The Eagle Owl Bubo bubo, which feeds mainly on rabbits and partridges, has been persecuted widely for causing damage to game interests. Although it is a protected species throughout Europe, there is a noteworthy gap in the scientific literature on the causes of mortality in this top predator. Here, we assess the relative importance and the geographical and temporal variation of human-related causes of death by reviewing 1,576 files of individuals admitted to wildlife rescue centres in Spain, a stronghold for Eagle Owls. The main known cause of death was interaction with powerlines followed by persecution and collisions with game fences and cars. There were within-year variations in the distribution of persecution, electrocution and collisions with game fences. Some man-induced causes of mortality were seen to depend on both the geographical region and the period of the year; moreover, mortality within each region was also year-dependent. Since there are strong socio-economic and ethical components involved, management guidelines are discussed bearing in mind such points of view.