The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of diets enriched with plant oils or seeds, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), on the fatty acid profile of sheep intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Sixty-six lambs were blocked according to initial body weight and randomly assigned to six concentrate-based rations containing 60 g fat/kg dry matter from different sources: (1) Megalac (MG; ruminally protected saturated fat), (2) camelina oil (CO), (3) linseed oil (LO), (4) NaOH-treated camelina seed (CS), (5) NaOH-treated linseed (LS) or (6) CO protected from ruminal saturation by reaction with ethanolamine; camelina oil amides (CA). The animals were offered the experimental diets for 100 days, after which samples of m. longissimusdorsi and SAT were collected and the fatty acid profile determined by GLC. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with ‘a priori’ contrasts including camelina v. linseed, oil v. NaOH-treated seeds and CS v. CA. Average daily gain and total fatty acids in intramuscular adipose tissue were similar across treatments. The NaOH-treatment of seeds was more effective in enhancing cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) incorporation than the corresponding oil, but the latter resulted in a higher content of trans-11 18:1 in both muscle neutral and polar lipids (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, respectively). Inclusion of LS resulted in the highest PUFA:saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio in total intramuscular fat (0.22). The NaOH-treatment of seeds resulted in a higher PUFA/SFA ratio (0.21 v. 0.18, P < 0.001) than oils and on average, linseed resulted in a higher PUFA/SFA ratio than camelina (P < 0.01). Lambs offered LS had the highest concentration of n-3 PUFA in the muscle, while those offered MG had the lowest (P < 0.001). This was reflected in the lowest (P < 0.001) n-6: n-3 PUFA ratio for LS-fed lambs (1.15) than any other treatment, which ranged from 2.14 to 1.72, and the control (5.28). The trends found in intramuscular fat were confirmed by the data for SAT. This study demonstrated the potential advantage from a human nutrition perspective of feeding NaOH-treated seeds rich in PUFA when compared to the corresponding oil. The use of camelina amides achieved a greater degree of protection of dietary PUFA, but decreased the incorporation of biohydrogenation intermediates such as cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 compared to NaOH-treated seeds.