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Afternoon aortic valve replacement surgery may provide perioperative myocardial protection and improve patient outcomes compared with morning surgery. The results of our large observational study based on Swiss cardiac surgical site infection surveillance data suggest that the current evidence is insufficient to generally promote afternoon cardiac surgeries.
Practical Healthcare Epidemiology takes a hands-on approach to infection prevention for physicians, healthcare epidemiologists, infection preventionists, microbiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. Increased regulatory requirements and patient knowledge and involvement has elevated patient safety, healthcare-associated infections, antibiotic stewardship and quality-of-care to healthcare wide issues. This fully updated new edition brings together the expertise of leaders in healthcare epidemiology to provide best practice expert guidance on infection prevention for adult and pediatric patients in all types of healthcare facilities, from community hospitals and academic institutions, to long-term care and resource limited settings. Written in clear, straightforward terms to address prevention planning and immediate responses to specific situations, this is the go-to resource for any practitioners in medicine or public health involved in infection prevention, regardless of their current expertise in the field.
At the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a new type of refractive X-ray optics has been developed. Owing to its comparably easy fabrication method and the large aperture, the so-called Rolled X-ray Prism Lenses (RXPL) have the potential to be used with X-ray tubes in an industrial environment as a low-cost alternative to existing optics. The lens itself is built out of a micro-structured foil which is cut into shape and rolled around a winding core to form a refracting element for X-rays. The resulting refractive structure can be used as illumination optics. Diffractometry experiments with an NIST 1976a sample were performed and showed up to an 18-fold enhanced integrated intensity compared to that acquired with a steel tube collimator.
It has been suggested that mortality is higher in patients admitted to hospitals during the weekend. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in patients with E. coli urinary tract infection (UTI) depending on the hospital admission day. For this purpose, a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort of patients with E. coli UTI was conducted. Weekend diagnosis of UTI was not associated with higher mortality. However, mortality was associated with sepsis, sepsis-induced hypotension and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Sepsis-induced hypotension and ICU admission were independent determinants of mortality. The results indicate that indicators of severity of illness are associated with higher mortality in patients with UTI rather than the time of diagnosis.
Cu-bearing elbaite from Paraíba (Brazil) is a highly-prized gem tourmaline. Specimens of similar quality from localities in Mozambique and Nigeria are being sold, and reliable provenance tools are required to distinguish specimens from the original locality from ‘Paraíba-type’ tourmaline from Africa. Here we present Li and B isotope analyses of Cu-bearing elbaite from all three localities and demonstrate the suitability of these isotope systems as a provenance tool. Isotopic profiles across chemically zoned grains revealed homogenous B and Li isotopic compositions, demonstrating a strong advantage of their application as a provenance tool as opposed to major, minor or trace element signatures.
Li and B isotopes of all investigated samples of Cu-bearing elbaites from the three localities are within the range of previously published granitic and pegmatitic tourmaline. Anomalous isotope compositions published previously for these samples are corrected by our results.
The Program Group for World-wide Development of Astronomy (PG-WWDA) is one of nine Commission 46 program groups engaged with various aspects of astronomical education or development of astronomy education and research in the developing world. In the case of PG-WWDA, its goals are to promote astronomy education and research in the developing world through a variety of activities, including visiting astronomers in developing countries and interacting with them by way of giving encouragement and support.
Commission 46 continues its task in the triennium, which started in September 2006. It seeks to further contribute to the development and improvement of astronomical education at all levels all over the world through various projects initiated, maintained and to be developed by the Commission, and by disseminating information concerning astronomy education.
Annual reports of the IAU Commission 46 Program Group Teaching for Astronomy Development (TAD) for the years 2006 and 2007 have been published in IAU Information Bulletin 100, 47; and 101, 40. Here the 2008 report is presented.