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The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate: (1) the effects of ensiling maize or sorghum grains after reconstitution on readily soluble fraction (a), potentially degradable fraction in the rumen (b) and rate constant for degradation of b (c) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and starch (STA); and (2) an appropriate incubation time for in situ or in vitro procedures to estimate in vivo digestibility. Four rumen-cannulated Nellore bulls (body weight = 262 ± 19.6 kg) distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square were used. Diets were based on dry ground maize (DGM); or dry ground sorghum (DGS); or reconstituted ground maize silage; or reconstituted ground sorghum silage. In vitro and in situ incubations of the individual grains and diets were simultaneously performed with in vivo digestibility. In general, reconstituted grains and diets based on reconstituted grains presented greater (P < 0.05) fraction a and lower (P < 0.05) fraction b of DM, OM and STA compared to dry grains and diets based on dry grain. However, the magnitude of response of the reconstitution and ensiling process on DM and OM degradability parameter was greater for maize than that for sorghum. Moreover, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed between DGM- and DGS-based diets for c estimates. The results suggest that the reconstitution process promotes grains protein matrix breakdown increasing STA availability. The incubation times required for in vivo digestibility estimations of DM, OM and STA are 24 h for in situ and 36 h for in vitro procedures.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
Since 2003 the national research program for solid organ transplantation in HIV patients is active at the Liver Transplantation Centre of Modena. HIV patients who enter this protocol are assessed by the CLP Service. The aim of the present study is to evaluate their psychiatric comorbidity.
An observational prospective study was conduced comparing ESLD patients with and without HIV. After the assessment, the psychiatrist compiled the TERS and the MADRS. Baseline (B) evaluation was made before the inclusion in the OLTx waiting list and the Follow-Up (FU) one was made 12 months later.
From January 2003 to December 2006 we assessed 553 patients: 39 (6%) with HIV and 361 (94%) without HIV. The two groups were homogeneous for gender (75% of male patients; p = ns) but not for age (46 ± 5 vs 56 ± 9; p = ns). Psychiatric anamnesis was negative in 176 (49%) patients without HIV and in 6 (15%) patients with HIV, p<0.001.
At baseline psychiatric comorbidity was present in 33 HIV patients (85%) and in 148 non HIV patients (41%), p<0.001.
At the follow-up MADRS highlights an improvement at all the items for HIV patients. In the non-HIV group score variation was: B = 7.10, FU = 8.15; in the HIV group: B = 10.20, FU = 4.09 (p<0.001).
The average score at TERS was higher in patients with HIV (43 ± 9 vs 35 ± 9, p = ns).
At B HIV patients with ESLD show a greater frailty to psychopathology but they quite improved during FU. The contrary happen in non-HIV group.
The progressive increase in the prevalence of anxiety disorders in advanced ages advises the extensive use of of screening measurements in this population, that, everywhere in the world, has raised numerically.
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-Short Form (GAI-SF, 5-item format) in a sample of 932 elders.
Quantitative and cross-sectional study with descriptive and correlational planning. Translation and back-translation was performed by language proficiency experts. The reliability was assessed through Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the factorial validity through Principal Components Analysis. The convergent validity was conducted with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Positive and Negative Affects Scale (PANAS-Negative sub-scale), while discriminant validity was performed with the PANAS-Positive sub-scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis, using a structural equation modeling, was performed to test the fit of the model with the five items.
The GAI-SF showed good internal consistency (α = 0.77), good convergent, and discriminant validity (p < 0.05). The factorial structure presented a single factor that explained 52% of the variance. The model showed a good fit to the data (χ2= 1.233, TLI = 0.997, CFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.020).
The GAI-SF, a brief self-report scale, has good validity and reliability, and factorial qualities adequate to measure anxiety symptoms in epidemiological surveys and in geriatric settings.
Depression is very common among institutionalized elders. Because of the increased risk of cognitive impairment/dementia, and mortality we want to describe the evolution of depression and analyze predictive factors.
In the Aging Trajectories Study (Instituto Superior Miguel Torga - Coimbra), we followed up a sample of 83 nondemented persons (M ± SD baseline age = 79.51 ± 6.58; men: 17; women: 66). In a 2-year prospective cohort analysis (2010-2011, and 2013), we assessed depression using the Geriatric Depressive Scale/GDS as screening tool and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depression. We also used the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale/PANAS. Sociodemographics, and health were control variables. We performed a multinomial logistic regression to identify predicitive factors.
Fifty participants had depression at baseline, nine developed, 49 maintained, nine remitted, and 16 maintained without depression.
Having depression was associated with worse scores in UCLA, GAI, and PANAS. Not having depression was correlated with higher positive affect.
Baseline higher GAI and UCLA, and lower positive affect and satisfaction predicted recurrent depression.
Improvement in GDS, GAI, and positive affect predicted depression remission.
Results show that depression is a concern issue for professionals working with institutionalized elderly. Anxiety, loneliness, low positive affect and satisfaction constitute a risk factor for maintaing depression in institutionalized elderly and low anxiety and depressive symptoms are a protective factors for depression. These results could be used in depression prevention programs.
Cognitive rehabilitation techniques, reminiscence therapy, and reality orientation therapy, have shown an impact on cognition, life satisfaction, mood, and on the progression of cognitive decline in elderly.
To test the effectiveness of a NRGP on the cognitive and emotional functioning of institutionalized elderly.
single blind randomized controlled study with paired groups.
Coimbra institutionalized elderly, aged between 64-92 (N = 88) with cognitive impairment no dementia, mostly women (75.0%).
randomization of participants to the rehabilitation group/RG (n = 41) and to the comparison/waiting-list group/CG (n = 23). NRGP involved groups of five elders, and took 90 min. per day, once a week, for 10 weeks.
Mini-Mental State Examination/MMSE, Frontal Evaluation Battery/FAB, Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS.
We used general linear model with repeated measures analysis of variance.
RG improved significantly on cognitive, and executive function (p < 0.001), and CG worsened on cognitive, executive function, and mood (p < 0.01). There was a significant effect on the MMSE, FAB, and GDS scores, after excluding pre-rehabilitation scores as covariates [F (1, 81) = 43.98, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.35; F(1, 80) = 28.37, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.26; F(1, 79) = 19.66, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.20].
A NRGP including cognitive rehabilitation, reminiscence therapy, and reality orientation proved to be effective on cognitive and executive functioning, and on depressive symptoms of institutionalized elders with cognitive impairment no dementia.
Psychiatric training in the European Union is undergoing a process of harmonization of national curricula in order to establish a common postgraduate training framework. The Research Group of the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) is conducting a multi-national study on psychiatry education of trainees among the European countries in regard to the Union Européenne Des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) 2009 competencies framework.
The aims are to raise awareness on these competencies, compile data on trainees‘ experience of their training and assessment methods, opinions on level of confidence, and on relevance of these competencies.
This study surveyed trainees from 15 EFPT countries using a questionnaire developed specifically for this research.
Psychiatric training in Europe differs significantly regarding length, with a training duration ranging from 4 to 8 years. Only 26,7% of the trainees were well acquainted with the UEMS competencies and trainees from only 8 countries declared to have a competency based national training curriculum. These results reveal that trainees have different experiences and opinions on competencies and assessment methods depending on their country of residence.
A limitation of the results may be that our respondents are the EFPT representatives’ and probably have better knowledge on the educational issues.
The combined quantitative and qualitative outlook on national training programmes from the trainees point of view enhances our understanding and perspective of the dynamic processes of psychiatric education in Europe. Data obtained from this research study contributes to the efforts to unify psychiatric training curricula.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing the one's own death and it can be explored by different studies using different methodologies, one of which is the statistical analysis of suicide, recognized by World Health Organization as very useful in research to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon.
Research data from statistical analysis collected from various countries shows that there are gender-by-culture differences in rates of suicide completion and it has been reported that biological, social and psychological factors affect suicidal behavior differently in men and women.
Several variables were characterized by the authors not only to establish the gender differences in suicide completion in the central Portugal but also to compare this reality with nacional and european patterns.
The authors present a retrospective study of forensic autopsies performed between 2006 and 2010 in the central portuguese regions of Aveiro, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Covilhã, Figueira da Foz, Guarda, Leiria, Viseu and Tomar. Among 8148 forensic autopsies 15% (N=1248) were due to suicide and data collected from these forensic post mortem exams helped to establish the profile and circumstances of suicide in men and women.
Health care professionals must consider gender differences in treating patients who are at risk for suicide, although this field clearly deserves more research attention to generate information that can guide clinical practice and prevention strategies.
Living alone, limited personal social networks are, according to theliterature, factors that contribute to experience loneliness. It is known thatthe last stage of the life cycle is strongly marked by generational loss, beingmarked in this phase, beyond the network shrinkage, reducing opportunities forrenewal along with lower energy to activate, mobilize and maintain active linksof the network (Sluzki, 1996).
To determine the predictors of loneliness in a resident population in centralPortugal.
300 elderly people (mean age = 74.03/SD = ± 8.511) were surveyed. The sample wasassessed with the UCLA Loneliness scale, EQ5D, Lubben social networks and asmall sociodemographic questionnaire. The UCLA Loneliness presentedreliability, measured by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.905).
To determine loneliness predictors a binary logistic regression was performed, with seven independent variables “age”, “sex”, “seeyour family”, “having spouse”, “Lubben socialnetworks”, “level of education” and “EQ5 health”. Thefull model containing all predictors was statistically significant, c2(15, N = 300) = 86.801, p <0.001. The model as a whole explained 26.1% (Cox and Snell R2) and 39.2% (R2 Nagelkerke) variation and correctly classified84.3% of cases. Logistic regression showed that “age” (p = 0.055), “sex” (p = 0.091), “sees his family”(p = 0.023), “spouse” (p <0.001), “Lubben socialnetworks”(p = 0.027),“level of education ”(p = 0.038)and“ health EQ5 ”(p<0.001) were loneliness predictors.
Given these results social intervention for active citizenship, networked, withthe elderly population is suggested.
Antiparkinsonian drugs increase dopaminergic system activity in order to compensate dopamine neurons degeneration in corpus striatum.
To study antiparkinsonian drugs hallucinatory side effect
Our study included 28 geriatric patients enrolled in a private long-term care institution with mean age 84.93 ± 5.71 years old, weight mean 66.36 ± 2.83 kg with Parkinson’s disease.
Drugs administered to patients with Parkinson’s disease were studied.
The association of L-DOPA and DOPA descarboxylase inhibitor (benserazide) were administered to 53%(15) in doses between 2.0-19.0 mg/kg/day.
L-DOPA associated to catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor (entacapone)
3 mg/kg/day were given to 7.14% (2) patients.
Bromocriptine 0.04 mg/kg/day were given to 3.57% (1) patient.
39.29% (11) did not received any antiparkinsonian drug.
Mental confusion and hallucination side effect were observed in 53.33%(8) patients treated with L-DOPA associated to DOPA descarboxylase inhibitor (benserazide).
The increase of dopamine levels due to the administration L-DOPA, in corpus striatum improved Parkinson’s disease symptoms although undesirable effect related to dopamine activity at mesocortical pathway such as confusion and hallucination were observed.
Nutrient requirements in cattle are dependent on physiological stage, breed and environmental conditions. In Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, the lack of data remains a limiting factor for estimating energy and protein requirements. Thus, we aimed to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers raised under tropical conditions. Twenty-two crossbred (½ Holstein × ½ Gyr) heifers with an average initial BW of 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and 3 to 4 months of age were used. To estimate requirements, the comparative slaughter technique was used: four animals were assigned to the reference group, slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to estimate the initial empty BW (EBW) and composition of the animals that remained in the experiment. The remaining animals were randomized into three treatments based on targeted rates of BW gain: high (1.0 kg/day), low (0.5 kg/day) and close to maintenance (0.1 kg/day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to determine EBW, empty body gain (EBG) and body energy and protein contents. The linear regression parameters were estimated using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4). Estimates of the parameters of non-linear regressions were adjusted through PROC NLIN of SAS using the Gauss–Newton method for parameter fit. The net requirements of energy for maintenance (NEm) and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 0.303 and 0.469 MJ/EBW0.75 per day, respectively. The efficiency of use of MEm was 64.5%. The estimated equation to predict the net energy requirement for gain (NEg) was: NEg (MJ/day) = 0.299 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.601. The efficiency of use of ME for gain (kg) was 30.7%. The requirement of metabolizable protein for maintenance was 3.52 g/EBW0.75 per day. The equation to predict net protein requirement for gain (NPg) was: NPg (g/day) = 243.65 × EBW−0.091 × EBG. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 50.8%. We observed noteworthy differences when comparing to ME and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers with other systems. In addition, we also observed differences in estimates for NEm, NEg, NPg, kg and k. Therefore, we propose that the equations generated in the present study should be used to estimate energy and protein requirements for Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers raised in tropical conditions in the post-weaning phase up to 185 kg of BW.
Tropical soils tend to harden during drying due to the generally low content of free-iron and organic carbon, combined with high fine sand and silt proportions. It was hypothesized that the change in soil physical condition induced by the addition of a leguminous mulch in cohesive tropical soil enriched with calcium may mitigate soil hardening through wetting and drying cycles by rain or irrigation, thereby improving the soil rootability. A leguminous mulch was added in different concentrations to a structurally fragile tropical soil enriched with calcium, which then had different irrigation intervals. The treatments were with or without mulch (10 t/ha), with or without added nitrogen (100 kg/ha at 2 intervals) and two irrigation intervals. In 2015 the irrigation intervals were either 4 or 8 days, and in 2016 they were either 6 or 9 days. Two years were used in the attempt to achieve greater differences, as for tested variables, between treatments. Maize planted in these soil treatments was measured for physiological performance, water use efficiency and yield. Mulch used on structurally fragile tropical soil enriched with calcium was found to delay increased penetration resistance from hardening by wet/dry cycles. In this context, an improved soil rootability led to an enlargement of the leaf area index, greater nitrogen uptake and increased CO2 assimilation. This had important physiological consequences due to the positive effect on increased dry matter production and maize yield. In addition, these results suggested that mulch, used with urea, can delay the water supply for 3 or 4 days due to improvements in soil rootability caused by calcium and organic matter interactions. This may be crucial to a region where small intervals without rain are increasingly common due to global climate change. Therefore, due to a greater water use efficiency, this strategy may be a profitable way to increase crop productivity in tropical conditions rather than increasing water and nutrient application alone.
Elderly institutionalization involves an emotional adaptation and the research shows that the risk of depression increases.
Evaluate the impact of a neuropsychological group rehabilitation program (NGRP) on depressive symptomatology of institutionalized elderly.
NGRP influences the decrease of depressive symptoms.
Elderly were assessed pre- and post-intervention with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and divided into a Rehabilitated Group (RG), a Waiting List Group (WLG), and a Neutral Task Group (NTG).
In this randomized study, before rehabilitation, 60 elderly people (RG; 80.31 ± 8.98 years of age; 74.2% women) had a mean GDS score of 13.33 (SD = 9.21). Five elderly included in the NTG (80.13 ± 10.84 years; 75.0% women) had a mean GDS score of 10.60 (SD = 4.72). Finally, 29 elderly in the WLG (81.32 ± 6.68 years; 69.0% women) had a mean GDS score of 14.93 (SD = 6.02). The groups were not different in GDS baseline scores (F = 0.74; P = 0.478). ANCOVA has shown significant differences (P < 0.05) in GDS scores between the three groups after 10 weeks. Sidak adjustment for multiple comparisons revealed that elderly in the WLG got worse scores in GDS, comparing with elderly in RG (P < 0.01), and with elderly in NTG (P < 0.05).
Elderly that are not involved in a task get worse in depressive symptomatology. Being involved in a structured group task means lower depressive symptoms and being in a NGRP means even greater results.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Conversion disorder is a condition defined by the presence of symptoms of altered voluntary motor or sensory function, not intentionally produced or feigned, presumed to be the expression of a psychological conflict or stressor, but mimicking neurological diseases or other medical conditions, that must be excluded before this diagnosis is made. The suspicion of conversion disorder arises when clinical findings are incompatible with the suggested neurological or medical conditions and there is a temporal relation between the onset of the symptoms and a psychological stressor. However, when these hints are absent, diagnosis may not be clear and require wider workup.
To make a brief review on conversion disorder and present an illustrative clinical-vignette.
We collected information from medical records and interview with the patient and made a research on PubMed with the MeSH terms “conversion disorder”.
We present a 51-years-old female outpatient with episodes of paralysis of left upper and lower limbs. Some months before the onset of these symptoms, her daughter came to live with her. Their relationship became very conflictual. Electroencephalogram, laboratory and imaging studies were normal. She did not tolerate the antidepressants tried (SSRI, SNRI and trazodone), but reported to feel better with amisulpride and alprazolam.
Widely discussed in the past as “hysteria”, conversion disorder is still intriguing, because little is known about the link between body and mind, making the management of patients with this disorder challenging and highlighting the need for more studies on the topic.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Several studies had shown the effectiveness of combined interventions in the treatment of young patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP). More controversial are the evidence about the stability of the therapeutic outcomes in individuals ultra-high risk (UHR).
To describe the regional project for the treatment of early psychosis implemented in the Reggio Emilia Mental Health Department (ReMHD) and also to report preliminary data from a 2-year follow-up.
In addition with the treatment as usual (TAU), treatment implemented within the regional project for early psychosis (PREP) in the ReMHD comprises the following:
– pharmacotherapy according to international guidelines;
– a phase-specific individualized Cognitive-Behavioural therapy;
– a psycho-educational intervention addressed to family members;
– a case management recovery-oriented.
Action strategies are preceded by the administration of Reggio Emilia at Risk mental States Battery Checklist as a comprehensive assessment useful to define the severity and the quality of symptoms, the degree of functioning, the subjectivity of suffering, and the perceived quality of life.
The assessment carried out after 24 months of continuous treatment showed significant improvements in both the psychotic symptoms (positive, negative and general psychopathology PANSS subscales) that the daily functioning (SOFAS).
Although our sample is still relatively small (n = 50) to draw definitive conclusions, it is emerging the good prognosis for UHR individuals and patients with FEP submitted on PREP treatment implemented in the ReMHD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
First wave cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) focuses essentially on classical conditioning and operant learning and second wave on information processing. They are based on the premise that certain cognitions, emotions and physiological states lead to dysfunctional behaviour and so, by eliminating the first ones, changes in behaviour will take place. Third wave CBT appeared in an attempt to increase the effectiveness of first and second wave by emphasizing contextual and experiential change strategies.
To make a review on the actual state of the art of third wave CBT, focusing on MBSR (Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), MCBT (Mindfulness-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy), DBT (Dialectical Behaviour Therapy), ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) and CFT (Compassion Focused Therapy).
Research on PubMed using the terms “third wave cognitive behavioural therapy”.
Methods and targets differ between MBSR, MCBT, DBT, ACT and CFT. Depression, anxiety and borderline personality disorders are some of those targets. However, a transdiagnostic approach is the hallmark of all third wave therapies: mental processes or emotions transversal to many psychiatric disorders such as shame, self-criticism, experiential avoidance or cognitive fusion are the main focus, emphasizing the context and human experience over any categorical diagnosis.
Third wave cognitive behavioural therapy is an emerging approach born from the need to improve and complement first and second waves. Although very promising, it is still a recent approach and data to support its superiority over the conventional therapies is missing.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To estimate the nutritional requirements of hair sheep, knowledge about the animal’s weight and its relationships with growth performances is essential. A study was carried with the objective to establish the relationships between BW, fasting BW (FBW), empty BW (EBW), average daily gain (ADG) and empty BW gain (EBWG) for hair sheep in growing and finishing phases in Brazilian conditions. Databases were obtained from 32 studies, for a total of 1145 observations; there were 3 sex classes (non-castrated male, castrated male and female) and 2 feeding systems (pasture and feedlot). The most representative breeds in the database were Santa Ines (n = 473), Morada Nova (n = 70) and Brazilian Somali (n = 47). The other animals in the database were crossbreeds (n = 555). The FBW (kg), EBW and EBWG (kg/day) were estimated according to linear regression. A random coefficient model was adopted, considering the study as a random effect and including the possibility of covariance between the slope and the intercept. The coefficients obtained from the linear regression of the FBW against the BW, EBW against the FBW and EBWG against the ADG did not differ between sex class (P > 0.05) and genotype (P > 0.05). The equations generated to estimate FBW from the BW, EBW from the FBW and EBWG from the ADG are as follows: FBW = −0.5470 (±0.2025) + 0.9313(±0.019) × BW, EBW = −1.4944 (±0.3639) + 0.8816 (±0.018) × FBW and EBWG = 0.906 (±0.019) × ADG, respectively. The low mean squared error values found in the cross-validation confirmed the reliability of these equations. Considering a sheep with a BW of 30 kg and a 100 g ADG, the estimated FBW, EBW and EBWG calculated using the generated equations are 27, 22.65 and 0.090 kg, respectively. In conclusion, the generated equations can be used in growing hair sheep. The validation procedure applied to the generated equations showed that its use for hair sheep seems to be appropriate.
The control of gastrointestinal nematodes among ruminants maintained in zoological parks remains difficult due to infective stages develop in the soil. For the purpose to improve the possibilities of the control of gastrointestinal nematodes (genera Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus, Chabertia and Haemonchus) affecting wild captive bovidae ruminants belonging to the subfamilies Antilopinae, Caprinae, Bovinae and Reduncinae, commercial pelleted feed enriched with a blend of 104–105 spores of both filamentous fungi Mucor circinelloides + Duddingtonia flagrans per kg meal was provided for a period of 3.5 years. All animals were dewormed at the beginning of the trial and also when exceeding a cut-off point of 300 eggs per gram of feces (EPG). The anthelmintic efficacy ranged between 96 and 100%. The need for repeating the administration of parasiticide treatment disappeared at the 24th month of study in the Antilopinae individuals, and at the 8th month in the Caprinae, Bovinae and Reduncinae. No side-effects were observed on the skin or in the digestive, respiratory or reproductive system. It was concluded that this strategy provides a sustainable tool for preventing the contamination of paddocks where captive ruminants are maintained, decreasing the risk of infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and consequently the need of frequent deworming.
We investigated the efficiency of the autoregressive repeatability model (AR) for genetic evaluation of longitudinal reproductive traits in Portuguese Holstein cattle and compared the results with those from the conventional repeatability model (REP). The data set comprised records taken during the first four calving orders, corresponding to a total of 416, 766, 872 and 766 thousand records for interval between calving to first service, days open, calving interval and daughter pregnancy rate, respectively. Both models included fixed (month and age classes associated to each calving order) and random (herd-year-season, animal and permanent environmental) effects. For AR model, a first-order autoregressive (co)variance structure was fitted for the herd-year-season and permanent environmental effects. The AR outperformed the REP model, with lower Akaike Information Criteria, lower Mean Square Error and Akaike Weights close to unity. Rank correlations between estimated breeding values (EBV) with AR and REP models ranged from 0.95 to 0.97 for all studied reproductive traits, when the total bulls were considered. When considering only the top-100 selected bulls, the rank correlation ranged from 0.72 to 0.88. These results indicate that the re-ranking observed at the top level will provide more opportunities for selecting the best bulls. The EBV reliabilities provided by AR model was larger for all traits, but the magnitudes of the annual genetic progress were similar between two models. Overall, the proposed AR model was suitable for genetic evaluations of longitudinal reproductive traits in dairy cattle, outperforming the REP model.