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To investigate nasal mucociliary clearance in patients with Behçet's disease.
Thirty patients with Behçet's disease, diagnosed on the basis of criteria defined by the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease, and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. In both groups, individuals with conditions that could affect nasal mucociliary clearance were excluded. Nasal mucociliary clearance time was evaluated using saccharin tests. The time between placement of a saccharin tablet and the tasting of the saccharin was measured and recorded as the saccharin clearance time.
The mean nasal mucociliary clearance time was significantly longer in the Behçet's disease patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between Behçet's disease duration and nasal mucociliary clearance time (p < 0.001, r = 0.882).
The results suggest that nasal mucociliary clearance time is longer in Behçet's disease patients than in control subjects, and is positively correlated with disease duration.
There is evidence for a strong correlation between low bone mineral density and hearing loss. Furthermore, premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density. Hence, this study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the relationship between premature hair greying and hearing impairment.
Fifty patients with premature hair greying (20 women and 30 men), aged under 40 years (mean, 30.1 ± 4.9 years), who had onset of hair greying in their twenties, were recruited, along with 45 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (17 women and 28 men; mean age, 28.7 ± 5.1 years). Each participant was tested with low frequency audiometry at 0.125 to 2 kHz, high frequency audiometry at 4 to 8 kHz, and extended high frequency audiometry at 9 to 20 kHz.
Hearing thresholds were similar at all frequencies from 0.25 to 4 kHz (p > 0.05); however, significant hearing loss was observed at all frequencies from 8 to 20 kHz in the premature hair greying group compared with the control group (p < 0.05).
Patients with premature hair greying had hearing impairment at extended high frequencies. Premature hair greying may be an important risk factor for hearing loss.
To determine the relationship between severe tinnitus and inflammation using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a marker of stress.
A total of 107 patients who had been suffering with severe tinnitus (tinnitus handicap inventory scale grades of 3–5) for at least 2 weeks were recruited. Patients underwent detailed ENT examinations and audiometric tests to exclude a relevant pathological cause of the tinnitus. Patients with systemic diseases, malignancy or inflammatory diseases that could alter neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were excluded. A total of 107 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants were also recruited. Routine laboratory test results and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were compared between the patients and controls.
Lipid profile, liver function, white blood cell count, haemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume, and vitamin B12 and folate levels were similar among the patients and controls. However, mean neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the patients than the controls (p < 0.05).
The findings of this novel study suggest that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio should be considered during the evaluation of tinnitus patients as a potential clinical marker of tinnitus. Further studies are required to verify the findings.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11) is one of the most prevalent and persistent health conditions among both professional (e.g. police) and non-traditional (e.g. construction worker) WTC responders, even several years after 9/11. However, little is known about the dimensionality and natural course of WTC-related PTSD symptomatology in these populations.
Data were analysed from 10 835 WTC responders, including 4035 police and 6800 non-traditional responders who were evaluated as part of the WTC Health Program, a clinic network in the New York area established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate structural models of PTSD symptom dimensionality; and autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) panel regressions were used to examine the prospective interrelationships among PTSD symptom clusters at 3, 6 and 8 years after 9/11.
CFAs suggested that five stable symptom clusters best represent PTSD symptom dimensionality in both police and non-traditional WTC responders. This five-factor model was also invariant over time with respect to factor loadings and structural parameters, thereby demonstrating its longitudinal stability. ARCL panel regression analyses revealed that hyperarousal symptoms had a prominent role in predicting other symptom clusters of PTSD, with anxious arousal symptoms primarily driving re-experiencing symptoms, and dysphoric arousal symptoms primarily driving emotional numbing symptoms over time.
Results of this study suggest that disaster-related PTSD symptomatology in WTC responders is best represented by five symptom dimensions. Anxious arousal symptoms, which are characterized by hypervigilance and exaggerated startle, may primarily drive re-experiencing symptoms, while dysphoric arousal symptoms, which are characterized by sleep disturbance, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties, may primarily drive emotional numbing symptoms over time. These results underscore the importance of assessment, monitoring and early intervention of hyperarousal symptoms in WTC and other disaster responders.
Longitudinal symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterized by heterogeneous trajectories, which may have unique pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. To date, however, no study has evaluated the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of PTSD symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders.
A total of 10835 WTC responders, including 4035 professional police responders and 6800 non-traditional responders (e.g. construction workers) who participated in the WTC Health Program (WTC-HP), were evaluated an average of 3, 6 and 8 years after the WTC attacks.
Among police responders, longitudinal PTSD symptoms were best characterized by four classes, with the majority (77.8%) in a resistant/resilient trajectory and the remainder exhibiting chronic (5.3%), recovering (8.4%) or delayed-onset (8.5%) symptom trajectories. Among non-traditional responders, a six-class solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a resistant/resilient trajectory (58.0%) and the remainder exhibiting recovering (12.3%), severe chronic (9.5%), subsyndromal increasing (7.3%), delayed-onset (6.7%) and moderate chronic (6.2%) trajectories. Prior psychiatric history, Hispanic ethnicity, severity of WTC exposure and WTC-related medical conditions were most strongly associated with symptomatic trajectories of PTSD symptoms in both groups of responders, whereas greater education and family and work support while working at the WTC site were protective against several of these trajectories.
Trajectories of PTSD symptoms in WTC responders are heterogeneous and associated uniquely with pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. Police responders were more likely than non-traditional responders to exhibit a resistant/resilient trajectory. These results underscore the importance of prevention, screening and treatment efforts that target high-risk disaster responders, particularly those with prior psychiatric history, high levels of trauma exposure and work-related medical morbidities.