Cells of Leishmania donovani in co-culture with Trypanosoma brucei, were severely affected in their growth, resulting in swelling and subsequent lysis. Similar effects were also observed when Crithidia luciliae or Phytomonas sp. were co-cultured with T. brucei. Direct contact between the cells under investigation and T. brucei was necessary because T. brucei did not hamper the growth of the other trypanosomatids, when separated by a filter with 0.2 μm pore size. Examination of this phenomenon at the ultrastructural level, in a co-culture of L. donovani and T. brucei, suggests that the plasma membrane permeability is increased in the former, as a result of a close cellular contact between the two cell types.