To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The relationship between mood disorders, particularly depression and cognitive impairment is complex. The symptoms of depression in the elderly include confusion, sleep alterations, low concentration, cognitive deficits, and somatic complaints that may are also present in dementia, with depression being often a prodrome.
The present study aimed at investigating the presence of cognitive disturbances in outpatients over 65 years of age consulting us for a mood episode, as well as to investigate the possible relationships between cognitive and depressive symptoms.
The study included 57 older patients attending the Psychiatric Clinic of Pisa, with a diagnosis of a major mood episode according to DSM-5 criteria. The psychometric scales included: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Beck Inventory Scale (BDI), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), to measure the severity of depression; Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule (SPES), to assess organic mental deficits; Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), to assess depression in people with dementia; Adult Autism Subthreshold (AdAS) Spectrum, to evaluates the eventual presence of specific features of the autistic spectrum disorder(ASD). Moreover, patients were also assessed for cognitive screening with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
The HAM-D total score was 10.18±6.33, that of BDI 12.79± 9.89, that of GDS 12.69±8.25 and that of CSDD 8.35±6.25. The showed a MoCA value was 21.30±4.86, that of FAB 14.12±3.92, and that of MMSE 25.06±4.20. The MoCA total score positively correlated with those of the FAB and of the MMSE, while the FAB score with the MMSE score. A positive correlation was found between SPES and the HAM-D, BDI, CSDD and GDS total scores. The AdAS score positively correlated with that of MMSE. By correlating scores of depressive dimensions with those of cognitive functions, a positive correlation was noted between FAB total score and those of the HAM-D, BDI, CSDD and SPES
These findings suggest a possible link between the presence of ASD and depressive symptoms from the one side and cognitive performance and executive functions from the another side.
Pharmacological and cognitive neuroenhancement refer to the non-medical use of prescription drugs, alcohol, illegal drugs, or the so-called soft enhancers, to enhance cognition, mood, work or school performance, or to promote pro-social behaviour. Literature on the topic is meagre, and available data only partially enlightens their use.
The aim of this paper is to review and comment on the available literature on pharmacological neuroenhancement and, secondary, on emotional enhancement.
A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, PsychInfo and Google Scholar databases were accessed to select English language articles, published from 1980 to April 2020. 11746 papers were initially selected and 123 papers were finally included.
Available literature indicates a widespread and increasing use of different kinds of substances, drugs and food supplements mainly with neuroenhancing purposes, especially amongst specific populations of young healthy subjects. The evidence regarding their efficacy is controversial. Further, a limited or no awareness regarding the possible consequences of their abuse/misuse emerges amongst users.
Despite the limited evidence that some substances may improve cognitive functions in healthy subjects and neglecting their detrimental side effects and potential risk of misuse, abuse and addiction, there is an increasing worldwide use of the so-called neuroenhancers, especially in some categories of individuals, such as university students. Further studies are needed to collect reliable data on the effects of neuroenhancers in healthy subjects. Neuroenhancement puts into question the concept of authenticity, so that the problem requires to be analyzed within a complex ethical conceptual frame.
Since the beginning of the pandemic, 4,745,519 cases, 396,878 hospitalizations and 82,884 deaths with COVID-19 have been reported in Spain. As of August 24, 2021, 76.4% of Andalusians over 12 years of age have the complete vaccination regimen.
Main: to calculate the prevalence of COVID 19 infection, clinical evolution, and vaccination rate in a population of patients diagnosed with dual bipolar disorder. Secondary: compare these data with those obtained inpatients diagnosed with non-dual bipolar disorder.
Retrospective descriptive study. The study population is made up of patients diagnosed with dual bipolar disorder and non-dual bipolar disorder (according to DSM 5 criteria). Infection, admission, death, and vaccination data were obtained from the patient’s medical history.
Of the 7 patients diagnosed with dual bipolar disorder, the prevalence of COVID 19 infection, since the beginning of the pandemic is 0% and of the 21 patients diagnosed with non-dual bipolar disorder the prevalence is 9.51% (2/21). Of the patients with COVID 19 infection, none required hospital admission and no deaths occurred. The vaccination rate in the group of patients with dual bipolar disorder is 85,71% (6/7) and in the group of non-dual bipolar disorder is 61.91% (13/21), no finding statistically significant differences between both groups.
In our study the prevalence of COVID 19 infection inpatients diagnosed with dual bipolar disorder is 0% and the vaccination rate is 85.71%. While in patients with non-dual bipolar disorder the prevalence is 9.51%, there were no admissions, no deaths and the vaccination rate is 61.91%.
We synthesized precision oligomers of thiophene with cationic and hydrophobic side chains to mimic the charge, hydrophobicity, and molecular size of antibacterial host defense peptides (HDPs). In this study, the source of cationic charge was a guanidinium salt moiety intended to reflect the structure of arginine-rich HDPs. Due to the pi-conjugated oligo(thiophene) backbone structure, these compounds absorb visible light in aqueous solution and react with dissolved oxygen to produce highly biocidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the compounds exert bactericidal activity in the dark with dramatically enhanced potency upon visible light illumination. We find that guanylation of primary amine groups enhanced the activity of the oligomers in the dark but also mitigated their light-induced activity enhancement. In addition, we also quantified their toxicity to mammalian cell membranes using a hemolysis assay with red blood cells, in the light and dark conditions.
Genotype G12 strains are now considered to be the sixth most prevalent human rotaviruses worldwide. In two Sicilian cities, Palermo and Messina, surveillance of rotavirus circulation performed since 1985 and 2009, respectively, did not detect G12 strains until 2012. From 2012 to 2014 rotavirus infection was detected in 29·7% of 1647 stool samples collected from children admitted for acute gastroenteritis to three Sicilian hospitals in Palermo, Messina and Ragusa. In 2012, G12P was first detected in Palermo and then in Messina where it represented the second most frequent genotype (20% prevalence) after G1P. Thereafter, G12 strains continued to circulate in Sicily, showing a marked prevalence in Ragusa (27·8%) in 2013 and in Palermo (21%) and Messina (16·6%) in 2014. All but one of the Sicilian G12 strains carried a P VP4 genotype, whereas the single non-P rotavirus strain was genotyped as G12P. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 and VP4 sequences allowed distinction of several genetic lineages and separation of the G12P strains into three cluster combinations. These findings indicate independent introductions of G12 rotavirus strains in Sicily in recent years.
The von-Kármán plasma experiment is a novel versatile experimental device designed to explore the dynamics of basic magnetic induction processes and the dynamics of flows driven in weakly magnetized plasmas. A high-density plasma column (1016–1019 particles. m−3) is created by two radio-frequency plasma sources located at each end of a 1 m long linear device. Flows are driven through J × B azimuthal torques created from independently controlled emissive cathodes. The device has been designed such that magnetic induction processes and turbulent plasma dynamics can be studied from a variety of time-averaged axisymmetric flows in a cylinder. MHD simulations implementing volume-penalization support the experimental development to design the most efficient flow-driving schemes and understand the flow dynamics. Preliminary experimental results show that a rotating motion of up to nearly 1 km/s is controlled by the J × B azimuthal torque.
We review the main results of our previous works, in which we have investigated the
development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in the transitional regime from
sub-magnetosonic to super-magnetosonic by varying the solar wind velocity, in conditions
typical of those observed at the Earth’s magnetopause flanks. In super-magnetosonic
regimes, we show that the vortices produced by the development of the KH instability act
as an obstacle in the plasma flow and may generate quasi-perpendicular magnetosonic shock
structures extending well outside the region of velocity shear.
Cerebral paradoxical embolism has not until now been described as a cause of cryptogenic stroke in newborn infants. A male infant was born at 27 weeks 2 days' gestational age by emergency Caesarean section in a twin pregnancy because of intrauterine growth retardation and absence of diastolic flow in the twin. His birthweight was 950g (50th centile). Apgar scores were 7 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes respectively. At 17 days of life he showed sudden respiratory distress and signs of encephalopathy. Presence of deep venous thrombosis, patent foramen ovale (PFO), and clinical progression suggested paradoxical embolism which were confirmed by neuroradiological findings. The high incidence of PFO and central venous catheter-related deep venous thrombosis in newborn infants suggest that paradoxical embolism is probably a more common complication than has been thought.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.