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Rudd’s Lark Heteromirafra ruddi is a globally threatened species endemic to eastern South Africa’s highland grasslands, where climate envelope modelling has predicted a dramatic reduction in its already small and fragmented distribution. Here we assess recent changes in one of its last strongholds, the Wakkerstroom grasslands. We assessed changes in Rudd’s Lark population and habitat condition over 12 years, within a core section of an area intensively surveyed in 2002–2004. Our 2016 survey found lower absolute numbers of Rudd’s Larks (five transects with Rudd’s Lark present compared to nine in 2002; nine individuals compared to 32), as well as a lower probability of encounter. Transects with shorter grass and higher altitude had a higher probability of Rudd’s Larks occurrence, consistent with findings in 2002. Point locations where Rudd’s Larks were recorded had shorter grass, higher forb cover and more bare ground cover, and tended to be at higher altitudes than random locations in the surrounding grassland. Remotely-sensed fire data showed that late-season fires, which pose a threat to Rudd’s Lark nestling survival, are generally uncommon. Field observations indicated that seven transects (of which two previously contained Rudd’s Lark) that had previously been grassland had been converted to intensive crop production. While Rudd’s Lark may be affected by direct loss of grassland habitat through conversion to crops, the species has also declined within remaining grassland habitat. The drivers of decline remain unclear but this recent observed local decline of Rudd’s Lark in the immediate Wakkerstroom area supports the species’ recent IUCN uplisting to globally ‘Endangered’, given that its previous downlisting was based on habitat requirements and breeding success from this area.
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
Distinguishing a disorder of persistent and impairing grief from normative grief allows clinicians to identify this often undetected and disabling condition. As four diagnostic criteria sets for a grief disorder have been proposed, their similarities and differences need to be elucidated.
Participants were family members bereaved by US military service death (N = 1732). We conducted analyses to assess the accuracy of each criteria set in identifying threshold cases (participants who endorsed baseline Inventory of Complicated Grief ⩾30 and Work and Social Adjustment Scale ⩾20) and excluding those below this threshold. We also calculated agreement among criteria sets by varying numbers of required associated symptoms.
All four criteria sets accurately excluded participants below our identified clinical threshold (i.e. correctly excluding 86–96% of those subthreshold), but they varied in identification of threshold cases (i.e. correctly identifying 47–82%). When the number of associated symptoms was held constant, criteria sets performed similarly. Accurate case identification was optimized when one or two associated symptoms were required. When employing optimized symptom numbers, pairwise agreements among criteria became correspondingly ‘very good’ (κ = 0.86–0.96).
The four proposed criteria sets describe a similar condition of persistent and impairing grief, but differ primarily in criteria restrictiveness. Diagnostic guidance for prolonged grief disorder in International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11) functions well, whereas the criteria put forth in Section III of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) are unnecessarily restrictive.
The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Aging defined “successful aging” as active engagement in life, maintenance of high cognitive and physical function, and avoidance of disease (Rowe and Kahn, 1987). Closely aligned with “successful aging” is resilience, that is, the ability to adapt and thrive in the face of adversity.
The prevalence of sleep problems among pregnant women is over 50%, and daytime sleepiness is among the most common sleep problems. Previous studies have associated antenatal sleep problems with adverse maternal health and neonatal outcomes, but the consequences of antenatal sleep problems and particularly daytime sleepiness on child psychological development have not been assessed prospectively.
In this prospective cohort study including 111 mother-child dyads, we examined the associations of maternal daytime sleepiness during pregnancy, assessed at 17 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with child neuropsychiatric problems and neuropsychological development, assessed with mother-rated questionnaires and individually administered neuropsychological tests, at child age 2.6–5.7 years (mean = 4.3 years).
Independently of sociodemographic and perinatal covariates and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during and/or after pregnancy, maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness was associated with increased total [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) = 0.25 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.48] and internalizing (B = 0.25 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.01–0.49) psychiatric problems and ADHD symptoms (B = 0.27 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.04–0.50) in children, and with poorer executive function, particularly in the areas of attention, working memory and inhibitory control (B = −0.39 s.d.s: 95% CI −0.69 to −0.10).
Maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness carries adverse consequences for offspring psychological development. The assessment of sleep problems may be an important addition to standard antenatal care.
The World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Disease (ICD-11) is expected to include a new diagnosis for prolonged grief disorder (ICD-11PGD). This study examines the validity and clinical utility of the ICD-11PGD guideline by testing its performance in a well-characterized clinical sample and contrasting it with a very different criteria set with the same name (PGDPLOS).
We examined data from 261 treatment-seeking participants in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-sponsored multicenter clinical trial to determine the rates of diagnosis using the ICD-11PGD guideline and compared these with diagnosis using PGDPLOS criteria.
The ICD-11PGD guideline identified 95.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 93.3–98.2%] of a treatment-responsive cohort of patients with distressing and impairing grief. PGDPLOS criteria identified only 59.0% (95% CI 53.0–65.0%) and were more likely to omit those who lost someone other than a spouse, were currently married, bereaved by violent means, or not diagnosed with co-occurring depression. Those not diagnosed by PGDPLOS criteria showed the same rate of treatment response as those who were diagnosed.
The ICD-11PGD diagnostic guideline showed good performance characteristics in this sample, while PGDPLOS criteria did not. Limitations of the research sample used to derive PGDPLOS criteria may partly explain their poor performance in a more diverse clinical sample. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the important difference between these two identically named diagnostic methods.
Between 1973 December 1 and 1974 February 2, optical emission lines from the gas cloud surrounding comet Kohoutek were observed using a double Fabry-Perot etalon spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The spectrometer had a resolving power of 40,000, corresponding to a velocity resolution of about 7.5 km sec-1. With this resolution it was possible to use the cometearth relative velocity to resolve faint cometary Hα λ6563,  λ6300 and other emission lines from geocoronal and airglow emissions and to study the cometary line profiles in order to obtain information about the composition, effective temperatures, outflow velocities, and production rates of atoms and ions in the cometary envelope.
Proliferation of ETEC in the small intestine is recognised as the predominant cause of post-weaning colibacillosis (Marquardt et al., 1999). Established ETEC secrete toxins that disrupt normal enterocyte function and lead to diarrhoea, dehydration, poor performance and increased mortality. Zinc oxide (ZnO) addition to the diet increases small intestine mucosal growth and promotes normal intestinal function. In turn the incidence and/or severity of diarrhoea is reduced and performance is improved (Li et al., 2001, Ragland et al., 2006). Pre-weaning environment also influences performance with outdoor reared pigs growing faster to weaning than indoor reared contemporaries (Miller et al., 2007) but are outdoor reared pigs able to cope with ETEC challenge at weaning? The current experiment compared the responses of group-housed pigs weaned from different lactation environments and fed diets differing in ZnO content to a prescribed ETEC challenge.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is frequently added to nursery piglet diets at pharmacological levels to combat scouring and to improve performance of weaned piglets (Miller and Slade, 2006). It is anecdotally recognized in the pig industry that piglets do not like the taste of zinc although increased feed intake is frequently reported (Ragland et al., 2006). Dietary selection studies have demonstrated the ability of the pig to discriminate between different foods (Forbes and Kyriazakis, 1995). This experiment aimed to test the hypothesis that weaned piglets would avoid a diet high in ZnO when given the choice, and to investigate the resultant performance and choice feeding behaviour of individual piglets in the immediate post weaning period.
Non-additivity occurs when the nutritive value of a mixture of feedstuffs differs from that of the sum of its components. It is most commonly observed when one dietary constituent influences, either positively or negatively, the apparent digestibility of another under conditions where components such as nitrogen and sulphur are non-limiting. In general negative effects occur due to the depression of rumen pH or substrate competition, while positive effects have been identified when readily fermentable fibre sources such as sugar beet pulp have been included in rations containing poorly fermented forages such as cereal straw. With the increasing use of in vitro systems, not just to examine feed degradation characteristics but to derive parameters such as microbial protein yield, the following study was conducted to determine whether such interactions could be identified in vitro.
We are investigating complete samples of southern hemisphere flat spectrum extra-galactic radio sources drawn from the Parkes 2.7 GHz Survey (see Bolton et al. 1979 and references therein). These samples are being used for a variety of investigations, including a determination of the space distribution and luminosity function of radio QSOs, their radio size distribution, as well as the structures of the individual sources. Accurate positions are being determined, as well, in order to establish an extra-galactic position reference frame in the southern hemisphere.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
A prompt radio burst has been observed from the supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Observations were made at 0.843, 1.415, 2.29, and 8.41 GHz. At frequencies around 1 GHz, the peak flux density reached about 150 mJy and occurred within four days of the supernova. This event may be a weak precursor to a major radio outburst of the type previously observed in other extragalactic supernovae. Radio monitoring of the supernova is continuing at each of the above frequencies, and coordination is underway of a southern hemisphere VLBI array to map the radio outburst region as it expands. Differential astrometry carried out on prime-focus plates taken with the Anglo-Australian telescope indicates that the component, star 1, of Sanduleak's star SK-69202 is within 0.05 ± 0.13 arcsec of the supernova.
High conflict and low warmth in families may contribute to immune cells developing a tendency to respond to threats with exaggerated inflammation that is insensitive to inhibitory signaling. We tested associations between family environments and expression of genes bearing response elements for transcription factors that regulate inflammation: nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and glucocorticoid receptor. The overall sample (47 families) completed interviews, questionnaires, and 8-week daily diary assessments of conflict and warmth, which were used to create composite family conflict and warmth scores. The diaries assessed upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms, and URI episodes were clinically verified. Leukocyte RNA was extracted from whole blood samples provided by a subsample of 42 children (8–13 years of age) and 73 parents. In children, higher conflict and lower warmth were related to greater expression of genes bearing response elements for the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, and more severe URI symptoms. In parents, higher conflict and lower warmth were also related to greater NF-κB–associated gene expression. Monocytes and dendritic cells were implicated as primary cellular sources of differential gene expression in the sample. Consistent with existing conceptual frameworks, stressful family environments were related to a proinflammatory phenotype at the level of the circulating leukocyte transcriptome.
Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) is a protracted form of grief included in DSM Section 3 indicating a need for more research. Two other criteria sets [prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and complicated grief (CG) disorder] are also currently in use by researchers. This study evaluates rates of diagnosis of each proposed criteria set in a clinical sample of bereaved individuals participating in clinical research.
Two groups in which persistent grief was judged to be present or absent completed an assessment instrument that included items needed to diagnose PCBD as well as PGD and CG. One group included grief treatment-seeking participants in our multicenter National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-sponsored study who scored ⩾30 on the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) and the other comprised bereaved adults enrolled in clinical research studies who scored <20 on the ICG. Rates of diagnosis were determined for proposed PCBD, PGD and CG criteria.
PCBD criteria diagnosed 70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 64.2–75.8] % of the grief treatment-seeking group, PGD criteria identified 59.6 (95% CI 53.4–65.8) % of these individuals and CG criteria identified 99.6 (95% CI 98.8–100.0) %. None of the three proposed criteria identified any cases in the bereaved comparison group.
Both proposed DSM-5 criteria for PCBD and criteria for PGD appear to be too restrictive as they failed to identify substantial numbers of treatment-seeking individuals with clinically significant levels of grief-related distress and impairment. Use of CG criteria or a similar algorithm appears to be warranted.
Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress.
We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3–5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners’ Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively.
Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners’ Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Prenatal maternal very severe obesity is a strong predictor of increased neuropsychiatric problems in early childhood.
The 20 → 3−1 E-type transition of 13CH3OH at 14.78 GHz has been detected towards four continuum sources: Sgr B2, two positions in Sgr A (the peaks of the ' + 20 km/s' and the '40 km/s' clouds), and W33. The NASA Deep Space Network 70-m antenna near Canberra, Australia, which has a 66 arcsec beam at this frequency, was used. A comparison of the 13C and 12C profiles for Sgr B2 indicates a rest frequency of 14,782.27 ± .03 MHz, 0.12 MHz above the laboratory value of Haque et al. (1974). For the Galactic Centre sources, the 12C/13C abundance ratios derived using the simplest assumptions lie in the range 30–40, higher than the 20–25 range derived from H2CO observations. For W33 the apparent value of ∼ 50 is lower than the value of ∼100 derived by Henkel et al. (1983) from H2CO. There may be no discrepancy, however, as W33 contains two velocity components — the higher velocity one at 36 km/s is more prominent in CH3OH and the lower 33 km/s more prominent in H2CO.
This poster described a method under development that promises to be useful for 3-D spectroscopic studies of extremely faint, spatially extended astronomical sources. The method, which we call Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS), is a relative of the conventional scanning Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), but is free of any scanning elements. We foresee ground-based and space applications for studies of the interstellar medium and the upper atmospheres of solar system objects. Basic configurations that have been tested in the laboratory were described. The SHS instrument we are currently emphasizing for development is intended for a rocket experiment to measure C IV λ1548,51 doublet emission at a resolving power of 20,000 from the hot ISM. Eventually we hope to provide velocity-resolved all-sky maps of selected FUV lines to complement maps obtained at other wavelengths.
The link of the Hipparcos and VLBI extragalactic reference frames has been achieved with a precision of 0.0005″ in global orientation at the epoch of the catalogue (1991.25) and of 0.0003″/yr in rate of rotation by VLBI observations of 12 radio-emitting stars.