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Hunter-gatherer societies held sway in midwestern North America for at least 11,000 years. Those at the end of this period were more complex and less mobile, and they supported larger populations than those at the beginning, but there are relatively few general conceptions as to when and how this took place. Here we examine the fit of gradual, one-way social change as it relates to the size and shape of lithic supply zones for Upper Mercer and Flint Ridge flint as well as the inflow of exotic materials. Our results show no singular cline either in the size of successive lithic supply zones or in the inflow of exotic materials. Hunter-gatherer societies can make remarkable behavioral changes through time and not necessarily in any consistent (unilineal) direction. Such differences impose more contingency—and less directionality—into particular historical sequences.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
Field studies were conducted at the Pontotoc Ridge–Flatwoods Branch Experiment Station in Pontotoc, MS, in 2016 and 2017 to determine sweetpotato crop response to saflufenacil and rimsulfuron/thifensulfuron-methyl. Saflufenacil treatments consisted of a factorial of two rates (25 or 50 g ai ha–1) by three application timings [0, 3, or 6 wk before transplanting (WBP)]. Rimsulfuron/thifensulfuron-methyl treatments consisted of a factorial of two rates (18/18 or 35/35 g ai ha–1) by two application timings (3 or 6 WBP). A nontreated check was included for comparison. Saflufenacil resulted in as much as 20% stunting injury in 2016, but ≤4% crop injury in 2017. Compared to the nontreated check, saflufenacil did not reduce yield of any sweetpotato grade regardless of application rate or timing. Findings from this trial indicate that saflufenacil applied in pre-transplanting burndown and field preparation procedures did not have a negative impact on the subsequent sweetpotato crop and that the current plant-back interval (4 to 5 mo) may be excessive. Applications of rimsulfuron/thifensulfuron-methyl at 35/35 g ha–1 made 3 WBP resulted in significant crop injury but did not reduce yield of any sweetpotato grade. Findings from this trial suggest that rimsulfuron/thifensulfuron-methyl applications up to 35/35 g ha–1 applied at least 6 WBP and 18/18 g ha–1 applied at least 3 WBP had little impact on sweetpotato crop growth and may be a safe preplant burndown option.
In Canada, recreational use of cannabis was legalized in October 2018. This policy change along with recent publications evaluating the efficacy of cannabis for the medical treatment of epilepsy and media awareness about its use have increased the public interest about this agent. The Canadian League Against Epilepsy Medical Therapeutics Committee, along with a multidisciplinary group of experts and Canadian Epilepsy Alliance representatives, has developed a position statement about the use of medical cannabis for epilepsy. This article addresses the current Canadian legal framework, recent publications about its efficacy and safety profile, and our understanding of the clinical issues that should be considered when contemplating cannabis use for medical purposes.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The spatio-temporal dynamics of separation bubbles induced by surface-mounted bluff bodies with different spanwise widths and submerged in a thick turbulent boundary layer is experimentally investigated. The streamwise extent of the bluff bodies is fixed at 2.36 body heights and the spanwise aspect ratio (
), defined as the ratio between the width and height, is increased from 1 to 20. The thickness of the upstream turbulent boundary layer is 4.8 body heights, and the dimensionless shear and turbulence intensity evaluated at the body height are 0.23 % and 15.8 %, respectively, while the Reynolds number based on the body height and upstream free-stream velocity is 12 300. For these upstream conditions and limited streamwise extent of the bluff bodies, two distinct and strongly interacting separation bubbles are formed over and behind the bluff bodies. A time-resolved particle image velocimetry is used to simultaneously measure the velocity field within these separation bubbles. Based on the dynamics of the mean separation bubbles over and behind the bluff bodies, the flow fields are categorized into three-dimensional, transitional and two-dimensional regimes. The results indicate that the low-frequency flapping motions of the separation bubble on top of the bluff body with
are primarily influenced by the vortex shedding motion, while those with larger aspect ratios are modulated by the large-scale streamwise elongated structures embedded in the oncoming turbulent boundary layer. For
and 20, the flapping motions in the wake region are strongly influenced by those on top of the bluff bodies but with a time delay that is dependent on the
. Moreover, an expansion of the separation bubble on the top surface tends to lead to an expansion and contraction of separation bubbles in the wake of
and 1, respectively. As for the transitional case of
, the separation bubbles over and behind the body are in phase over a wide range of time difference. The dynamics of the shear layer in the wake region of the transitional case is remarkably more complex than the limiting two-dimensional and three-dimensional configurations.
Individual differences in social-emotional functioning emerge early and have long-term implications for developmental adaptation and competency. Research is needed that specifies multiple early risk factors and outcomes simultaneously to demonstrate specificity. Using multigroup longitudinal path analysis in a sample of typically developing children (N = 541), we examined child temperament dimensions (surgency, negative affectivity, and regulation/effortful control) and maternal anxiety in infancy and age 2 as predictors of child externalizing, internalizing, dysregulation, and competence behaviors at age 3. Four primary patterns emerged. First, there was stability in temperament dimensions and maternal anxiety from infancy to age 3. Second, negative affectivity was implicated in internalizing problems and surgency in externalizing problems. Third, effortful control at age 2 was a potent mediator of maternal anxiety in infancy on age 3 outcomes. Fourth, there was suggestive evidence for transactional effects between maternal anxiety and child effortful control. Most pathways operated similarly for boys and girls, with some differences, particularly for surgency. These findings expand our understanding of the roles of specific temperamental domains and postnatal maternal anxiety in a range of social-emotional outcomes in the preschool period, and have implications for efforts to enhance the development of young children's social-emotional functioning and reduce risk for later psychopathology.
Recent fieldwork and archival sedimentary materials from southern Iraq have revealed new insights into the environment that shaped southern Mesopotamia from the pre-Ubaid (early Holocene) until the early Islamic period. These data have been combined with northern Iraqi speleothem, or stalagmite, data that have revealed relevant palaeoclimate information. The new results are investigated in light of textual sources and satellite remote sensing work. It is evident that areas south of Baghdad, and to the region of Uruk, were already potentially habitable between the eleventh and early eighth millennia B.C., suggesting there were settlements in southern Iraq prior to the Ubaid. Date palms, the earliest recorded for Iraq, are evident before 10,000 B.C., and oak trees are evident south of Baghdad in the early Holocene but disappeared after the mid-sixth millennium B.C. New climate results suggest increased aridity after the end of the fourth millennium B.C. For the third millennium B.C. to first millennium A.D., a negative relationship between grain and date palm cultivation in Nippur is evident, suggesting shifting cultivation emphasising one of these crops at any given time in parts of the city. The Shatt en-Nil was also likely used as a channel for most of Nippur's historical occupation from the third millennium B.C. to the first millennium A.D. In the early to mid-first millennium A.D., around the time of the Sasanian period, a major increase in irrigation is evident in plant remains, likely reflecting large-scale irrigation expansion in the Nippur region. The first millennium B.C. to first millennium A.D. reflects a relatively dry period with periodic increased rainfall. Sedimentary results suggest the Nahrawan, prior to it becoming a well-known canal, formed an ancient branch of the Tigris, while the region just south of Baghdad, around Dalmaj, was near or part of an ancient confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates.
Hypertension prevalence is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) like South Africa, and migration and its concomitant urbanization are often considered to be associated with this rise. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and internal migration – a highly prevalent population process in LMICs. This study employed data for a group of 194 adult men and women from an original pilot dataset drawn from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in north-east South Africa conducted in 2012. Migrants in the sample were identified, tracked and interviewed. The relationship between BP and migration distance and the number of months an individual spent away from his/her home village was estimated using robust OLS regression, controlling for a series of socioeconomic, health and behavioural characteristics. It was found that migrants who moved a longer distance and for longer durations had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared with shorter-term migrants and those who remained nearby or in their home village. These associations remained robust and statistically significant when adjusting for measures of socioeconomic conditions, as well as body mass index and the number of meals consumed per day. Migration, both in terms of distance and time away, explained significant variation in the blood pressure of migrants in this typical South African context. The findings suggest the need for further studies of the nutritional and psycho-social factors associated with geographic mobility that may be important to understand rising hypertension levels in LMICs.
Ferrierite is the name for a series of zeolite-group of minerals which includes three species with the same ferrierite framework (FER) crystal structure but different extra-framework cations. Recent studies have shown that ferrierite can exhibit a fibrous-asbestiform crystal habit and may possess the same properties as carcinogenic fibrous erionite. Characterisation of the ferrierite in and around a mine location will be helpful in assessing the potential for toxic outcomes of exposure in the mine and any local population.
The zeolite-rich tuff deposit of Lovelock, Nevada, USA is the largest occurrence of diagenetic ferrierite-Mg. A previous survey reported that ferrierite hosted in these rocks displays a fibrous morphology. However, these observations concerned a limited number of samples and until now there has been little evidence of widespread occurrence of fibrous ferrierite in the Lovelock deposit.
The main goal of this study was to perform a mineralogical and morphometric characterisation of the tuff deposit at Lovelock and evaluate the distribution of fibrous ferrierite in the outcrop. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach including powder X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission microscopies, micro-Raman spectroscopy, thermal analyses, and surface-area determination was applied.
The results prove fibrous ferrierite is widespread and intermixed with mordenite and orthoclase, although there are variations in the spatial distribution in the bedrock. The crystal habit of the ferrierite ranges from prismatic to asbestiform (elongated, thin and slightly flexible) and fibres are aggregated in bundles. According to the WHO counting criteria, most of the ferrierite fibres can be classified as breathable. While waiting for confirmatory in vitro and in vivo tests to assess the actual toxicity/pathogenicity potential of this mineral fibre, it is recommended to adopt a precautionary approach for mining operations in this area to reduce the risk of exposure.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We aimed to explore the impact of leadership training on student’s abilities to work in interprofessional research teams successfully. The Translational Research Design and Interprofessional Skills Development Course (shortened, Interprofessional Research Design) brings together students from different disciplines (science & medicine) and education tracks (PhD, MD, MD/PhD training) in a seven-week course to learn interprofessional collaborative skills and leadership styles that support success in translational research environments, while undertaking a research grant writing project. Part of the course involves a two-day leadership training workshop (12 hours) with the goal of understanding leadership styles and how to develop productive working relationships with team members to help students work more effectively in high-performance, interprofessional team environments. The course incorporates personality testing to develop self-awareness, with various exercises meant to build empathy, as well as knowledge of project management and effective leadership. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Nine teams of 32 students (23 MD; 9 Ph.D.) who took part in the Interprofessional Research Design course in 2017 and 2018 were required to write a reflective essay at the end of the course. We used an inductive thematic analysis to evaluate the essays. Reflective essays were coded openly by one study member. Codes were rationalized; then codes were collaboratively developed into themes by the study authors. We identified issues of integration between student groups that functioned well together and those that did not. Reflective writing responses were grouped into overall positive experiences and negative experiences. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Seven of the nine teams collectively described their experiences positively. Themes related to positive team experience were “empathizing with group members”, “sophisticated communication” and “collaborative workflow/styles.” We found that those who had a positive experience utilized knowledge and skills learned during leadership training to better understand and communicate with their teammates leading to a more collaborative and dynamic workflow. These groups had higher degrees of communication both between their task assignments and within task completion periods. They also showed more awareness of others’ needs in work and communication styles. For those that had a negative experience, themes were related to “basic communication”, “poor integration” and “theory-practice gap of leadership training.” Those who struggled showed much less in- and between-task communication and showed an inability to address the personal needs of other members in communication and workflow (while still often being able to identify them). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings demonstrate the usefulness of leadership training that facilitates student self-awareness and empathy, as well as effective communication, leading to collaborative high-functioning interprofessional teams. Further work incorporating conflict management and exercises to overcome the theory/practice gap of leadership and teamwork training are recommended.
The crystal structure of tlapallite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron probe micro-analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tlapallite is trigonal, space group P321, with a = 9.1219(17) Å, c = 11.9320(9) Å and V = 859.8(3) Å3, and was refined to R1 = 0.0296 for 786 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This study resulted from the discovery of well-crystallised tlapallite at the Wildcat prospect, Utah, USA. The chemical formula of tlapallite has been revised to (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6[Te4+3Te6+O12]2(Te4+O3)2(SO4)2·3H2O, or more simply (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6Te4+8Te6+2O30(SO4)2·3H2O, from H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(TeO3)4(TeO6)(SO4). The tlapallite structure consists of layers containing distorted Cu2+O6 octahedra, Te6+O6 octahedra and Te4+O4 disphenoids (which together form the new mixed-valence phyllotellurate anion [Te4+3Te6+O12]12−), Te4+O3 trigonal pyramids and CaO8 polyhedra. SO4 tetrahedra, Ca(H2O)3O6 polyhedra and H2O groups fill the space between the layers. Tlapallite is only the second naturally occurring compound containing tellurium in both the 4+ and 6+ oxidation states with a known crystal structure, the other being carlfriesite, CaTe4+2Te6+O8. Carlfriesite is the predominant secondary tellurium mineral at the Wildcat prospect. We also present an updated structure for carlfriesite, which has been refined to R1 = 0.0230 for 874 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This updated structural refinement improves upon the one reported previously by refining all atoms anisotropically and presenting models of bond valence and Te4+ secondary bonding.
Turbulent separation bubbles over and behind a two-dimensional forward–backward-facing step submerged in a deep turbulent boundary layer are investigated using a time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The Reynolds number based on the step height and free-stream velocity is 12 300, and the ratio of the streamwise length to the height of the step is 2.36. The upstream turbulent boundary layer thickness is 4.8 times the step height to ensure a strong interaction of the upstream turbulence structures with the separated shear layers over and behind the step. The velocity measurements were performed in streamwise–vertical planes at the channel mid-span and streamwise–spanwise planes at various vertical distances from the wall. The unsteady characteristics of the separation bubbles and their associated turbulence structures are studied using a variety of techniques including linear stochastic estimation, proper orthogonal decomposition and variable-interval time averaging. The results indicate that the low-frequency flapping motion of the separation bubble over the step is induced by the oncoming large-scale alternating low- and high-velocity streaky structures. Dual separation bubbles appear periodically over the step at a higher frequency than the flapping motion, and are attributed to the inherent instability in the rear part of the mean separation bubble. The separation bubble behind the step exhibits a flapping motion at the same frequency as the separation bubble over the step, but with a distinct phase delay. At instances when an enlarged separation bubble is formed in front of the step, a pair of vertical counter-rotating vortices is formed in the immediate vicinity of the leading edge.
Nonlawyer advocates are one proposed solution to the access to justice crisis. Theory and research suggest that nonlawyers might be effective, yet scholars know very little, empirically, about nonlawyer practice in the United States. Using data from more than 5,000 unemployment insurance appeal hearings and interviews with lawyers and nonlawyers who represent employers in these hearings, this article explores how both types of representatives develop expertise and what this means for effectiveness. We find judges play a critical role in shaping nonlawyer legal expertise and nonlawyers develop expertise almost exclusively through “trial and error.” We find evidence that while experienced nonlawyers can help parties through their expertise with common court procedures and basic substantive legal concepts, they are not equipped to challenge judges on contested issues of substantive or procedural law in individual cases, advance novel legal claims, or advocate for law reform on a broader scale. These findings have implications for future access to justice research and interventions.
The chemical composition of soil from the Glasgow (UK) urban area was used to identify the controls on the availability of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in soil to humans. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in 27 soil samples, collected from different land uses, were coupled to information on their solid-phase partitioning derived from sequential extraction data. The total element concentrations in the soils were in the range <0.1–135mgkg–1 for As; 65–3680mgkg–1 for Cr and 126–2160mgkg–1 for Pb, with bioaccessible concentrations averaging 27, 5 and 27% of the total values, respectively. Land use does not appear to be a predictor of contamination; however, the history of the contamination is critically important. The Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distribution (CISED) sequential chemical extraction and associated self-modelling mixture resolution analysis identified three sample groupings and 16 geochemically distinct phases (substrates). These were related to iron (n=3), aluminium–silicon (Al–Si; n=2), calcium (n=3), phosphorus (n=1), magnesium (Mg; n=3), manganese (n=1) and easily extractable (n=3), which was predominantly made up of sodium and sulphur. As, Cr and Pb were respectively found in 9, 10 and 12 of the identified phases, with bioaccessible As predominantly associated with easily extractable phases, bioaccessible Cr with the Mg-dominated phases and bioaccessible Pb with both the Mg-dominated and Al–Si phases. Using a combination of the Unified Barge Method to measure the bioaccessibility of PHEs and CISED to identify the geochemical sources has allowed a much better understanding of the complexity of PHE mobility in the Glasgow urban environment. This approach can be applied to other urban environments and cases of soil contamination, and made part of land-use planning.