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The production of beef cattle in the Atlantic Forest biome mostly takes place in pastoral production systems. There are millions of hectares covered with pastures in this biome, including degraded pasture (DP), and only small area of the original Atlantic Forest has been preserved in tropics, implying that actions must be taken by the livestock sector to improve sustainability. Intensification makes it possible to produce the same amount, or more beef, in a smaller area; however, the environmental impacts must be assessed. Regarding climate change, the C dynamics is essential to define which beef cattle systems are sustainable. The objectives of this study were to investigate the C balance (t CO2e./ha per year), the intensity of C emission (kg CO2e./kg BW or carcass) and the C footprint (t CO2e./ha per year) of pasture-based beef cattle production systems, inside the farm gate and considering the inputs. The results were used to calculate the number of trees to be planted in beef cattle production systems to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The GHG emission and C balance, for 2 years, were calculated based on the global warming potential (GWP) of AR4 and GWP of AR5. Forty-eight steers were allotted to four grazing systems: DP, irrigated high stocking rate pasture (IHS), rainfed high stocking rate pasture (RHS) and rainfed medium stocking rate pasture (RMS). The rainfed systems (RHS and RMS) presented the lowest C footprints (−1.22 and 0.45 t CO2e./ha per year, respectively), with C credits to RMS when using the GWP of AR4. The IHS system showed less favorable results for C footprint (−15.71 t CO2e./ha per year), but results were better when emissions were expressed in relation to the annual BW gain (−10.21 kg CO2e./kg BW) because of its higher yield. Although the DP system had an intermediate result for C footprint (−6.23 t CO2e./ha per year), the result was the worst (−30.21 CO2e./kg BW) when the index was expressed in relation to the annual BW gain, because in addition to GHG emissions from the animals in the system there were also losses in the annual rate of C sequestration. Notably, the intensification in pasture management had a land-saving effect (3.63 ha for IHS, 1.90 for RHS and 1.19 for RMS), contributing to the preservation of the tropical forest.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Four new actinospore types belonging to the sphaeractinomyxon collective group (Cnidaria, Myxosporea) are described from the coelomic cavity of a marine Baltidrilus sp. (Oligochaeta, Naididae) inhabiting a northern Portuguese estuary. Host identification supports the usage of marine oligochaetes, namely of the family Naididae Ehrenberg, 1828, as definitive hosts for myxosporeans inhabiting estuarine/marine environments. The absence of mixed infections in the host specimens analysed is suggested to reflect the influence of host-, parasite- and environmental-related factors regulating myxosporean–annelid interactions. Molecular analyses matched the SSU rDNA sequences of three of the four new types with those of mugiliform-infecting Myxobolus spp., namely Myxobolus mugiliensis and a Myxobolus sp. from flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus, and Myxobolus labrosus from thicklip grey mullet Chelon labrosus. These results directly link, for the first time, the sphaeractinomyxon collective group to a myxospore counterpart, further confirming their previously hypothesized specific involvement in the life cycle of myxobolids that infect mullets. Acknowledging this life cycle relationship, the functionality of the sphaeractinomyxon morphotype is suggested to have been decisive for the evolutionary hyperdiversification of the genus Myxobolus in mullets. Unlike other actinospore morphotypes, sphaeractinomyxon lack valvular processes, which implies a limited capability for buoyancy. Considering the benthic-feeding nature of mullets, this feature is most likely crucial in promoting successful transmission to the vertebrate host.
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has been associated with a more rapid decline in lung function, increased hospitalisation and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clonal relationships among 116 MRSA isolates from 12 chronically colonised CF pediatric patients over a 6-year period in a Rio de Janeiro CF specialist centre. Isolates were characterised by antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, presence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes and grouped according to DNA macrorestriction profile by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa gene type. High resistance rates were detected for erythromycin (78%) and ciprofloxacin (50%) and SCCmec IV was the most common type (72.4%). Only 8.6% of isolates were PVL positive. High genetic diversity was evident by PFGE (39 pulsotypes) and of nine that were identified spa types, t002 (53.1%) and t539 (14.8%) were the most prevalent. We conclude that the observed homogeneity of spa types within patients over the study period demonstrates the persistence of such strain lineages throughout the course of chronic lung infection.
Verbal fluency (VF) involves complex processes and has been a good marker of cognitive decline. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning to witch factors are associated with VF.
Our aims are to analyze the relationship between both phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) and sociodemographic and psychopathological variables, and explore which emerge as significant predictors.
A subsample of 429 of healthy institutionalized elderly from the Aging Trajectories at Coimbra Council Project were surveyed (60 to 100 years; mean age = 80.38 ± 7.24), the majority was women (76.9%), without a partner (82.2%), without education or with less than four years of education (85.7%), manual occupation (90.1%), and attending day care centers. We evaluated VF phonetically (letters P, M, R) and semantically (animals and food), anxiety symptoms through the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), depressive symptoms through Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and feelings of loneliness through Loneliness Scale (UCLA).
PVF was significantly related with education, occupation, GAI, and GDS. SVF was significantly associated with age, education, occupation, and GDS. Furthermore, SVF scores were worse in elderly men and in those living in night care center, and PVF scores were lower in those with high levels of anxiety symptomatology. In logistic regression analysis none of the variables accounted for the variance in PVF. The only predictor of SVF was sex. In conclusion, this study allowed us to elucidate the only key factor underlying verbal fluency. Being a man may affect SVF performance in institutionalized elderly.
The changing epidemiological profile of population in recent decades is related to the socio-economic conditions of contemporaneity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is positioned in the chronic non-communicable diseases spectrum as one of the most prevalent being responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic adhere is of crucial importance because there are high risks associated with non-adherence and it impacts on quality of life.
Identifying therapeutic adherence predictors in type 2 diabetes (DM2).
188 patients attending diabetology consultations at the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, at Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra and at Associação Protetora dos Diabéticos de Portugal participated in the study. Participants completed the following set of self-report instruments: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Diabetes Health Profile (DHP), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE), and the social relations dimension of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL). Therapeutic adherence was established base on HbA1C clinical criteria.
Multiple regression analyses revealed that the full model was statistically significant [c 2 (4, n = 188) = 20.79, p >0.001] explaining between 20% and 29.6% of total variance and 76.3% of the cases were correctly classified. The four variables significantly contributed to the model, especially the BDI and the RSE, registering an odds ratio of 1.104 and 1.203, respectively.
In DM2 predictors of non-adherence were depression and diabetes patient health profile while self-esteem and quality of life in social relations, emerged as predictors of adherence.
The aim of this study was to understand the universe of a group of Muslim women, focusing their experiences in a western society, their perception of cultural differences and the repercussion of these factors mental health. for such, we applied the qualitative method using the semidirected interview in eight Muslim women who live in Brazil. the sample was constructed using the snow-ball technique, closed according to the criterion of saturation of data. the emergent categories starting from the statements were analyzed and explained in the light of psychosocial theories. the interviewers showed great interest in bringing up visibility to the religious questions which permeate the life of the Muslim people, emphasizing the lack of knowledge of the Western world concerning these issues. They say they are discriminated in several aspects, especially in relation to their clothes; they questioned the Western idea of the subdued woman, introducing as counterpoint the submission to the rigid patterns of beauty and health which permeate the female western universe. General aspects of Islam were also dealt with, including sexuality, marriage, raising children and the relations with the people of a country with habits and traditions different from their own. the impact of September 11th on the lives of these women was evident, promoting fear and social exclusion. as these issues are closely related to mental health, the study of the religious and ethnic minorities aiming the comprehension of mental disease through a culturally sensitive medicine is urgent.
Depression is very common among institutionalized elders. Because of the increased risk of cognitive impairment/dementia, and mortality we want to describe the evolution of depression and analyze predictive factors.
In the Aging Trajectories Study (Instituto Superior Miguel Torga - Coimbra), we followed up a sample of 83 nondemented persons (M ± SD baseline age = 79.51 ± 6.58; men: 17; women: 66). In a 2-year prospective cohort analysis (2010-2011, and 2013), we assessed depression using the Geriatric Depressive Scale/GDS as screening tool and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depression. We also used the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale/PANAS. Sociodemographics, and health were control variables. We performed a multinomial logistic regression to identify predicitive factors.
Fifty participants had depression at baseline, nine developed, 49 maintained, nine remitted, and 16 maintained without depression.
Having depression was associated with worse scores in UCLA, GAI, and PANAS. Not having depression was correlated with higher positive affect.
Baseline higher GAI and UCLA, and lower positive affect and satisfaction predicted recurrent depression.
Improvement in GDS, GAI, and positive affect predicted depression remission.
Results show that depression is a concern issue for professionals working with institutionalized elderly. Anxiety, loneliness, low positive affect and satisfaction constitute a risk factor for maintaing depression in institutionalized elderly and low anxiety and depressive symptoms are a protective factors for depression. These results could be used in depression prevention programs.
Affectivity is related to cognitive impairment, but it is not known whether positive affect and negative affect increase/decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. In this study, we sought to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment, and the potential role of positive and negative affectivity on cognitive functioning in institutionalized portuguese elderly, controlling the potential role of demographic and emotional factors.
A cross sectional investigation has been conducted with a portuguese institutionalized sample at Coimbra’s Council. We inquired 412 healthy elderly with a mean age of 80.38 years (SD = 7.24) using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI). Demographic (76.9% women, 14.3% > 4 years of education, 99.1% manual occupation, 82.2% without partner) and other self-reported related factors were taken into consideration (GDS mean 14.30 ± 6.31; GAI mean = 12.49 ± 5.93).
The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 66.6% (youngest-old: 1.4%; young-old: 24.7%, old-old: 36.5%, oldest-old: 3.9%). We found that only the positive affect was significantly related with the MMSE (r = 0.22). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that positive affect predicted impairment in cognitive performance (OR = 0.96, CI 95% = 0.93-0.98; p < 0.001). These relationships were significant even after controlling for depression and anxiety status, age, education, and occupation.
These findings suggest that positive affect is a variable to attend to when evaluating cognitive functioning in institutionalized elderly.
Corticosteroids have either somatic and psychiatric side effects. Somatic adverse effects are well described while neuropsychiatric have received less attention. Psychiatric symptoms such as depression, psychosis and especially mania are common side effects of corticotherapy.
Aims and objectives
Describe a case of a 53 year old female patient, with no psychiatric history, who developed psychiatric symptoms during the treatment of an acute exacerbation of multiple sclerosis with large parenteral doses of corticosteroids. Three days after the onset of corticotherapy she developed increased energy, elevated mood, increased motor activity, racing thoughts, and diminished need for sleep. She subsequently developed grandiose and persecutory ideation and then feared her grandson was going to die. This lead to her admission to psychiatric unit of our hospital to address this behavioral problems. Her husband noticed that she had become “hyper” in the past when she received pulse corticosteroid therapy, but the most recent episode was by far the worst.
Revision of the scientific literature through Pubmed, Embase and Psychinfo using search terms including corticosteroids, mania, depression, psychosis and mood.
Prednisone was suspended and Risperidone 2 mg was begun for presumed steroid-induced mood disorder, and the patient became calmer and much less guarded over the next 2-3 days. After a week she recovered complete euthymic mood and reverted to normal functioning.
These data suggest that Risperidone is well tolerated and appears to be useful for mood disturbances associated with corticosteroid therapy. Controlled trials seem warranted to confirm these observations.
Cognitive rehabilitation techniques, reminiscence therapy, and reality orientation therapy, have shown an impact on cognition, life satisfaction, mood, and on the progression of cognitive decline in elderly.
To test the effectiveness of a NRGP on the cognitive and emotional functioning of institutionalized elderly.
single blind randomized controlled study with paired groups.
Coimbra institutionalized elderly, aged between 64-92 (N = 88) with cognitive impairment no dementia, mostly women (75.0%).
randomization of participants to the rehabilitation group/RG (n = 41) and to the comparison/waiting-list group/CG (n = 23). NRGP involved groups of five elders, and took 90 min. per day, once a week, for 10 weeks.
Mini-Mental State Examination/MMSE, Frontal Evaluation Battery/FAB, Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS.
We used general linear model with repeated measures analysis of variance.
RG improved significantly on cognitive, and executive function (p < 0.001), and CG worsened on cognitive, executive function, and mood (p < 0.01). There was a significant effect on the MMSE, FAB, and GDS scores, after excluding pre-rehabilitation scores as covariates [F (1, 81) = 43.98, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.35; F(1, 80) = 28.37, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.26; F(1, 79) = 19.66, p < 0.001; η2 = 0.20].
A NRGP including cognitive rehabilitation, reminiscence therapy, and reality orientation proved to be effective on cognitive and executive functioning, and on depressive symptoms of institutionalized elders with cognitive impairment no dementia.
Mania has been estimated to represent the cause of 4.6% to 18.5% of all geriatric psychiatric admissions and 10% of new-onset mania cases have been found to occur in individuals over the age of 50. Age of onset can have a significant impact on the nature and course of bipolar illness.
Review the current literature of pharmacologic management of late-life bipolar disorder and discuss the differential diagnosis.
Brief literature review.
Case report and literature review.
We describe a case of a 76-years-old female with elevated mood, verbosity, distractibility, irritability, inadequate social behavior, reduced requirement of sleep, increased physical activity, impulsive business investments. Several tests were made: analytical study, CT scan and neuropsychological evaluation, none with significant alterations. She was treated with an antipsychotic drug with improvement of symptoms.
There is a limited evidence base for treatment of bipolar disorder in the elderly and further controlled studies are needed. Current data suggest that valproate and lamotrigine may be better tolerated as mood stabilizers than lithium. Preliminary reports suggest a role for the use of atypical antipsychotic in older adults with bipolar disorder although potential benefit must be balanced against the potential risks of treatment. In treating elderly bipolar patients, one has to keep in mind that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes that occur with ageing, associated with frequent concomitant medical illnesses and their treatments, are likely to increase the risk of adverse events and drug interactions.
When cognitive decline (CD) is present, attention is one of the impaired mental functions. CD is also associated with anxious/depressive symptoms and with some demographic variables, particularly, age.
Investigate the associations between selective attention (Stroop Test: Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Difference between Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color and Difference between Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_ Color) and CD (Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA) in institutionalized elders; explore the predictive value of Stroop variables for CD, controlling anxious/depressive symptoms and sociodemographic variables.
140 institutionalized elders (mean age, M = 78.4, SD = 7.48, range = 60-97) voluntarily answered to sociodemographic questions, the MoCA, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS and Stroop test.
73 elders (52, 1%) had CD. Dichotomized MoCA was associated with Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color, GDS and the sociodemographic variable schooling × profession. Age and education were not tested, since MoCA was stratified according to those variables. GDS, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color showed to predict CD.
There was an association between Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color and CD, confirming that selective attention is smaller when the elderly reveal CD. GDS and CD were, also, associated. However, there was no association between MoCA dichotomized and differences between the correct answers (Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color) and Ratios (Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color). Selective attention and depressive symptoms predicted CD. It would be important to intervene through cognitive rehabilitation with the elders to improve their attention.
The clinical syndromes related to fronto-temporal lobar degeneration are the second most common cause of pre-senile primary dementia. There are three distinct clinical variants: behavioral-variant fronto-temporal dementia (BvFTD), semantic dementia and progressive non-fluent aphasia. BvFTD is characterized by a significant change in the patients personality and social behavior, and impaired executive function.
Review the current literature on both the pharmacologic and nonphar- macologic management of fronto-temporal dementia.
Brief literature review.
Case report and literature review.
We describe case of a 65-years-old male with hyperactivity, desinhibition, aggressive, stereotyped and persevering behaviors with continuous walking and changes in eating habits (hyperphagia). He also presented distractibility, poor speech with loss of spontaneity, an indifferent attitude, mental rigidity, inflexibility, and lack of insight for his condition. This condition developed within one year, with a change in his personality and the appearance of an inadequate social conduct, with an insidious onset and gradual progression. He has family history of dementia. Computerized Tomography scan shows lobar fronto-temporal atrophy. During hospitalization no drugs has had effect, apart from paroxetine (partial response).
Concerning therapy, several drugs were used without proved effect in controlling the symptoms, highlighting the difficulty in the psychopharmacological approach of this disorder. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown some effect on behavior.
Nutrient requirements in cattle are dependent on physiological stage, breed and environmental conditions. In Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, the lack of data remains a limiting factor for estimating energy and protein requirements. Thus, we aimed to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers raised under tropical conditions. Twenty-two crossbred (½ Holstein × ½ Gyr) heifers with an average initial BW of 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and 3 to 4 months of age were used. To estimate requirements, the comparative slaughter technique was used: four animals were assigned to the reference group, slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to estimate the initial empty BW (EBW) and composition of the animals that remained in the experiment. The remaining animals were randomized into three treatments based on targeted rates of BW gain: high (1.0 kg/day), low (0.5 kg/day) and close to maintenance (0.1 kg/day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to determine EBW, empty body gain (EBG) and body energy and protein contents. The linear regression parameters were estimated using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4). Estimates of the parameters of non-linear regressions were adjusted through PROC NLIN of SAS using the Gauss–Newton method for parameter fit. The net requirements of energy for maintenance (NEm) and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 0.303 and 0.469 MJ/EBW0.75 per day, respectively. The efficiency of use of MEm was 64.5%. The estimated equation to predict the net energy requirement for gain (NEg) was: NEg (MJ/day) = 0.299 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.601. The efficiency of use of ME for gain (kg) was 30.7%. The requirement of metabolizable protein for maintenance was 3.52 g/EBW0.75 per day. The equation to predict net protein requirement for gain (NPg) was: NPg (g/day) = 243.65 × EBW−0.091 × EBG. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 50.8%. We observed noteworthy differences when comparing to ME and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers with other systems. In addition, we also observed differences in estimates for NEm, NEg, NPg, kg and k. Therefore, we propose that the equations generated in the present study should be used to estimate energy and protein requirements for Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers raised in tropical conditions in the post-weaning phase up to 185 kg of BW.
The term “sexual minority” includes a variety of gender and sexual identities and expressions that differ from cultural norms. Usually, sexual minorities are comprised of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals.
Definition of the correct terminology for sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, gender identity, gender expression and gender dysphoria.
Literature review concerning researched articles published in Pubmed/Medline as well as related bibliography.
Human sexuality is a broad concept that embodies interaction among anatomy, hormones, physiology, psychology, interpersonal relationships and sociocultural influences.
Healthcare providers can support sexual minorities by normalizing sexuality throughout childhood, early identification of gender or sexual orientation nonconformity and associated psychosocial and health concerns, helping parents support their child, assisting with decisions about disclosure and providing educational resources to the community.
This work focuses on providing more awareness about this topic and reducing stigma associated with sexual minorities.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The scientific community assumes that rigorous methodology research is more likely to be published in high impact psychiatry journals (HIJ). We aimed to test which methodological variables could predict publication in HIJ.
We conducted a systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 2013, January 1st to 2015, June 15th. Inclusion criteria were studies that were RCTs whose at least one arm of the study should be fluoxetine regarding adult patients (> 18 years old) with MDD. We performed logistic regression regarding the number of participants, intention-to-treat analysis, blinding, multicenter study, sample losses, positive result, sponsorship of pharmacy's industry, and h-index of the last author. A HIJ was considered if journal impact factor was above the median or 3rd quartile of our sample.
Forty-two studies were considered for the final analysis. The results of the univariate logistic regression found no differences between HIJ and low impact psychiatry journals for all methodological variables, except the h-index of the last author. By considering HIJ when impact factor was above the mean, h-index had an odds ratio = 1.09 (1.01–1.17), P = 0.02; considering HIJ when impact factor was above the 3rd quartile, h-index had an odds ratio = 1.07 (1.01–1.14), P = 0.02.
Our results indicate that the author productivity may be a relevant predictor for publication in a HIJ in the psychiatry/psychology field. Our study proposes that journals focus on identifying what are the relevant criteria for publication approval in the peer-review process.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Sensory processing is the individual's ability to receive, process and integrate sensory information from the environment and body movement in the central nervous system, in order to produce adaptive responses. Sensory processing disorders (SPD) are associated to difficulties in regulating emotions and behaviours as well as motor abilities in response to sensory stimulation that lead to impairment in development and functioning. It is estimated that SPD affect 5–16% of school-aged children. Although these diseases constitute a primary diagnostic category in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Development Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: DC0-3, they have not yet been validated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM. In the latest edition of DSM, SPD were only included as one of the diagnostic criteria of autism-spectrum disorders. However, several studies have suggested that SPD may present themselves solely or coexist with other clinical conditions.
The aim of this study was to review systematically the relationship between SPD and psychopathology.
Articles indexed in the Pubmed database were analyzed.
Although sensory processing problems are well known to occur in association with autism, their relationship with other mental disorders is not a well studied area. Some studies have related them with ADHD, behavioural disorders and learning disorders. Some studies also comproved that SPD are a valid diagnosis and that there are individuals with SPD who do not meet the criteria for other known disorder. One study found an abnormal white matter microstructure in children with SPD. Despite these findings SPD need to be further studied.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces (TPMS) possess locally minimized surface area under the constraint of periodic boundary conditions. Different families of surfaces were obtained with different topologies satisfying such conditions. Examples of such families include Primitive (P), Gyroid (G) and Diamond (D) surfaces. From a purely mathematical subject, TPMS have been recently found in materials science as optimal geometries for structural applications. Proposed by Mackay and Terrones in 1991, schwarzites are 3D crystalline porous carbon nanocrystals exhibiting a TPMS-like surface topology. Although their complex topology poses serious limitations on their synthesis with conventional nanoscale fabrication methods, such as Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD), schwarzites can be fabricated by Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as 3D Printing. In this work, we used an optimized atomic model of a schwarzite structure from the D family (D8bal) to generate a surface mesh that was subsequently used for 3D-printing through Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). This D schwarzite was 3D-printed with thermoplastic PolyLactic Acid (PLA) polymer filaments. Mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated for both the atomic model and the 3D-printed one. Fully atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were also carried out to investigate the uniaxial compression behavior of the D8bal atomic model. Mechanical testings were performed on the 3D-printed schwarzite where the deformation mechanisms were found to be similar to those observed in MD simulations. These results are suggestive of a scale-independent mechanical behavior that is dominated by structural topology.
Cipo Canastero Asthenes luizae is a relict ovenbird restricted to rocky outcrops at high elevations within the campo rupestre vegetation of the Espinhaço Range in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. This poorly known species is considered ‘Near Threatened’, but recent studies have suggested that it should be listed under a higher category of threat. To contribute to the knowledge of this species and its conservation assessment and related planning, we compiled all literature records of the species distribution (n = 16 locations), collected new data on its occurrence (n = 72 locations), and calculated its geographic range using four different approaches. First, we defined the sky islands where the species occurs (nine units) using the lowest elevation value recorded (1,100 m asl) as a cut-off. Second, we performed species distribution modelling (SDM) across the sky islands and identified an area of 2,225.21 km2. Third, we measured the species’ extent of occurrence (EOO = 24,555.85 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (EOOup = 30,697.58 km2). Fourth, we measured the area of occupancy (AOO = 228 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (AOOup = 1,827.39 km2). We analysed the Cipo Canastero sky islands in terms of landscape metrics including size, isolation, protected area coverage, shape index, core area index, and proportion covered by SDM. We observed a very fragmented distribution, especially in the North sector of the species distribution, composed of small and isolated populations (separated by up to 112 km); the South sector is the core of its distribution and is composed of larger, more connected patches with differences in shape complexity that are not strongly influenced by an edge effect. The range sizes calculated, along with other reported information regarding population and habitat trends, justifies the inclusion of the species in at least the ‘Vulnerable’ category.