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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative–control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS). We examined familial aggregation of cognitive impairment by investigating within-family prediction of MCCB scores based on probands’ scores.
Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze group differences in adjusted MCCB scores. Weighted least-squares analysis was used to investigate whether probands’ MCCB scores predicted REL neurocognitive performance.
SCZ were significantly impaired on all MCCB domains. REL had intermediate scores between SCZ and HCS, showing a similar pattern of impairment, except for social cognition. Proband's scores significantly predicted REL MCCB scores on all domains except for visual learning.
In a large sample of stable patients with schizophrenia, living in the community, and in their unaffected relatives, MCCB demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive deficits in both groups. Our findings of significant within-family prediction of MCCB scores might reflect disease-related genetic or environmental factors.
The study aimed to subtype patients with schizophrenia on the basis of social cognition (SC), and to identify cut-offs that best discriminate among subtypes in 809 out-patients recruited in the context of the Italian Network for Research on Psychoses.
A two-step cluster analysis of The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), the Facial Emotion Identification Test and Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test scores was performed. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the cut-offs of variables that best discriminated among clusters.
We identified three clusters, characterized by unimpaired (42%), impaired (50.4%) and very impaired (7.5%) SC. Three theory-of-mind domains were more important for the cluster definition as compared with emotion perception and emotional intelligence. Patients more able to understand simple sarcasm (⩾14 for TASIT-SS) were very likely to belong to the unimpaired SC cluster. Compared with patients in the impaired SC cluster, those in the very impaired SC cluster performed significantly worse in lie scenes (TASIT-LI <10), but not in simple sarcasm. Moreover, functioning, neurocognition, disorganization and SC had a linear relationship across the three clusters, while positive symptoms were significantly lower in patients with unimpaired SC as compared with patients with impaired and very impaired SC. On the other hand, negative symptoms were highest in patients with impaired levels of SC.
If replicated, the identification of such subtypes in clinical practice may help in tailoring rehabilitation efforts to the person's strengths to gain more benefit to the person.
This work presents the design of a system for wireless power transmission based on a compact rectenna array able to supply low-power electronic devices such as wireless sensors. The receiving section is realized with an array of 12 rectangular patch antennas. Each elements of the array is connected with a suitable harmonic filter and a rectifying circuit by means of a coaxial feeding point. The transmitting section is realized with a one-dimensional prime focus parabolic reflector antenna, with a linear feeder composed by four dipole antennas. The rectenna array, the harmonic filter, the rectifying circuit of the receivers, and the transmitting section were optimized to reach the maximum operative range and efficiency, in term of power transfer. A system prototype has been designed, optimized, fabricated, and experimentally assessed. In particular, a prototype operating in the S band and able to provide a supply power of about 50 mW serves as proof-of-concept. Moreover, theoretical guidelines for the design of wireless power transmission are provided. The obtained experimental results are quite promising and demonstrated the capabilities of wireless power transmission systems as alternative power supply sources.
Classification and parametrization of unresolved galaxies to be detected by Gaia is the
goal of our contribution to DPAC/CU8. Gaia will observe more than several times
106 unresolved galaxies seen almost as point sources. For the classification
and parametrization of these sources we have undertaken the following tasks: a) providing
libraries of synthetic galaxy spectra (produced under the PÉGASE.2 code of galaxy
evolution) and a semi-empirical library using observed galaxy spectra from SDSS data
archive. b) Developping an appropriate algorithm called Unresolved Galaxy Classifier
(UGC). The algorithm is being developed implementing the Support Vector Machines (SVM), a
supervised training technique. This algorithm utilizes Gaia simulated BP/RP galaxy spectra
of our synthetic galaxy library.
El sistema tradicional de producción caprina del norte de Neuquen (Patagonia, Argentina), desarrollado por “crianceros” trashumantes, es un sistema marginal de baja dotación de recursos económicos y alta fragilidad ambiental pero que dispone de un alto capital cultural, un recurso genético adaptado y un producto de calidad superior reconocida pero no diferenciado. A fin de superar esta situación se propone la aplicación de una Denominación de Origen (DO). La propuesta se basó en la organización de los integrantes de la cadena de valor de la carne caprina regional y la determinación de sus cualidades tecnológicas ligado a la raza Criolla Neuquina. Se construyó una visión común sobre el sistema y su identidad, expresada en el Protocolo de la Denominación de Origen del “Chivito Criollo del Norte Neuquino”. Los estudios sobre la tipicidad y calidad han permitido establecer indicadores de la misma y la trazabilidad del producto. El fortalecimiento de las organizaciones campesinas y la conformación de un espacio de articulación ha permitido niveles de concertación inexistentes hasta el presente que potencian el desarrollo del territorio y lo capitalizan, dando proyección a la sostenibilidad del sistema y del recurso genético.
We have developed a compact, 14.7 nm, sub-5 ps X-ray laser source at
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) together with a Mach-Zehnder
type diffraction grating interferometer built at Colorado State University
for probing dense, high intensity laser-produced plasmas. The short
wavelength and pulse length of the probe reduces refraction, absorption
effects within the plasma and minimizes plasma motion blurring. This
unique diagnostic capability gives precise two-dimensional (2D) density
profile snapshots and is generating new data for rapidly evolving
laser-heated plasmas. A review of the results from dense, mm-scale line
focus plasma experiments will be described with detailed comparisons to
The local environment of light emitting silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) embedded in amorphous SiO2 has been studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and by ab-initio total energy calculations. Si-nc have been formed by PECVD deposition of SiOx with different Si content (from 35 to 42 at.%) and thermal annealing at high temperature (1250 °C). The comparison between total electron yield (TEY) and photoluminescence yield (PLY) spectra has allowed the identification of a modified region of SiO2 (about 1 nm thick) surrounding the Si-nc, which participates to the light emission of Si-nc. Total energy calculations, within the density functional theory, clearly show that Si-nc are surrounded by a cap-shell of stressed SiO2 with a thickness of about 1 nm. The optoelectronic properties show the appearance of localized states not only in the Si-nc core region but also in the modified SiO2 region.
Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) embedded in amorphous silica matrix have been obtained by thermal annealing of substoichiometric SiOx films, deposited by PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition) technique with different amount of Si concentrations (42 and 46 at.%). Both nucleation and evolution of Si-nc together with the changes of the amorphous matrix have been studied as a function of the annealing temperature. The comparison of x-ray absorption measurements in Total Electron Yield (TEY) mode at the Si k-edge with photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and Raman spectra, allowed clarifying the processes of Si-nc formation and structural evolution as a function of the annealing temperature and Si content.
Surveillance of dengue fever is mainly based on specific laboratory tests. However non-specific
systems, such as clinical surveillance, are also required. In French Guiana, we have tested a
non-specific laboratory surveillance system where different biological examinations performed
for other reasons than the diagnosis of dengue fever were analysed as methods for dengue
fever surveillance. The number of negative malaria diagnoses in Cayenne and Kourou was
found to be the best indicator of dengue fever infections in these towns. This surveillance
system appears to be very simple and reliable, and a test which could serve as an indicator that
is likely to be found everywhere.
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