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Organismal metabolic rates reflect the interaction of environmental and physiological factors. Thus, calcifying organisms that record growth history can provide insight into both the ancient environments in which they lived and their own physiology and life history. However, interpreting them requires understanding which environmental factors have the greatest influence on growth rate and the extent to which evolutionary history constrains growth rates across lineages. We integrated satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration with a database of growth coefficients, body sizes, and life spans for 692 populations of living marine bivalves in 195 species, set within the context of a new maximum-likelihood phylogeny of bivalves. We find that environmental predictors overall explain only a small proportion of variation in growth coefficient across all species; temperature is a better predictor of growth coefficient than food supply, and growth coefficient is somewhat more variable at higher summer temperatures. Growth coefficients exhibit moderate phylogenetic signal, and taxonomic membership is a stronger predictor of growth coefficient than any environmental predictor, but phylogenetic inertia cannot fully explain the disjunction between our findings and the extensive body of work demonstrating strong environmental control on growth rates within taxa. Accounting for evolutionary history is critical when considering shells as historical archives. The weak relationship between variation in food supply and variation in growth coefficient in our data set is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the increase in mean body size through the Phanerozoic was driven by increasing productivity enabling faster growth rates.
An unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus diseases (EVD) occurred in West Africa from March 2014 to January 2016. The French Institute for Public Health implemented strengthened surveillance to early identify any imported case and avoid secondary cases.
Febrile travellers returning from an affected country had to report to the national emergency healthcare hotline. Patients reporting at-risk exposures and fever during the 21st following day from the last at-risk exposure were defined as possible cases, hospitalised in isolation and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Asymptomatic travellers reporting at-risk exposures were considered as contact and included in a follow-up protocol until the 21st day after the last at-risk exposure.
From March 2014 to January 2016, 1087 patients were notified: 1053 were immediately excluded because they did not match the notification criteria or did not have at-risk exposures; 34 possible cases were tested and excluded following a reliable negative result. Two confirmed cases diagnosed in West Africa were evacuated to France under stringent isolation conditions. Patients returning from Guinea (n = 531; 49%) and Mali (n = 113; 10%) accounted for the highest number of notifications.
No imported case of EVD was detected in France. We are confident that our surveillance system was able to classify patients properly during the outbreak period.
A brief description is given of the program of radio star observations with the Danjon Astrolabe of Santiago. Results in alpha (Astr.-Cat.) for radio star FK4 309, obtained from observations made at its east transit solely, are given for yearly periods of observation from 1976 to 1982. The average mean error of Δα is 0s.006.
An historic review is made of the observation programs with Danjon astrolabes which were carried out or are in progress at the southern hemisphere. The consistency of their results in the research of systematic errors of the FK4 Fundamental System, largely confirmed by other observation techniques, is shown. The Cape and Santiago astrolabe catalogues, the largest ones derived so far for southern stars, are briefly reviewed.
ι Orionis is a massive binary system consisting of O9III + B1 III/IV stars. Though the system has been well studied, much about its fundamental properties have been difficult to determine. In this paper we report on the discovery of the heartbeat phenomenon in ι Orionis making it the most massive heartbeat system currently known. Using this phenomenon we have found empirical values for the masses and radii of both components. Moreover, we report the detection of tidally induced oscillations in an O-type star for the first time. These discoveries open a new avenue for exploring asteroseismology in massive stars.
A comparison of the Universal Time and local latitude deduced from the Astrolabe observations since 1966 to 1970, with respect to similar results obtained from BIH datas, show significative annual differences, specially in time, of a stable pattern. The consistence of the latitude differences (Astrolabe – BIH) and latitude group corrections, computed by the chain method, prove that these differences could be explained by the influence of a systematic error in the FK4 of Δδα type. On the other hand the inconsistence of the strong annual differences in time with the time group corrections, show that these differences can not be explained by catalogue systematic errors. The group corrections in time are compared with an investigation of the FK4 Δαα error based in the observations made with a transit instrument at Santiago.
The present triennial commission report embraces mainly activities in wide angle, optical astrometry. With the successful development and application of new techniques from Earth (e.g. optical interferometry, CCD’s) and space (Hipparcos mission and new projects) the sub-division between Commissions 8 (Positional Astrometry) and 24 (Photographic Astrometry) has become questionable. During the GA at Kyoto in 1997 all steps for a merger of both commissions have been taken. The final merging will take place at the forthcoming GA in Manchester. For a more complete overview on astrometrical work done in the past triennium the reader should also take notice of the report of Commission 24.
To compare BMI with abdominal skinfold thickness (ASF), waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) in prepubertal Colombian children.
We calculated age- and sex-specific Z-scores for BMI, ASF, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and three other skinfold-thickness sites. Logistic regression with stepwise selection (P = 0·80 for entry and P = 0·05 for retention) was performed to identify predictors of IR and extreme IR, which were determined by age- and sex-specific Z-scores to identify the ≥ 90th and ≥ 95th percentile of homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR), respectively. We used receiver operating characteristic curves to compare the area under the curve between models.
Children (n 1261) aged 6–10 years in Tanner stage 1 from a population-based study.
A total of 127 children (seventy girls and fifty-seven boys) were classified with IR, including sixty-three children (thirty-three girls and thirty boys) classified with extreme IR. Only ASF and BMI Z-scores were retained as predictors of IR by stepwise selection. Adding ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·794 (95 % CI 0·752, 0·837) to 0·811 (95 % CI 0·770, 0·851; P for contrast = 0·01). In predicting extreme IR, the addition of ASF Z-score to BMI Z-score improved the area under the curve from 0·837 (95 % CI 0·790, 0·884) to 0·864 (95 % CI 0·823, 0·905; P for contrast = 0·01).
ASF Z-score predicted IR independent of BMI Z-score in our population of prepubertal children. ASF and BMI Z-scores together improved IR risk stratification compared with BMI Z-score alone, opening new perspectives in the prediction of cardiometabolic risk in prepubertal children.
A disease of Chinese Rhododendrons associated with a Lophodermium sp. was found by one of us in April 1933 (Wilson, 1937). The fungus was first noticed as apparently causing the production of large irregular spots on the leaves of the hybrid Rhododendron Souliei × R. Thomsonii. Later, fructifications were observed on the stems of this hybrid and of many other species, and were found also on the fallen leaves. In 1934 the fungus was discovered on the stems of several species growing at the Forestry Commission Estate at Benmore, Argyllshire. Plants sent to the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, from Cumberland in February 1935 were also found to bear similar fructifications on the stems. As a number of species of Lophodermium have been described on the Ericaceae and one on Rhododendron, it was desirable to ascertain the systematic relationships of the fungus especially to L. Rhododendri Ces., which has been recorded from Britain (Smith and Ramsbottom, 1914; Wilson, 1924) and which is not uncommon on R. ponticum in the vicinity of Edinburgh. It was also desirable to study the effects of the fungus upon the host plant since it is difficult in some cases to decide the degree of its pathogenicity.
A combination of gamma radiation fields, the absence of moisture, and the high temperatures on the drip shield (DS) and waste package (WP) should combine to suspend microbial activity on the DS/WP surfaces for many tens of thousands of years. This lack of microbial activity, coupled with the corrosion resistance of the titanium Grade7 (Ti-7 drip shield) and the Alloy-22 (waste package) materials make microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of these engineered barrier materials extremely unlikely.
A mixed-potential model to predict the corrosion behaviour of nuclear fuel inside a failed carbon steel-lined copper waste container in a granitic repository is briefly described. A number of experiments underway to improve the mechanistic form of the model and to provide the necessary input data are discussed. A primary emphasis is placed on the consequences of the accumulation of corrosion product deposits on the fuel surface on the development of aggressive local chemistries, the cathodic reduction of H2O2 and potential for scavenging of H2O2 by the products of carbon steel corrosion (in particular H2).
Arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotunbe (CNT) bundles were fabricated on silicon  substrate with iron-nitrate sol-gel catalyst patterned via standard photolithographic techniques. Nanotube bundles with diameters ranging from 400µm to 15µm were grown in a chemical vapor deposition reactor and electrically characterized using a scanning-anode probe apparatus. Results showed a relatively low number of graphitic layers in individual nanotubes and a definite increase in field emission performance with decreasing bundle diameter. A 400µm wide matt of CNTs yielded a turn-on field of 6.7 V/µm and field enhancement of 602 while 15µm bundles performed significantly better with turn-on fields of 1.6 V/µm and field enhancement factors of 2425. The overall trend strongly suggests that the field emission character of CNT based aggregate structures such as those presented here is proportional to their aspect ratio.
We produce a novel form of amorphous silicon through ultra-high-vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. By depositing silicon atoms onto a fused quartz substrate at temperatures between 98 and 335°C, we obtain a silicon-based material that lacks the characteristic periodicity of crystalline silicon but nevertheless has 98% of its density. The impurity content of this material is studied through infrared and secondary ion mass spectroscopies. The primary impurity found is oxygen, with hydrogen and carbon atoms also being found at trace levels. The Raman spectra of the amorphous silicon films are measured and the results, as they relate to the presence of disorder, are interpreted. We also use this molecular beam epitaxy method to fabricate a number of amorphous silicon superlattices, comprised of thin layers of amorphous silicon separated with even thinner layers of SiO2. The optical properties of the films and superlattices are contrasted.
In this study, single crystal ZnO films are grown by pulsed laser deposition and ion beam processing is used alter the resistivity of the films. A 3He ion beam was chosen with a specific energy to transmutate oxygen into nitrogen. Analytical ion beam techniques were used to monitor the transmutation process, and changes in film characteristics were monitored by making resistance, photoconductivity and luminescence measurements before and after ion beam processing. The amount of nitrogen produced by this method was estimated to be ∼ 1014 cm−3, and was too low to be observable as a p-type dopant due to compensation by the naturally n-type material. However, the ion beam processed films improved dramatically in resistivity, defect luminescence was reduced and photoconductivity increases consistent with the improvements with resistivity were observed. These improvements were attributed to ion beam annealing of the crystal resulting in a reduction of point defects. In some films, blistering of the surface occurred and was attributed to the formation of gas bubbles which causes delamination of the film from the substrate.