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Inattentive respondents introduce noise into data sets, weakening correlations between items and increasing the likelihood of null findings. “Screeners” have been proposed as a way to identify inattentive respondents, but questions remain regarding their implementation. First, what is the optimal number of Screeners for identifying inattentive respondents? Second, what types of Screener questions best capture inattention? In this paper, we address both of these questions. Using item-response theory to aggregate individual Screeners we find that four Screeners are sufficient to identify inattentive respondents. Moreover, two grid and two multiple choice questions work well. Our findings have relevance for applied survey research in political science and other disciplines. Most importantly, our recommendations enable the standardization of Screeners on future surveys.
To examine associations between IgA responses to Gram-negative gut commensal bacteria and peri-menstrual symptoms and sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle in women with and without premenstrual symptoms.
Forty women aged 18–45 years completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) during all 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. We assayed, in plasma, IgA responses to six Gram-negative bacteria, that is, Hafnei alvei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas putida and Citobacter koseri, progesterone and oestradiol at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of the menstrual cycle.
Significant changes in Δ (actual − 1 week earlier) IgA to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the six Gram-negative bacteria during the menstrual cycle were observed with peak IgA levels at T4 (day 28) and lows at T1 or T2 (day 7 or 14). The ΔIgA changes in H. alvei, M. Morganii, P. putida during the menstrual cycle were significantly and positively associated with changes in the total DRSP score, and severity of physio-somatic, anxiety and breast-craving, but not depressive, symptoms. The changes in IgA responses to LPS were largely predicted by changes in progesterone and steady-state levels of progesterone averaged over the luteal phase.
Menstrual cycle-associated changes in IgA directed against LPS and by inference bacterial translocation may be driven by the effects of progesterone on transcellular, paracellular and vascular pathways (leaky gut) thereby contributing to the severity of physio-somatic and anxiety symptoms as well as fatigue, breast swelling and food cravings.
Individual differences in social-emotional functioning emerge early and have long-term implications for developmental adaptation and competency. Research is needed that specifies multiple early risk factors and outcomes simultaneously to demonstrate specificity. Using multigroup longitudinal path analysis in a sample of typically developing children (N = 541), we examined child temperament dimensions (surgency, negative affectivity, and regulation/effortful control) and maternal anxiety in infancy and age 2 as predictors of child externalizing, internalizing, dysregulation, and competence behaviors at age 3. Four primary patterns emerged. First, there was stability in temperament dimensions and maternal anxiety from infancy to age 3. Second, negative affectivity was implicated in internalizing problems and surgency in externalizing problems. Third, effortful control at age 2 was a potent mediator of maternal anxiety in infancy on age 3 outcomes. Fourth, there was suggestive evidence for transactional effects between maternal anxiety and child effortful control. Most pathways operated similarly for boys and girls, with some differences, particularly for surgency. These findings expand our understanding of the roles of specific temperamental domains and postnatal maternal anxiety in a range of social-emotional outcomes in the preschool period, and have implications for efforts to enhance the development of young children's social-emotional functioning and reduce risk for later psychopathology.
We examined the quality of care provided to older persons with frailty in five Canadian provinces, using administrative health data. In each province, we identified two cohorts of older persons with frailty: decedents and living persons. Using decision rules, we considered individuals to be frail if they were long-term care residents, terminally ill, or met at least two of seven domains, which were based on frailty scales, geriatrician discussions, and health service utilization indicators. We assessed quality of care using selected quality indicators: decrease in length of hospital stay, decrease in the number of in-patient readmissions, decrease in the number of emergency department visits, increase in the level of family physician continuity of care, decrease in the use of mechanical ventilation, and decrease in the number of admissions to intensive care. Using regression analyses, we also found male sex and older age were associated with poorer quality of care in both cohorts. This study provides baseline data for evaluating future efforts to improve the quality of care provided to older persons with frailty.
White evangelicals overwhelmingly supported Donald Trump in the 2016 election, producing extensive debate as to who evangelicals are, what it means to be an evangelical in the United States today, and whether the electoral results are surprising or not. This paper offers empirical clarity to this protracted discussion by asking and answering a series of questions related to Trump's victory in general and his support from white evangelicals in particular. In doing so, the analyses show that the term “evangelical” has not become a synonym for conservative politics and that white evangelical support for Trump would be higher if public opinion scholars used a belief-centered definition of evangelicalism rather than relying on the more common classification strategies based on self-identification or religious denomination. These findings go against claims that nominal evangelicals, those who call themselves evangelicals but are not religious, make up the core of Trump's support base. Moreover, strong electoral support among devout evangelicals is not unique to the 2016 election but rather is part of a broader trend of evangelical electoral behavior, even when faced with non-traditional Republican candidates. Finally, the paper explores why white evangelicals might support a candidate like Trump. The paper presents evidence that negative partisanship helps explain why devout evangelicals—despite Trump's background and behaviors being cause for concern—coalesced around his presidential bid. Together, the findings from this paper help make sense of both the 2016 presidential election and evangelical public opinion, both separately and together.
Objective: Radiation therapy (RT) improves rates of survival of patients with childhood brain tumors but increases deficits in cognition and independent living skills. Previous literature has studied difficulties in basic cognitive processes, but few explore impairment in higher-order skills such as adaptive functioning. Some studies identify females as at risk for cognitive deficits due to RT, but few investigate sex differences in adaptive functioning. It was hypothesized that females would exhibit poorer long-term independent living skills and core cognitive skills relative to males following RT. Methods: Forty-five adult survivors of posterior fossa childhood brain tumors (24 females) completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II), Wechsler Memory Scale, Third Edition (WMS-III) Digit Span Forward (DSF) and Backward (DSB), and Oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test (OSDMT). Informants completed the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R). Results: DSF and OSDMT were positively correlated with all five SIB-R domains, full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was positively correlated with four SIB-R domains, and DSB was positively correlated with three SIB-R domains. There was an interaction between sex and RT for OSDMT and community living skills with trend level interactions for personal living skills and broad independent living skills, where females without RT had higher scores than females with RT. Conclusions: Female survivors were more affected by RT than males across the community living skills domain of adaptive functioning as well as processing speed. Processing speed deficits may have a cascading impact on daily living skills. Future studies should investigate how clinical and biological factors may contribute to personalized treatment plans between sexes. (JINS, 2019, 25, 729–739)
Frailty is associated with cognitive decline in older adults. However, the mechanisms explaining this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesized that sleep quality may mediate the relationship between frailty and cognition.
154 participants aged between 50-90 years (mean = 69.1 years, SD = 9.2 years) from the McKnight Brain Registry were included.
Participants underwent a full neuropsychological evaluation, frailty and subjective sleep quality assessments. Direct relationships between frailty and cognitive function were assessed using linear regression models. Statistical mediation of these relationships by sleep quality was assessed using nonparametric bootstrapping procedures.
Frailty severity predicted weaker executive function (B = −2.77, β = −0.30, 95% CI = −4.05 – −1.29) and processing speed (B = −1.57, β = −0.17, 95% CI = −3.10 – −0.16). Poor sleep quality predicted poorer executive function (B = −0.47, β = −0.21, 95% CI = −0.79 – −0.08), processing speed (B = −0.64, β = −0.28, 95% CI = −0.98 – −0.31), learning (B = −0.42, β = −0.19, 95% CI = −0.76 – −0.05) and delayed recall (B = −0.41, β = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.80 – −0.31). Poor sleep quality mediated the relationships between frailty severity and executive function (B = −0.66, β = −0.07, 95% CI = −1.48 – −0.39), learning (B = −0.85, β = −0.07, 95% CI = −1.85 – −0.12), delayed recall (B = −0.47, β = −0.08, 95% CI = −2.12 – −0.39) and processing speed (B = −0.90, β = −0.09, 95% CI = −1.85 – −0.20).
Relationships between frailty severity and several cognitive outcomes were significantly mediated by poor sleep quality. Interventions to improve sleep quality may be promising avenues to prevent cognitive decline in frail older adults.
The elderly population and numbers of nursing homes residents are growing at a rapid pace globally. Uncertainty exists regarding the actual rates of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as previous evidence documenting high rates relies on suboptimal methodology.
To carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and correlates of MDD, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorder among nursing homes residents without dementia.
Major electronic databases were systematically searched from 1980 to July 2017 for original studies reporting on the prevalence and correlates of MDD among nursing homes residents without dementia. The prevalence of MDD in this population was meta-analysed through random-effects modelling and potential sources of heterogeneity were examined through subgroup/meta-regression analyses.
Across 32 observational studies encompassing 13 394 nursing homes residents, 2110 people were diagnosed with MDD, resulting in a pooled prevalence rate of 18.9% (95% CI 14.8–23.8). Heterogeneity was high (I2 = 97%, P≤0.001); no evidence of publication bias was observed. Sensitivity analysis indicated the highest rates of MDD among North American residents (25.4%, 95% CI 18–34.5, P≤0.001). Prevalence of either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia spectrum disorder could not be reliably pooled because of the paucity of data.
MDD is highly prevalent among nursing homes residents without dementia. Efforts towards prevention, early recognition and management of MDD in this population are warranted.
Our aim was to summarize the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate in schizophrenia.
We undertook a systematic review, searching PubMed/Scopus/Clinicaltrials.gov for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of psychostimulants or atomoxetine in schizophrenia published up to 1 January 2017. A meta-analysis of outcomes reported in two or more studies is presented.
We included 22 studies investigating therapeutic effects of stimulants (k=14) or measuring symptomatic worsening/relapse prediction after stimulant challenge (k=6). Six studies of these two groups plus one additional study investigated biological effects of psychostimulants or atomoxetine. No effect resulted from interventional studies on weight loss (k=1), smoking cessation (k=1), and positive symptoms (k=12), and no improvement was reported with atomoxetine (k=3) for negative symptoms, with equivocal findings for negative (k=6) and mood symptoms (k=2) with amphetamines. Attention, processing speed, working memory, problem solving, and executive functions, among others, showed from no to some improvement with atomoxetine (k=3) or amphetamines (k=6). Meta-analysis did not confirm any effect of stimulants in any symptom domain, including negative symptoms, apart from atomoxetine improving problem solving (k=2, standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.73, 95% CI=0.10–1.36, p=0.02, I2=0%), and trending toward significant improvement in executive functions with amphetamines (k=2, SMD=0.80, 95% CI=−1.68 to +0.08, p=0.08, I2=66%). In challenge studies, amphetamines (k=1) did not worsen symptoms, and methylphenidate (k=5) consistently worsened or predicted relapse. Biological effects of atomoxetine (k=1) and amphetamines (k=1) were cortical activation, without change in β-endorphin (k=1), improved response to antipsychotics after amphetamine challenge (k=2), and an increase of growth hormone–mediated psychosis with methylphenidate (k=2). No major side effects were reported (k=6).
No efficacy for stimulants or atomoxetine on negative symptoms is proven. Atomoxetine or amphetamines may improve cognitive symptoms, while methylphenidate should be avoided in patients with schizophrenia. Insufficient evidence is available to draw firm conclusions.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
The stigma of mental illness, especially personal attitudes towards psychiatric patients and mental health help-seeking, is an important barrier in healthcare utilisation. These attitudes are not independent of each other and are also influenced by other factors, such as mental health literacy, especially the public’s causal explanations for mental problems. We aimed to disentangle the interrelations between the different aspects of stigma and causal explanations with respect to their association with healthcare utilisation.
Stigma and causal explanations were assessed cross-sectional using established German questionnaires with two unlabelled vignettes (schizophrenia and depression) in a random-selection representative community sample (N = 1375, aged 16–40 years). They were interviewed through a prior telephone survey for current mental disorder (n = 192) and healthcare utilisation (n = 377). Structural equation modelling was conducted with healthcare utilisation as outcome and stigma and causal explanations as latent variables. The final model was additionally analysed based on the vignettes.
We identified two pathways. One positive associated with healthcare utilisation, with high psychosocial stress and low constitution/personality related causal explanations, via positive perception of help-seeking and more help-seeking intentions. One negative associated with healthcare utilisation, with high biogenetic and constitution/personality, and low psychosocial stress related explanations, via negative perception of psychiatric patients and a strong wish for social distance. Sensitivity analysis generally supported both pathways with some differences in the role of biogenetic causal explanation.
Our results indicate that campaigns promoting early healthcare utilisation should focus on different strategies to promote facilitation and reduce barriers to mental healthcare.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Discrimination within the healthcare system and physician distrust have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes for people living with HIV; however, many studies do not link these variables to biological data. We hypothesize that perceived healthcare discrimination and physician distrust associates with higher longitudinal viremia among HIV-positive women. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A 2006 cross-sectional survey assessed healthcare-based discrimination and physician trust in 92 HIV-positive and 46 high-risk HIV-negative women from the Washington DC Women’s Interagency HIV Study (DC-WIHS). In addition, we identified HIV viral load trajectories and demographics from the HIV-positive women who contributed≥4 semi-annual visits from 1994 to 2015. Viral suppression was defined by assay detection limits (<80 to <20 copies/mL). Group-based probability trajectory analyses grouped women based on longitudinal viral load patterns, and identified 3 groups: sustained viremia (n=32) with low-viral suppression over time, intermittent viremia (n=27) with varying suppression over time, and non-viremia (n=33) with high-longitudinal viral suppression. Ordinal logistic regression models assessed trajectory group and discrimination variables, controlling for demographics, using stepwise selection with significance level of α=0.05. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most women were African American (60%), insured at the time of visit (89%) and nonsmokers (56%). While physician trust did not differ by HIV viral trajectory group, trust was lower among HIV-negative women compared with HIV-positive women (p=0.03). Over 1 in 5 HIV-positive women reported discrimination in the healthcare system based on HIV status (21.3%). Report of discrimination based on drug/alcohol use was higher among HIV-negative participants (19.2% vs. 6.5%, p=0.01). Among women with longitudinal sustained viremia, report of discrimination based on race ethnicity (29%, p=0.004) and sexual orientation (15.6%, p=0.008) were higher than within the nonviremic and intermittent trajectory groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Physician trust did not associate with increased longitudinal viral suppression among HIV-positive women in Washington, DC. Lack of physician trust among high-risk HIV-negative women could have implications for uptake of prevention methods. Reports of discrimination vary between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the Washington, DC area. The findings of healthcare system distrust among HIV-negative women has implications outside the realm of HIV, as this lack of trust may impact risk for other disease states among similar populations of women.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To identify cardiac structural and function parameters, obtained on usual stroke-care TTE evaluation, associated with cardioembolic stroke (CE) in patients without AF. Hypothesis—left atrial (LA) size and valve dysfunction will be strongly associated with incident CE. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Inclusion criteria: July 1, 2013 to July 1, 2015 admission with imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke, no AF, TTE within 1st 7 days. TTE structure/function parameters were recorded. Stroke subtype (CE vs. other) defined using TOAST criteria, blinded to TTE. New AF definition: AF on ECG, telemetry or event monitor. CE/New AF outcome of interest in separate multivariable logistic regression models testing associations with TTE parameters (adjusting for demographics/vascular risk factors). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (n=332) were ~60 years hypertensive black males with moderate NIHSS and normal ejection fraction. In adjusted models, odds of CE increased with increasing LA systolic diameter (per 0.1 cm), mitral E point velocity(cm/s), mitral valve dysfunction, wall motion abnormality. New AF also associated with increasing LA systolic diameter. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings may suggest cardiac structural changes independent of AF that are on the CE causal pathway. Understanding the relationship between such TTE parameters and stroke subtype would impact clinical practice, as such TTE data is underutilized when considering stroke mechanism and management.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
In the joint cases of Tele2 Sverige AB v. Post-och telestyrelsen and Secretary of State for the Home Department v. Tom Watson, Peter Brice, and Geoffrey Lewis (the Decision), the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) held that member states are precluded from adopting legislation that allows a general and indiscriminate retention of all traffic and location data. While targeted retention of data is allowed for the specific objective of fighting serious crime, retention must be proportionate and access to the data must be limited to what is strictly necessary. To ensure that this is achieved, adequate safeguards must be set in place and access to the data must be subject to prior review by a court or independent administrative body.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.
Little is known about the association of cortical Aβ with depression and anxiety among cognitively normal (CN) elderly persons.
We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota; involving CN persons aged ≥ 60 years that underwent PiB-PET scans and completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive diagnosis was made by an expert consensus panel. Participants were classified as having abnormal (≥1.4; PiB+) or normal PiB-PET (<1.4; PiB−) using a global cortical to cerebellar ratio. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after adjusting for age and sex.
Of 1,038 CN participants (53.1% males), 379 were PiB+. Each one point symptom increase in the BDI (OR = 1.03; 1.00–1.06) and BAI (OR = 1.04; 1.01–1.08) was associated with increased odds of PiB-PET+. The number of participants with BDI > 13 (clinical depression) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET- group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.42; 0.83–2.43). Similarly, the number of participants with BAI > 10 (clinical anxiety) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET− group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.77; 0.97–3.22).
As expected, depression and anxiety levels were low in this community-dwelling sample, which likely reduced our statistical power. However, we observed an informative albeit weak association between increased BDI and BAI scores and elevated cortical amyloid deposition. This observation needs to be tested in a longitudinal cohort study.