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Current techniques for measuring the dry matter intake (DMI) of grazing lactating beef cows are invasive, time consuming and expensive making them impractical for use on commercial farms. This study was undertaken to explore the potential to develop and validate a model to predict DMI of grazing lactating beef cows, which could be applied in a commercial farm setting, using non-invasive animal measurements. The calibration dataset used to develop the model was comprised of 94 measurements recorded on 106 beef or beef–dairy crossbred cows (maternal origin). The potential of body measurements, linear type scoring, grazing behaviour and thermal imaging to predict DMI in combination with known biologically plausible adjustment variables and energy sinks was investigated. Multivariable regression models were constructed for each independent variable using SAS PROC REG and contained milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin (dairy or beef). Of the 94 variables tested, 32 showed an association with DMI (P < 0.25) upon multivariable analysis. These variables were incorporated into a backwards linear regression model using SAS PROC REG. Variables were retained in this model if P < 0.05. Five variables; width at pins, full body depth, ruminating mastications, central ligament and rump width score, were retained in the model in addition to milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin. The inclusion of these variables in the model increased the predictability of DMI by 0.23 (R2 = 0.68) when compared to a model containing milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin only. This model was applied to data recorded on an independent dataset; a herd of 60 lactating beef cows two years after the calibration study. The R2 for the validation was 0.59. Estimates of DMI are required for measuring feed efficiency. While acknowledging challenges in applicability, the findings suggest a model such as that developed in this study may be used as a tool to more easily and less invasively estimate DMI on large populations of commercial beef cows, and therefore measure feed efficiency.
Introduction: Optimizing naloxone dosing in the context of increasing fentanyl and ultra-potent opioid (UPO) prevalence is an important consideration for emergency health care providers. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the association between initial and cumulative naloxone doses on effective reversal and adverse events in undifferentiated and fentanyl/UPO overdoses. Methods: We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, DARE, CINAHL, Science Citation Index, reference lists, toxicology websites, and conference proceedings from July to October 2018 and back to 1972. Our search included pertinent indexing terms for UPOs. We included interventional and observational studies reporting on naloxone administration for opioid toxicity reversal in people ≥12 years old. Additionally, we accessed non-traditional evidence sources (case reports and series) given this rapidly changing field. We conducted inclusion screens, data extraction and quality assessments in duplicate. We summarized study characteristics and where reported, analyzed number of patients with clinical response. Response was defined as not receiving further naloxone doses and remaining alive. Results: We included 174 studies (108 case reports and series, 55 observational, 9 interventional) with 26,660 subjects (median age 35.1; 74.2% male). We observed lower response among patients exposed to fentanyl/UPO versus heroin for initial naloxone doses ≤0.4mg (56.8% versus 80.2%) and > 0.4mg (27.0% versus 82.1%). Mean cumulative doses were higher for fentanyl/UPO (2.10 mg, SD 1.80 mg) versus heroin (1.48 mg, SD 1.68 mg) overdoses. In North American studies the median cumulative dose used was higher for fentanyl/UPO versus heroin overdoses. A dose-response curve for fentanyl/UPO studies showed marked variability in doses among responders, indicating heterogeneity. Adverse events reporting was inconsistent; 10% of subjects experienced withdrawal based on studies in which they were reported. Conclusion: This is the first systematic review to summarize proportion of patients with clinical response by naloxone dose provided. While variable reporting, study quality, heterogeneity, and our outcome definitions limit the conclusions we can draw, it appears that higher initial doses and in some cases, higher cumulative naloxone doses were used and may be necessary to reverse toxicity due to fentanyl/UPO compared to other opioids. High-quality prospective studies assessing effectiveness and safety are needed.
Wearable devices are fast evolving to address mobility and autonomy needs of elderly people who would benefit from physical assistance. Recent developments in soft robotics provide important opportunities to develop soft exoskeletons (also called exosuits) to enable both physical assistance and improved usability and acceptance for users. The XoSoft EU project has developed a modular soft lower limb exoskeleton to assist people with low mobility impairments. In this paper, we present the design of a soft modular lower limb exoskeleton to improve person’s mobility, contributing to independence and enhancing quality of life. The novelty of this work is the integration of quasi-passive elements in a soft exoskeleton. The exoskeleton provides mechanical assistance for subjects with low mobility impairments reducing energy requirements between 10% and 20%. Investigation of different control strategies based on gait segmentation and actuation elements is presented. A first hip–knee unilateral prototype is described, developed, and its performance assessed on a post-stroke patient for straight walking. The study presents an analysis of the human–exoskeleton energy patterns by way of the task-based biological power generation. The resultant assistance, in terms of power, was 10.9% ± 2.2% for hip actuation and 9.3% ± 3.5% for knee actuation. The control strategy improved the gait and postural patterns by increasing joint angles and foot clearance at specific phases of the walking cycle.
Unwanted pursuit behaviours (UPBs) comprise repeated and unwanted efforts to establish intimate contact in the form of harassing, tracking, and monitoring. These are common among young adults following the breakup of a romantic relationship, typically by the rejected partner. The relational goal pursuit theory (RGPT) proposes that UPB users overestimate the importance of a relationship to higher-order goals. This study assessed how well a new coping-based approach and the RGPT model predicted UPB frequency and scope. Two hundred participants (50% female; aged 19–24) completed an anonymous online survey. Ruminating was linked to both greater frequency and scope of UPB use. Higher levels of emotion-focused coping and perceived self-efficacy to re-establish intimacy were linked to the use of a wider scope of unwanted pursuit behaviours. Insights gained from UPB users are necessary for understanding mechanisms associated with the turbulent and distressing aftermath of a romantic breakup.
Potential alternative partners can threaten the stability of established relationships, yet a romantic or sexual attraction to someone with whom you are not currently involved (i.e., a ‘crush’) appears common for those in relationships (Mullinax, Barnhart, Mark, & Herbenick, 2016). This study assessed prevalence of such crushes, individual and relationship predictors, and links to infidelity. Adults (N = 247, aged 25–45, 43.3% women) in romantic relationships completed surveys assessing individual characteristics (attention to alternatives, sociosexual orientation, attachment avoidance), relationship quality (satisfaction, commitment, intimacy), and infidelity. The degree of attention to alternatives predicted whether one had a crush on another while in a romantic relationship. Crushes were fairly common and seemed to have had few negative implications for those in established relationships. These findings will be of use to therapists addressing couples’ attraction to others.
Mate poaching occurs when a person attracts another, whom he or she knows is already in an exclusive relationship, into a sexual or romantic relationship. Mate poaching is involved in the evolution of many relationships. Yet, little is known about the quality of these relationships. We examined relationship quality between individuals whose relationships were formed via mate poaching versus not (i.e., a relationship formed serially without overlap with another relationship). We compared ratings of quality from the perspectives of poachers, poached, and co-poached individuals. Adult participants (n = 660) in a romantic relationship responded to questions assessing relationship quality. Those in relationships formed from poaching rated their relationships as lower in relationship satisfaction, commitment and trust, and higher in jealousy, and had higher rates of romantic and sexuality infidelity in their current relationship compared to individuals in non-poached relationships. Those who were poached from an existing relationship rated their current relationship as lower in commitment than did those who poached their current partner into a relationship. The study also provides first insights regarding relationship quality for those who identify as co-poached. We discuss these findings in terms of implications for understanding how relationships are formed and the qualities of those that endure.
Since its introduction to the United States in 1852, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.) has spread throughout the Southeast, invading many natural areas. Manual control by cutting or shredding is one of the most common strategies many land managers employ. However, rapid sprouting from the root collar and lateral roots commonly results in poor control. Cutting followed by either glyphosate or triclopyr application to the stumps is generally effective, but the efficacy of these herbicides in relation to treatment timing and L. sinense root collar diameter has not been evaluated. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of glyphosate and triclopyr cut stump treatments compared with cutting alone at spring and fall timings across a range of L. sinense size classes. Studies were conducted at two locations in Auburn, AL. Treatments included cut stump+no herbicide, cut stump+ glyphosate (120 g L−1), or cut stump+triclopyr (90 g L−1). Treatments were applied to at least 50 experimental units each at April and November timings. Root collar diameter was recorded for each stem, stems were cut 2.5 cm above the ground, and herbicide treatments were applied within 30 s. Ligustrum sinense mortality and sprouting were quantified 6, 12, and 18 mo after treatment. Both glyphosate and triclopyr amine were very effective in controlling L. sinense at both spring and fall timings. However, glyphosate provided slightly better results than triclopyr when lateral sprouting was included. Application timing also was significant, with a lower percentage of sprouting following November treatments than April treatments. Stem size influenced treatment success, as larger stumps tended to sprout more than smaller stumps. These results indicate L. sinense can be controlled with cut stump herbicide treatment using either glyphosate or triclopyr with spring or fall timings at concentrations much lower than typically used.
The effects of shape and thickness of a tin surface layer and of the energy of a 170 ps neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser pulse on the conversion efficiency (CE) into extreme ultraviolet emission in the 13.5 nm region is investigated. Whereas a CE of up to 1.16% into the 2% reflection band of multilayer Mo/Si optics was measured for a bulk Sn target at a laser energy of 25 mJ, significant CE enhancement up to 1.49% is demonstrated for a 200-nm-thick Sn layer on a microstructured porous alumina substrate.
Chinese privet is an invasive shrub that commonly infests roadsides and bottomland forests across the southeastern United States. Its aggressive growth and ability to prolifically sprout from the root collar and shallow lateral roots makes control very difficult. Individual plant treatment methods such as low-volume basal bark herbicide application with triclopyr are commonly used for Chinese privet control. However, little research has been done to examine optimal triclopyr concentrations and application timings for the low-volume basal bark method. Furthermore, little is known regarding basal bark treatment efficacy when plant size varies. To address these questions, field studies were conducted from 2009 to 2011 at two locations in east-central Alabama near Auburn and Opelika. The triclopyr butoxyethyl ester formulation was applied in January or March to Chinese privet shrubs across a range of sizes in a commercially available basal oil carrier at 24 (5% v/v−1), 48 (10% v/v−1), and 96 g L−1 (20% v/v−1). Additionally, a triclopyr butoxyethyl ester ready-to-use formulation (90 g L−1) was applied at 100% v/v−1. Canopy defoliation, sprout height, and mortality were quantified at 6, 12, and 18 mo after treatment. Triclopyr at all concentrations was highly effective in defoliating Chinese privet and reducing height of new basal sprouts. However, mortality was concentration dependent. The 90 and 96 g L−1 treatments resulted in 88 and 89% mortality across timings, while the 24 and 48 g L−1 treatments resulted in 63 and 76% mortality. March applications were less effective as basal diameter increased, especially at the lower triclopyr concentrations where mortality fell to less than 40%. These results indicate that triclopyr is an effective treatment for Chinese privet control, but efficacy is influenced by concentration, application timing, and plant size.
Relationship breakups are common (Connolly & McIsaac, 2009), and difficulty adjusting to the breakup can manifest as post-relationship contact and tracking (PRCT; Lee & O'Sullivan, 2014). Emerging adults (n = 271; aged 18–25; 66% female) provided reports of PRCT after their most recent breakup in the previous year. We examined relationship and breakup characteristics to predict the use of and experience of PRCT. Logistic regression analyses revealed that ex-partner initiation of the breakup and a more intense breakup predicted the use of PRCT, and ex-partner's surprise regarding the breakup predicted being a target of PRCT. A between-subjects comparison of participants who either used or experienced PRCT reported similar impact of PRCT on the self or their ex-partner. However, participants who both used and experienced PRCT reported that the impact that an ex-partner's PRCT had on their lives was more negative than their use of PRCT had on their ex-partner's life, likely reflecting an actor-observer bias in reports. Difficulty adjusting to relationship breakup is normal, and predictive of attempts to remain in contact with an ex-partner. However, the seemingly benign form of contact can have a negative impact on individuals. The findings have implications for those counselling individuals in distress following a breakup, and contribute to the discourse around boundaries after a breakup.
Despite strong prohibition against infidelity and endorsement of exclusivity as a norm, many people report engaging in infidelity. The current study examined this paradox by employing a between-subject design using online surveys with 810 adults to assess actor-observer biases in the degree of permissiveness judging own versus partner's hypothetical behaviour, as well as hypocrisy in judgments of infidelity versus self-reported behaviour. Participants judged their own behaviour more permissively than their partner's, but only for emotional/affectionate and technology/online behaviours (not sexual/explicit or solitary behaviours). Many reported having engaged in behaviours that they judged to be infidelity, especially emotional/affectionate and technology/online infidelity behaviours. Sexual attitudes, age, and religion predicted inconsistencies in judgments of infidelity and self-reported behaviour (hypocrisy). This study has implications for educators and practitioners working with couples to improve communication and establish guidelines for appropriate and inappropriate behaviour.
The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) on intestinal microbiota composition and SCFA production. C57BL/6 mice (n 8 per group) were fed a standard diet either supplemented with t10c12-CLA (0·5 %, w/w) (intervention) or with no supplementation (control), daily for 8 weeks. Metabolic markers (serum glucose, leptin, insulin and TAG, and liver TAG) were assessed by ELISA commercial kits, tissue long-chain fatty acids and caecal SCFA by GC, and microbial composition by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Dietary t10c12-CLA significantly decreased visceral fat mass (P< 0·001), but did not affect body weight (intervention), when compared with no supplementation (control). Additionally, lipid mass and composition were affected by t10c12-CLA intake. Caecal acetate, propionate and isobutyrate concentrations were higher (P< 0·05) in the t10c12-CLA-supplemented group than in the control group. The analysis of the microbiota composition following 8 weeks of t10c12-CLA supplementation revealed lower proportions of Firmicutes (P= 0·003) and higher proportions of Bacteroidetes (P= 0·027) compared with no supplementation. Furthermore, t10c12-CLA supplementation for 8 weeks significantly altered the gut microbiota composition, harbouring higher proportions of Bacteroidetes, including Porphyromonadaceae bacteria previously linked with negative effects on lipid metabolism and induction of hepatic steatosis. These results indicate that the mechanism of dietary t10c12-CLA on lipid metabolism in mice may be, at least, partially mediated by alterations in gut microbiota composition and functionality.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults’ explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18–24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.