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Pure cobalt and cobalt-nickel alloys have been plated from simple electrolytic baths with and without additive and with and without ac superimposed upon the dc plating current.
X-ray analysis reveals preferred orientation in the polycrystalline deposits generally and extreme preferred orientation (characterized by [00.2] and [11.0] fiber axes) in the case of those samples obtained with additive-free electrolyte. It is shown that a change in the pH of the bath or the addition of an ac component are equally effective in determining the type of fiber axis in the deposit. The effects on plating texture owing to the use of additive KCNS in the bath are described. Finally, the correlation between the texture and the magnetic properties of the plating Is discussed.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
The placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity to the foetus and consequently lambs are born hypoimmunocompetent. The IgG content in colostrum and its absorption into the blood stream has important consequences for lamb liveability in early life. Recent experiments carried out at this institute found that when ewes had access to a mineral block or the mineral component of this block in the form of powdered minerals in late pregnancy, the absorption of IgG by their offspring was reduced (Boland et al., 2003). Keane (2001) stated that it would appear that the lamb was pre-programmed in-utero for lowered IgG efficiency and that the problem lay with the lamb rather than to any altered characteristics of the colostrum. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the period of time necessary for high levels of mineral supplementation to the ewe to affect a reduction in IgG values in the progeny.
Lambs are born hypoimmunocompetent as the placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity to the foetus of the ruminant. Colostrum is the source of imunoglobulins for the young lamb and any interference with the absorption of immunoglobulins from colostrum would have important consequences for lamb liveability in early life. Recent experiments at this institute found that when ewes had access to mineral blocks in late pregnancy the absorption of immunoglobulin (IgG) by their offspring was reduced (Keane 2001). This author also stated that the lamb was preprogrammed in-utero for lowered IgG absorption efficiency. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether it was the mineral or molasses component of the mineral block which caused the reduced IgG absorption by the lamb.
To examine the choices Canadian family medicine residents make for oral anticoagulation (OAC) for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).
AF increases the risk of strokes. An important consideration in AF management is risk stratification for stroke and prescription of appropriate OAC. Family physicians provide the vast majority of OAC prescriptions.
We administered a survey to residents in multiple Canadian family medicine training programmes. Questions explored the experiences and attitudes towards risk stratification and choices of OAC when presented with standardized clinical scenarios. In each scenario, a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) would be the preferred treatment according to the contemporary Canadian and European guidelines.
A total of 247 residents participated in the survey. Most used the congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75, diabetes mellitus, stroke or TIA (2 points) (81%) and congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 (2 points) or age 65-74 (1 point), diabetes mellitus, stroke or TIA, vascular disease including peripheral arterial disease, myocardial infarction, or aortic plaque, sex (female) (67%) risk stratification schemes while the preferred bleeding risk stratification scheme was hypertension, abnormal liver or renal function, stroke, bleeding, labile international normalized ratio, elderly (age ≥ 65), drugs or alcohol (84%). In the clinical scenarios, residents generally preferred warfarin in favour of NOACs, independent of training level. Residents ranked the risk of adverse events and the cost to the patient as their most and least important consideration when prescribing OAC, respectively. Therefore in patients with nonvalvular AF, Canadian family medicine residents prefer warfarin in comparison with NOACs despite the latest Canadian and European guideline recommendations. This knowledge gap may be enhanced by multiple factors, including a sometimes magnified fear of adverse events and a rapidly changing landscape in stroke prophylaxis.
The first main result isolates some conditions which fail for the class of graphs and hold for the class of Abelian p-groups, the class of Abelian torsion groups, and the special class of “rank-homogeneous” trees. We consider these conditions as a possible definition of what it means for a class of structures to have “Ulm type”. The result says that there can be no Turing computable embedding of a class not of Ulm type into one of Ulm type. We apply this result to show that there is no Turing computable embedding of the class of graphs into the class of “rank-homogeneous” trees. The second main result says that there is a Turing computable embedding of the class of rank-homogeneous trees into the class of torsion-free Abelian groups. The third main result says that there is a “rank-preserving” Turing computable embedding of the class of rank-homogeneous trees into the class of Boolean algebras. Using this result, we show that there is a computable Boolean algebra of Scott rank .
We investigate the formation of inAs-rich layers at the interface between InP and arsenicbased Ill-V alloys grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, low temperature photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the formation of these layers. We present evidence for interfacial layer roughness that depends strongly on growth temperature and on the presence of surface steps, and show that modifications of the interface chemistry and of the gas-switching sequence can reduce interfacial layer thicknesses.
A variety of optical methods are now available for studying surface processes and for monitoring layer thicknesses and compositions during semiconductor crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD), and related techniques. New capabilities for surface analysis are being provided by developing techniques such as reflectance-difference spectroscopy (RDS), which use intrinsic symmetries to suppress ordinarily dominant bulk contributions. Bulk and microstructural properties such as compositions and layer thicknesses can be determined by techniques such as spectroellipsometry (SE), which return information integrated over the penetration depth of light. Recent advances include the application of reflectance to monitor dynamic surface processes, RDS to characterize (001) GaAs surfaces in OMCVD environments, and SE to control growth of AlxGa1-x, As materials and structures.
With modern undulators generating light of an arbitrary polarization state, experiments exploiting this feature in the soft X-ray region are becoming increasingly widespread. Circularly polarized light in the soft X-ray region is of particular interest to investigate of magnetic metals such as Fe, Co and Ni, and the rare earths. A versatile multilayer polarimeter has been designed and developed to characterize the polarization state of the soft X-ray beam. A W/B4C multilayer transmission phase retarder and reflection analyser has been used for polarimetry measurements on the beamline (I06) at Diamond Light Source. The design details of the polarimeter and preliminary polarimetry results are presented.
Background: To compare the frequencies of risk factors, we describe risks for depression as a function of race among consecutively admitted participants in a randomized clinical trial of indicated depression prevention in later life.
Methods: Seventy-two black and 143 white participants were screened for risk factors for depression.
Results: Black participants were more likely to have fewer years of education and lower household income. They were more likely to be obese, live alone, experience functional disability, have a history of alcohol and drug abuse, and have lower scores on the Mini-mental State Examination and the Executive Interview (EXIT). White participants were not found to have greater prevalence or higher mean score on any risk factor. On average, black participants experienced approximately one more risk factor than white participants (t(213) = 3.32, p = 0.0011).
Conclusions: In our sample, black participants had higher frequencies of eight risk factors for depression and a greater mean number of risk factors compared to white participants.
The properties of beams of high energy protons accelerated during ultraintense, picosecond laser-irradiation of thin foil targets are investigated as a function of preplasma expansion at the target front surface. Significant enhancement in the maximum proton energy and laser-to-proton energy conversion efficiency is observed at optimum preplasma density gradients, due to self-focusing of the incident laser pulse. For very long preplasma expansion, the propagating laser pulse is observed to filament, resulting in highly uniform proton beams, but with reduced flux and maximum energy.
Synchrotron based μ-XRF, μ-XAS and μ-XRD have made a major impact in the field of environmental science in the last ten years. One of the first seven ‘day one’ beamlines on the Diamond Light Source is a microfocus spectroscopy beamline, beamline I18. Here the current status of the beamline and the opportunities it presents in the field of environmental science are described, with results from two of the first experiments also included. The first is based on the use of bonemeal to remediate soil. We used Zn K-edge and Pb L3-edge spectroscopy to characterize the speciation of these two elements on a soil after bonemeal treatment. The results are compared with bulk measurements taken on the whole soil and standard materials. The second experiment described here is a study of the speciation and association of Ni in a laterite from Moa Bay, Cuba. Here the differences in the Ni speciation associated with Mn oxides are examined and compared with Fe oxides phases.
Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of varying levels of mineral and iodine supplements when offered to ewes in late pregnancy on lamb serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. In experiment 1, 44 individually housed ewes were allocated to one of four treatments (no. = 11) and offered a basal diet of grass silage ad libitum which was supplemented with 500 g/day of a concentrate (190 g/kg of crude protein (CP)), in addition to mineral/vitamin fortification at the rate of 0 g (C), 17.3 g (LM), 34.6 g (MM) or 52.0 g (HM) per day for the final 7 weeks of pregnancy. The mineral/vitamin supplement contained Ca, P, Na, Mg, Mn, Se, I, Co, Mn and vitamin E. The ewes were milked at 1 h, 10 h and 18 h post partum and measured quantities of colostrum, proportional to lamb birth weight, were fed back to the lambs via a stomach tube. Treatment had no effect on total colostrum yield or total IgG yield to 18 h post partum (P > 0.05). There was a linear decrease in serum IgG concentration and IgG absorption efficiency as mineral supplementation increased (P < 0.001). In experiment 2, which was carried out in conjunction with experiment 1, 44 ewes were allocated to four treatments (no. = 11) and offered the same basal silage/concentrate diet as in experiment 1, in addition to receiving one of the following supplements : (C) control, as in experiment 1; (HM), as in experiment 1; (−I), ewes offered the same mineral/vitamin supplement as HM but with iodine excluded; (I0), ewes offered a daily mineral supplement of iodine only at a level of 40 mg per ewe, equivalent to the iodine inclusion in the 52 g of minerals offered in HM. The iodine-supplemented progeny (HM and IO) had lower (P < 0.001) serum IgG concentrations and higher soil scores (P < 0.05) than the C and −I progeny. In experiment 3, the effects of varying levels of iodine supplementation when offered to ewes during the final 6 weeks of pregnancy on lamb serum IgG values were examined. Forty-eight individually housed ewes were allocated to one of four treatments (no. = 12) and offered grass silage ad libitum, which was supplemented initially with 500 g of a concentrate (140 g/kg of CP) from days 99 to 130 of gestation and then replaced with 700 g/day of a concentrate (180 g/kg of CP) from day 131 of gestation until lambing. In addition, the diet of each ewe was supplemented on a daily basis with iodine at the rate of 0 mg (C), 8.9 mg (LI), 17.7 mg (MI) or 26.6 mg (HI). There was a negative linear reduction in serum IgG concentration and IgG absorption efficiency as maternal dietary iodine supplementation increased (P < 0.001). We conclude that supplementation of the ewe's diet in late pregnancy with 17.3 g of a mineral supplement as formulated in the current experiment lowers the lamb's ability to absorb colostral IgG, and offering only the iodine component of this mineral supplement, at a level which approximates to about one third of currently quoted toxicity levels, will result in reduced serum IgG concentration in the lamb. These findings suggest the need to re-examine current toxicity values for iodine.
Two experiments were carried out to quantify the intake of mineral blocks by ewes in group- and individually fed situations, and to examine the effects of mineral block intake on food and water intake, colostrum production and lambs' immunoglobulin G (IgG) absorption when ewes are individually housed and offered maize or grass silage with a concentrate supplement. In experiment 1, mineral blocks were offered to 359 ewes either when grazing at mating time (no. = 200) or, when indoors in the last 4 or 7 weeks of pregnancy, the latter as either twin-bearing ewes that were group-fed (no. = 18) or individually fed (no. = 27) or single-bearing ewes that were group-fed (no. = 114). Block intake was measured on a weekly basis. In experiment 2,a2X2 X 2 factorial design was used to compare the effects of forage (grass or maize silage), restricted mineral block access and added minerals/vitamins in the concentrate on food and water intakes, colostrum production and immunoglobulin absorption by the lamb using 64 twin- bearing ewes that were individually housed. Grass silage and maize silage were offered ad libitum, concentrates were offered at a flat rate of 400 g per head per day. Mineral blocks were offered to ewes for 3 h/day. Following lambing, the ewes were hand milked at 1,10 and 18 h post partum. Colostrum samples were assayed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) content. Lambs were blood sampled at 24 h old to determine serum IgG value. In experiment 1, mean daily mineral block intake per ewe was lowest at mating time (19 g) and highest when ewes were individually housed (194 g). In experiment 2, intakes of dry matter(DM) and energy were higher (F < 0.05) in the maize silage treatments. Similarly, when ewes had access to mineral blocks they had higher (P < 0.05) intakes of DM, energy and protein in addition to having a higher water intake (2.24 v. 0.771 per ewe per day; s.e. 0.139; P < 0.01). The mean total colostrum yield to 18 h post lambing at 1734 ±98.0 ml was unaffected by any of the treatments. When ewes had access to mineral blocks their lambs had lower (6.8 v. 18.8; s.e. 1.48; P < 0.01) serum IgG values and the efficiency of IgG absorption from the colostrum into the blood stream was reduced (0.097 v. 0.247; s.e. 0.0214; P < 0.01). In conclusion, the data show that there is wide variation in mineral block intake in different situations and that intake of some minerals can exceed toxic values. Additionally, when individually fed pregnant ewes have access to blocks for just 3 h/day, there is a significant increase in water intake and a dramatic reduction in lamb serum IgG concentration and in the efficiency of absorption of colostral IgG into the blood. We suggest that while mineral blocks can confer advantages in specific situations, there is the need to revisit their formulation and to further research the mode of action responsible for the compromised IgG absorption.
Ninety twin-bearing ewes were given food individually and allocated to five (no. = 18) treatments in order to determine the effects of supplementing their diet in late pregnancy with mineral-block components on colostrum production, lamb serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and colostral IgG absorption. Ewes were offered grass silage ad libitum, supplemented with 400 to 500 g per ewe per day of concentrates from day 99 of gestation, in addition to receiving one of the following supplements: C, (control) no supplement; B, mineral block; ML, liquid molasses; MN, granular minerals; ML + MN, liquid molasses and granular minerals. The experiment commenced on day 99 of gestation. Ewes were milked at lh, 10 h and 18 h post lambing and all lambs were fed measured quantities of colostrum, proportionate to birth weight, via stomach tube. Treatment had no effect (P > 0-05) on colostrum yield at lh, 10 h or 18 h post partum or on total colostrum yield to 18 h post partum. Ewes offered molasses (ML) or molasses plus minerals (ML + MN) had a lower colostral IgG concentration at lh post lambing than the control ewes (C) (P < 0-05). Ewes offered molasses (ML) also had a lower colostral IgG concentration than the control (C) at 10 h post partum (P < 0-05). Treatment had no effect on total IgG yield to 18 h post partum. When ewes were supplemented with minerals in any combination, with or without molasses (B, MN, ML + MN) it resulted in lambs having an impaired ability to absorb colostral IgG. Lambs from treatments B, MN and ML + MN had significantly poorer efficiency of colostral IgG absorption than lambs born to control ewes (C) or molasses (ML) supplemented ewes (P < 0-001). This in turn resulted in the progeny of mineral supplemented ewes (B, MN or ML + MN) having lower serum IgG concentration at 24 h post partum than either the control (C) or the molasses treatments (ML) (P < 0-001). When ewes were supplemented with molasses only (ML) lamb serum IgG content at 24 h was lower than in lambs born to control (C) ewes (P < 0-05) but this was as a result of a lower intake of colostral IgG (P < 0-05) and not a result of reduced IgG absorption efficiency. In conclusion, the data show that when ewe mineral intake is high in late pregnancy, as was the case in the current experiment, lamb serum IgG concentration and colostral IgG absorption efficiency are reduced. Further work is required to determine which component of the mineral formulation is responsible for this reduced IgG absorption efficiency and the mechanism through which this impaired efficiency operates.