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To identify and synthesise the literature on the cost of mental disorders.
Systematic literature searches were conducted in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit, NHS York Database and PsychInfo using key terms for cost and mental disorders. Searches were restricted to January 1980–May 2019. The inclusion criteria were: (1) cost-of-illness studies or cost-analyses; (2) diagnosis of at least one mental disorder; (3) study population based on the general population; (4) outcome in monetary units. The systematic review was preregistered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42019127783).
In total, 13 579 potential titles and abstracts were screened and 439 full-text articles were evaluated by two independent reviewers. Of these, 112 articles were included from the systematic searches and 31 additional articles from snowball searching, resulting in 143 included articles. Data were available from 48 countries and categorised according to nine mental disorder groups. The quality of the studies varied widely and there was a lack of studies from low- and middle-income countries and for certain types of mental disorders (e.g. intellectual disabilities and eating disorders). Our study showed that certain groups of mental disorders are more costly than others and that these rankings are relatively stable between countries. An interactive data visualisation site can be found here: https://nbepi.com/econ.
This is the first study to provide a comprehensive overview of the cost of mental disorders worldwide.
Percutaneous, transtracheal jet ventilation (percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation) is an effective way to ventilate both adults and children. However, some authors suggest that a resuscitation bag can be utilized to ventilate through a cannula placed into the trachea.
Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation (percutaneous transtracheal ventilation) through a 14-gauge catheter is ineffective when attempted using a resuscitation bag.
Eight insufflation methods were studied. A 14-gauge intravenous catheter was attached to an adult resuscitation bag, a pediatric resuscitation bag, wall-source (wall) oxygen, portable-tank oxygen with a regulator, and a jet ventilator (JV) at two flow rates. The resuscitation bags were connected to the 14-gauge catheter using a 7 mm adult endotracheal tube adaptor connected to a 3 cc syringe barrel. The wall and tank oxygen were connected to he 14-gauge catheter using a three-way stopcock. The wall oxygen was tested with the regulator set at 15 liters per minute (LPM) and with the regulator wide open. The tank was tested with the regulator set at 15 and 25 LPM. The JV was connected directly to the 14-gauge catheter using JV tubing supplied by the manufacturer. Flow was measured using an Ohmeda 5420 Volume Monitor. A total of 30 measurements were taken, each during four seconds of insufflation, and the results averaged (milliliters (ml) per second (sec)) for each device.
Flow rates obtained using both resuscitation bags, tank oxygen, and regulated wall oxygen were extremely low (adult 215 ±20 ml/sec; pediatric 195 ±19 ml/sec; tank 358 ±13 ml/sec; wall at 15 l/min 346 ±20 ml/sec). Flow rates of 1,394 ±13 ml were obtained using wall oxygen with the regulator wide open. Using the JV with the regulator set at 50 pounds per square inch (psi), a flow rate of 1,759 ±40 was obtained.These were the only two methods that produced flow rates high enough to provide an adequate tidal volume to an adult.
Resuscitation bags should not be used to ventilate adult patients through a 14-gauge, transtracheal catheter. Jet ventilation is needed when percutaneous transtracheal ventilation is attempted. If jet ventilation is attempted using oxygen supply tubing, it must be connected to an unregulated oxygen source of at least 50 psi.
A distinct class of precursor chemistries has been developed for solution-phase deposition of oxide thin films. Rapid liquid-to-solid conversions are facilitated by using high nuclearity species and labile inorganic ligands to promote fast condensation reactions. Consequently, applied deposition strategies differ from conventional sol-gel and surface mediated growth reactions. Select oxide materials have been incorporated in transistor devices and circuits as evidence of thin-film quality and proof of function.
Transparent electronics is an embryonic technology whose objective is the realization of invisible electronic circuits. We have recently reported the fabrication of a novel n-channel transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT).  This ZnO-based TTFT is highly transparent and exhibits electrical characteristics that appear to be suitable for implementation as a transparent select-transistor in each pixel of an active-matrix liquid-crystal display. Moreover, the processing technology used to fabricate this device is relatively simple and appears to be compatible with inexpensive glass substrate technology. The objective of the work reported herein is to summarize some of our recent TTFT electrical performance results. Materials, processing, and device structure details related to these devices appear in future publications.
We have used green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeras to examine the dynamics of the early secretory pathway and the role of the peripheral coat protein COP I. To describe the overall properties of ER to Golgi transport we used the temperature sensitive viral glycoprotein, ts045 VSVG, tagged with GFP at its cytoplasmic tail. VSVG-GFP retained the temperature sensitive phenotype of its parent: it reversibly misfolded and was retained in the ER at 40°C. Upon shift to 32°C it was rapidly exported from the ER, moving as a synchronous pool into the Golgi complex and then to the cell surface. Using time-lapse imaging of living cells expressing VSVG-GFP we found that the carriers for ER to Golgi traffic are tubulovesicular pre-Golgi intermediates that move centrosomally to the Golgi at speeds of>1 μM2/sec and then fuse with the cis face of the Golgi complex. These movements are dependant on microtubules and the dynein/dynactin complex.
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