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In this paper an extension of the theoretical model of Molin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 430, 2001, pp. 27–50) is proposed, where the assumptions of infinite depth and infinite horizontal extent of the support are released. The fluid domain is decomposed into two subdomains: the moonpool (or the gap) and a lower subdomain bounded by the seafloor and by an outer cylinder where the linearized velocity potential is assumed to be nil. Eigenfunction expansions are used to describe the velocity potential in both subdomains. Garrett’s method is then applied to match the velocity potentials at the common boundary and an eigenvalue problem is formulated and solved, yielding the natural frequencies and associated modal shapes of the free surface. Applications are made, first in the case of a circular moonpool, then in the rectangular gap and moonpool cases. Based on so-called single-mode approximations, simple formulas are proposed that give the resonant frequencies.
Improved knowledge of geometrical boundary conditions, such as bedrock geometry and surface topography, can contribute significantly to glaciological studies including ice-sheet-flow modelling. Precise thickness and altimetric data allow an estimation of ice-flow direction, the balance velocity and the basal shear stress. These parameters are calculated along a 1160 km profile in East Antarctica using a relationship between shear stress, basal temperature, the Glen flow exponent and a parameter related to strain rate. Strong variations of the flow-law parameters and basal conditions are found to play a major role in the ice-flow pattern. Sliding, anisotropy and longitudinal stress strongly perturb the validity of the law, but their signature can be identified.
The snow surface roughness at centimetre and millimetre scales is an important parameter related to wind transport, snowdrifts, snowfall, snowmelt and snow grain size. Knowledge of the snow surface roughness is also of high interest for analyzing the signal from radar sensors such as SAR, altimeters and scatterometers. Unfortunately, this parameter has seldom been measured over snow surfaces. The techniques used to measure the roughness of other surfaces, such as agricultural or sand soils, are difficult to implement in polar regions because of the harsh climatic conditions. In this paper we develop a device based on a laser profiler coupled with a GPS receiver on board a snowmobile. This instrumentation was tested successfully in midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, in April 2006. It allowed us to generate profiles of 3 km sections of the snow-covered glacier surface. Because of the motion of the snowmobile, the roughness signal is mixed with the snowmobile signal. We use a distance/frequency analysis (the empirical mode decomposition) to filter the signal. This method allows us to recover the snow surface structures of wavelengths between 4 and 50 cm with amplitudes of >1 mm. Finally, the roughness parameters of snow surfaces are retrieved. The snow surface roughness is found to be dependent on the scales of the observations. The retrieved RMS of the height distribution is found to vary between 0.5 and 9.2 mm, and the correlation length is found to be between 0.6 and 46 cm. This range of measurements is particularly well adapted to the analysis of GHz radar response on snow surfaces.
The effect of spatial variations in ice thickness, accumulation rate and lateral flow divergence on radar-detected isochrone geometry in ice sheets is computed using an analytical method, under assumptions of a steady-state ice-sheet geometry, a steady-state accumulation pattern and a horizontally uniform velocity shape function. By using a new coordinate transform, we show that the slope of the isochrones (with a normalized vertical coordinate) depends on three terms: a principal term which determines the sign of the slope, and two scale factors which can modify only the amplitude of the slope. The principal term depends only on a local characteristic time (ice thickness divided by accumulation rate minus melting rate) between the initial and final positions of the ice particle. For plug flow, only the initial and final values have an influence. Further applications are a demonstration of how the vertical velocity profile can be deduced from sharp changes in isochrone slopes induced by abrupt steps in bedrock or mass balance along the ice flow. We also demonstrate ways the new coordinate system may be used to test the accuracy of numerical flow models.
The precision of radar altimetry above an ice sheet can improve glaciological studies such as mass balance surveys or ice-sheet flow models, the first by comparing altimetric data at different times (see this issue), the second by testing or constraining models with data. This paper is a first step towards the latter. From a precise topography deduced by inversion of altimetric data (Remy and others, 1989), we calculate ice-flow direction, balance velocity and basal shear stress. The rheological parameters involved in the relation linking velocity, stress and temperature are then derived by least-squares regression. Ice flow is well represented by setting the Glen parameter, n to 1 ± 0.25 and the activation energy as 70 ± 10 kJ mol−1.
In order to estimate the accuracy of altimetric height measurements over ice sheets, an altimeter wave-form simulator has been developed, and different tracking methods have been tested. A large range of surface features, including large-scale and medium-scale features and micro-roughness have been taken into account for modeling of either surface-or volume-scattering. A large set of parameters affects the trailing edge of the radar wave form, so that re-tracking algorithms based on the detection of its leading edge provide better retrievals of the surface height than those based on the analysis of the whole wave form. A volume component is clearly present in the radar wave forms; its effect on the leading edge depends mostly on the snow grain-size (and therefore on the snow temperature) and on the pointing angle. However, on average, the induced error on the snow-surface height estimation should only be around 25 cm.
The intensity of the Seasat altimeter return power over Antarctica varies in strong correlation with the intensity of model katabatic winds. It is also strongly correlated with the polarization of the passive microwave signal at 37 GHz of the Nimbus-7 SMMR data. It is shown that this is most likely the result of the wind-induced micro-roughness of the ice surface.
Satellite-altimeter data over ice sheets provide the best tool for mapping their topography and its possible climatic variations. However, these data are affected by measurement errors, orbit errors, and slope errors. We develop here a three-step inversion technique which accommodates the a priori information on the expected topography and correctly handles and propagates the data errors: it estimates first a large-scale reference surface, then maps the residuals related to undulations, and finally iteratively corrects the slope error. The method is tested on overlapping small fragments of the Antarctic ice sheet, using a sub-set of Seasat data. Finally, a topographic map of Terre Adélie is produced. Over areas of small slopes, the a posteriori error should be of the order of 0.4 m. Using ERS-I data, it is therefore expected that climatic variations in the ice-sheet topography since the introduction of Seasat will be observable.
The Seasat A satellite scatterometer radar, initially designed to measure ocean-wind intensity and direction, also provided observations on the Antarctic ice sheet. The signal of the back-scatter coefficient decreases strongly from 10 to −20 dB when the incidence angle of the observations increases from 0° to 65°. An additional 5 dB signal is found, which is correlated with the direction and intensity of katabatic winds, independent of the incidence angle and polarization of the signal. By using simplified models of the volume-scattering within the snowpack (which is mostly sensitive to snow grain-size) and surface-scattering from the air-snow interface (which depends on roughness), it is evident that the signal of the scatterometer could result from the effects of snow dunes at low incidence angle, and of micro-roughness and volume back-scatter at incidence angles greater than 25°. The instrument therefore provides a means of measuring the direction and intensity of katabatic winds.
We analyse, above continental ice, the various factors which affect the power return of the Seasat radar altimeter as measured by its Automatic Gain Control (AGC). Corrections of effects due to the AGC loop control are first applied. AGC is then normalized by positioning the half-power point at the middle of the instrument receiving window. This operation is valid for both surface and volume scattering. Over a part of Antarctica between long. 90° and 150°E., the remaining variations of AGC are of the order of 15 dB. Most of these variations occur on a large scale (>100km) and are correlated with the katabatic wind intensity. This indicates that AGC measures either surface roughness of the ice, which is related to wind intensity, or grain-size which could also be dependent on the wind. In-situ measurements support the evidence that the radar altimeter is more sensitive to surface scattering. These data could therefore provide a measurement of the intensity of katabatic winds over the continental ice.
For the first time high-quality coverage of the ERS-1 radar altimeter provides a very accurate surface topographic map covering 80% of the Antarctic ice sheet that can contribute significantly to glaciological studies such as ice-sheet flow modelling. The topography allows estimation of the ice-flow direction, the balance velocity and the basal shear stress. A relationship between shear stress, basal temperature and a parameter related to strain rate helps in mapping the behaviour anomalies of these parameters. Longitudinal stress, sliding, bedrock topography and variation in the pre-exponential factor of the flow law are found to play a major role in the ice-flow pattern. This relation can also be used to estimate rheological parameters: the Glen exponent n is found to be 1 for T < −10°C and 3–4 for higher temperatures, where Q is found to be 70 kJ mol−1.
The stochastic processes involved in the evolution of a hypothetical cloud of comets are investigated. The cloud is assumed to be randomly perturbed by passing stars approaching the Sun at distance less than 1 pc. Within the frame of the impulse approximation we derive analytical expressions for the probability distribution of the impulse imparted to comets for both close and distant approaches. An application to the rate of ejection of comets is presented.
High-mass stars usually form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) as part of a young stellar cluster, but some isolated O/B stars are observed. What are the initial conditions that lead to the formation of these objects? The aim of this study is to measure the distribution and basic physical properties of the neutral gas associated with isolated intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
As part of the SAGE Spitzer Legacy program for the LMC, we have identified and confirmed YSOs using Spitzer IRAC photometry and IRS spectroscopy. By examining the spatial coincidence between the YSOs and 12CO(1–0) emission detected by the NANTEN mapping survey, we identified more than one hundred intermediate/massive YSOs in the LMC that appear to be isolated, i.e. not associated with CO emission. Deeper follow-up CO observations by our team with the higher resolution by Mopra Telescope (beam=30”) detected CO emission at the YSO positions for ~80% of the isolated LMC YSOs. We obtained ALMA data of some of the targets during Cycle 2. We targeted a small but representative (in terms of their association with neutral gas tracers) sample of the isolated high-mass YSOs that we have been studying in the LMC. All of our 12 targets are separated by more than 200 pc from known CO clouds. Our analysis of the ALMA data shows that a compact molecular cloud whose mass is a few thousand solar masses or smaller is associated with most of the YSOs.
Comparison of the ISM properties of a wide range of metal poor galaxies with normal metal-rich galaxies reveals striking differences. We find that the combination of the low dust abundance and the active star formation results in a very porous ISM filled with hard photons, heating the dust in dwarf galaxies to overall higher temperatures than their metal-rich counterparts. This results in photodissociation of molecular clouds to greater depths, leaving relatively large PDR envelopes and difficult-to-detect CO cores. From detailed modeling of the low-metallicity ISM, we find significant fractions of CO-dark H2 - a reservoir of molecular gas not traced by CO, but present in the [CII] and [CI]-emitting envelopes. Self-consistent analyses of the neutral and ionized gas diagnostics along with the dust SED is the necessary way forward in uncovering the multiphase structure of galaxies.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a valuable methodology for investigating radiation-induced microstructural changes and elucidating the underlying mechanisms involved in the aging and degradation of nuclear reactor materials. However, the use of electrons for imaging may result in several inadvertent effects that can potentially change the microstructure and mechanisms active in the material being investigated. In this study, in situ TEM characterization is performed on nanocrystalline nickel samples under self-ion irradiation and post irradiation annealing. During annealing, voids are formed around 200 °C only in the area illuminated by the electron beam. Based on diffraction patterns analyses, it is hypothesized that the electron beam enhanced the growth of a NiO layer resulting in a decrease of vacancy mobility during annealing. The electron beam used to investigate self-ion irradiation ultimately significantly affected the type of defects formed and the final defect microstructure.
The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey investigates the interplay of star formation activity and the the metal-poor gas and dust of local universe dwarf galaxies using FIR and submillimetre imaging spectroscopic and photometric observations in the 50 to 550 μm window of the Herschel Space Observatory. The dust spectral-energy distributions are well constrained with the new Herschel and MIR Spitzer data. A submillimetre excess is often found in low metallicity galaxies, which, if tracing very cold dust, would highlight large dust masses not easily reconciled in some cases, given the low metallicities and expected gas-to-dust mass ratios. The galaxies are also mapped in the FIR fine-structure lines (63 and 145 μm OI, 158 μm CII, 122 and 205 μm NII, 88 μm OIII) probing the low density ionised gas, the HII regions and photodissociation regions. While still early in the mission we can already see, along with earlier studies, that line ratios in the metal-poor ISM differ remarkably from those in the metal-rich starburst environments. In dwarf galaxies, L[CII]/L(CO) (≥104) is at least an order of magnitude greater than in the most metal-rich starburst galaxies. The 88 μm [OIII] line usually dominates the FIR line emission over galaxy-wide scales, not the 158 μm [CII] line which is the dominant FIR cooling line in metal-rich galaxies. All of the FIR lines together can contribute 1% to 2% of the LTIR. The Herschel Dwarf Galaxy survey will provide statistical information on the nature of the dust and gas in low metallicity galaxies and place constraints on chemical evolution models of galaxies.
Certain classes of sol-gel transition have been modeled as diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA), but it produces excessive dangling branches on the resulting network that underestimates the rigidity of gels. The “dangling bond deflection” (DEF) model was developed to simulate spatial fluctuation of the dangling branches under thermal energy. Collision and sticking of two dangling branches within the same cluster turns these branches into a loop. Combination of the DLCA and DEF models creates network that possesses extensive loop structure and negligible dangling mass. The networks are substantially stiffened by the loop structure, and successfully reproduce the empirical scaling relationship between linear elastic modulus and density exhibited by real aerogels. The gel structure can be represented by the “blob-and-link” model, in which blobs refer to dense, rigid collections of particles, interconnected by tenuous links of particle chains. When the network is deformed, only these few weak links contribute to the stiffness, leaving the blobs unstrained. The gel modulus drops significantly as porosity increases because more particles reside in the blobs and fewer particles carry the strain.
The homoepitaxy of thin film silicon layers in a horizontal, atmospheric pressure RTCVD reactor is reported. The experiments were conducted in a temperature range from 900°C to 1300°C employing the precursor trichlorosilane (TCS) and the dopant trichloroborine (TCB) diluted in hydrogen. The epilayers were evaluated by Nomarski microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrical properties of the thin film were analyzed by sheet resistance and four point probe characterization methods. We propose that the responsible mechanisms for the observed growth decline at higher precursor concentration in hydrogen are due to the reaction of the gaseous HCI with the silicon surface and the supersaturation of silicon.
In this paper, we present a systematic study of the transient cooling in different Si/SiGe superlattices as well as bulk silicon microrefrigerators. Transient thermoreflectance imaging is used to obtain the temperature map of the device with sub micrometer spatial, 100ns temporal and 0.1C temperature resolution. It is shown that Peltier cooling dominates in the first 10-30 microseconds before Joule heating in the active and buffer layers reach the top surface. The transient characterization shows that at the optimum current for maximum steady-state cooling, the response of bulk silicon cooler is 25% faster than the 3 microns thick superlattice device and that of the 6 microns thick superlattice is 25% slower. However, it is possible to increase the cooling speed by a factor of two or three, down to 3.6 microseconds, by overdriving the current at the expense of the reduced steady-state cooling.