analysis of data showed a clear habitat effect on the abundance pattern of helminth species, thus revealing lake-specific differences in parasite infracommunities of both S. niger and C. carassius. Helminth infracommunity richness was the highest in host populations from the Anchar lake compared to other two lakes. Low values in the Manasbal lake emphasize the low diversity of their helminth infracommunities. On the other hand, there was no observed pattern of community structure in the case of C. carpio in the three lake sites. However due to bias in sampling there was no distinct effect of fish body size on parasite infracommunity structure, although the present results do show that fish parasite data can be meaningful in diagnosing changes in the trophic condition of eutrophic lakes.
Hamiltonian system is a special case of dynamical system. Mostly it is used for potential shaping of mechanical systems stabilization. In our present work, we are using Hamiltonian dynamics to study and control the fuel slosh inside spacecraft tank. Sloshing is the phenomenon which is related with the movement of fluid inside a container in micro and macro scale as well. Sloshing of fluid occurs whenever the frequency of container movement matches with the natural frequency of fluid inside the container. Such type of synchronization may cause the structural damage or could be a reason of moving object's attitude disturbance. In spacecraft technology, the equivalent mechanical model for sloshing is common to use for the representation of fuel slosh. This mechanical model may contain a model of pendulum or a mass attached with a spring. In this article, we are using mass-spring mechanical model coupled with rigid body to derive the equations for Hamiltonian system. Casimir functions are used for proposed model. Conditions for the stability and instability of moving mass are derived using Lyapunov function along with Casimir functions. Simulation work is presented to strengthen the derived results and to distribute the stable and unstable regions graphically.