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Given the lack of evidence on patients with medically refractory vestibular migraine, this study aimed to identify factors associated with pharmacotherapy failure and progression to botulinum toxin injection in vestibular migraine.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on definite vestibular migraine patients from September 2015 to July 2019 who completed the Dizziness Handicap Inventory at least six weeks apart..
The study comprised 47 patients (mean age = 50.2 ± 15.8 years), with a mean follow-up time of 6.0 ± 6.0 months. The mean pre-treatment Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was 57.5 ± 23.5, with a mean reduction of 17.3 ± 25.2 (p < 0.001) at last follow up. Oscillopsia (r = 0.458, p = 0.007), failure of first medication (r = 0.518, p = 0.001) and pre-treatment Dizziness Handicap Inventory question 15 (an emotional domain question) score (r = 0.364, p = 0.019) were the only variables significantly correlated with progression to botulinum toxin injection.
Motion hypersensitivity, failure of first medication, and fear of social stigmatisation suggest a decreased treatment response. These symptoms may require more aggressive treatment at an earlier stage.
The stability and transition in the bottom boundary layer under a solitary wave are analysed in the presence of finite-amplitude disturbances. First, the receptivity of the boundary layer is investigated using a linear input-output analysis, in which the environment noise is modelled as distributed body forces. The most ‘dangerous’ perturbations in a time frame until flow reversal are found to be arranged as counter-rotating streamwise-constant vortices. One of these vortex configurations is then selected and deployed to nonlinear equations, and streaks of various amplitudes are generated via the lift-up mechanism. By means of secondary stability analysis and direct numerical simulations, the dual role of streaks in the boundary-layer transition is shown. When the amplitude of streaks remains moderate, these elongated features remain stable until the adverse-pressure-gradient stage and have a dampening effect on the instabilities developing thereafter. In contrast, when the low-speed streaks reach high amplitudes exceeding 15 % of the free stream velocity at the respective phase, they become highly unstable to secondary sinuous modes in the outer shear layers. Consequently, a subcritical transition to turbulence, i.e. bypass transition, can be initiated already in the favourable-pressure-gradient region ahead of the wave crest.
The aim of this study was to reveal the possible mechanisms involved in apoptosis induced by single prolonged stress (SPS) in hippocampus of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rats.
SPS is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Wistar rats were killed at 1, 4, 7, 14 and 28days after exposure to SPS. Expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, cytochrome c, Bcl-2 and Bax was detected by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blotting and electron microscopy. Apoptotic cells were assessed by TUNEL method.
Our results showed apoptotic cells were significantly increased in hippocampus of SPS rats, accompanied by release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, increase of caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression and decrease of the Bcl-2 / Bax ratio.
The results indicate that SPS induced apoptosis in hippocampus of PTSD rats, and the mitochondrial pathway was involved in the process of SPS induced apoptosis. *National Natural Science Foundation of China
To compare therapeutic efficacy, social function, discontinue rate, relapse and recurrence rate of the depression outpatients with first episode between Venlafaxine extended release and Fluoxertine hydrochloride treatment. Methods In this 48 week natural parallel follow-up study, total 188 patients who meet ICD-10 criteria for a major depressive episode were admitted and assigned to receive either Venlafaxine Extended Release (Venlafaxine XR group) (n=89) or Fluoxertine hydrochloride(Fluoxertine group) (n=99).At baseline,week2,8,12,16,24,32,48,Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD)-17 item was used to value disease severity, and Social Disability Screening Schedule(SDSS)for social disability, and the discontinue, relapse and recurrence rates were compared. Results (1) At week 24 Venlafaxine XR group had much lower HAMD17 total score than Fluoxertine group (P<0.05). (2)The remission rate and response rate between two groups had no statistical difference (P>0.05). (3) At week 12, Venlafaxine XR group had a higher SDSS score than Fluoxertine group (P<0.05).(4)At week 12, 16, 24, 32,48,Venlafaxine XR group displayed lower discontinue rates (P<0.05). Venlafaxine XR group had a longer treatment course than Fluoxertine did [(30.99±15.98) weeks vs. [(22.57±15.26) weeks] (P<0.01). (5) The relapse and recurrence rates of two groups had no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusions In the acute phase, Venlafaxine XR has a better effect for social function and treatment adherence than Fluoxertine hydrochloride. In the continued phase and sustained phase, Venlafaxine XR performs better for symptoms relief and treatment adherence.Venlafaxine XR has parallel performance with Fluoxertine hydrochloride by the terms of therapeutic efficacy, social function restore, relapse and recurrence rate.
To observe the changes of glucocorticoid receptors(GR) in the nucleus raphes magnus (NRM)neurons of PTSD-like rats.
25 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into PTSD model 1d, 4d, 7d, 14d groups and a normal group with 5 rats in each group. Rats in model groups were treated with SPS procedure to reproduce PTSD model.The changes of expression of GR in NRM of rats were detected by immunohistochemistry and PCR in each group, and image analysis and statistical analysis were performed in each group.
GR was distributed in the nucleus of neurons. The expression of GR was sharply decreased on 1d, but gradually increased on 4d and 7d, then decreased on 14d. All of 4d, 7d, 14d are higher than the normal (P < 0.05).
The lasting dysfunction of GR in the nucleus raphes magnus (NRM) may play an important role in post-traumatic stress disorder rats.
Depression and anxiety disorders are prevalent mental disorders in China. But some those patients do not seek help from psychiatrists firstly but see internists first.
Objectives and aims
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive - anxiety disorders in gastroenterology outpatients and assess the detection rate provided by physicians in China.
A multicenter, hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried on in the 15 large general hospitals of five cities cross China. A total of 1995 gastroenterological outpatients were screened by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Subjects whose HADS scores ≥ 8 were interviewed by psychiatrists, using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) to make further diagnoses. Physicians’ diagnoses and treatment were recorded.
The adjusted prevalence of depressive disorder and anxiety disorders was 14.39% and 9.42% respectively.
The prevalence of depressive-anxiety disorder is high in gastroenterology outpatients in China, which suggests the related training of detecting these mental disorders is needed to gastroenterologists.
There are strong links between circadian disturbance and some of the most characteristic symptoms of clinical major depressive disorder (MDD). However there are no published studies of changes in expression of clock genes or of other neuropeptides related to circadian-rhythm regulation, which may influence recurrent susceptibility after treatment with antidepressant in MDD.
Blood samples were collected from twelve healthy controls and twelve male major depressive patients pre- and post- treated with escitalopram for eight weeks at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Outcome measures were the relative expression of mRNA of clock genes (hPERIOD1, hPERIOD2, hPERIOD3, hCRY1, hBMAL1, hNPAS2 and hGSK-3beta) and the levels of serum melatonin, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), cortisol, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Insulin-like Growth Factor-1(IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) in twelve healthy controls and twelve pre- and post- treated MDD patients.
Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed disruptions in diurnal rhythms of expression of hPERIOD1, hPERIOD2, hCRY1, hBMAL1, hNPAS2 and hGSK-3beta, along with disruptions in diurnal rhythms of release of melatonin, VIP, cortisol, ACTH, IGF-1, and GH. Several of these disruptions (hPER1, hCRY1, melatonin, VIP, cortisol, ACTH, and IGF-1) persisted after eight weeks escitalopram treatment, as did elevation of 24-hour levels of VIP and decreases in 24-hour levels of cortisol and ACTH.
These persisted neurobiological changes may play a role in MDD symptoms that are thought to contribute to recurrence vulnerability and in maintenance therapy for a long term.
To detect molecular chaperone calreticulin(CRT) expression on the hippocampus in the rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD), and discuss the regulation of CRT on Ca2+ in hippocampus of PTSD rats, further provide the experiment basis for pathogenesis of memory anomaly in PTSD rats.
The single-prolonged stress(SPS) is one of the animal models was used to set up the rat PTSD models. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 1, 4, 7 days groups after exposure to SPS and a normal control group. The expression of CRT was detected by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and RT-PCR. The intracellular free calcium was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometer.
The expression of CRT in the hippocampus obviously increased after SPS stimulation, and reached the peak at SPS 4d. The intracellular free calcium level in the hippocampus obviously increased, and reached the peak at SPS 1d, then gradually decreased.
PTSD caused endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS), calcium overload, up-regulated expression of CRT, activation of unfolded protein response(UPR), which maybe result in cell apoptosis and maybe the pathogenesis basis on memory anomaly in PTSD rats.
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe and chronic forms of mental illness. Quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) test may be useful as a biological marker for the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders of Schizophrenia.
To evaluate reliability and psychiatric clinical value of QRS via thought disorder detection.
We studied 1014 schizophrenic patients, 155 patients with bipolar disorders patient, and 100 normal controls. Thought disorder symptoms of same subjects obtained from QRS test and psychiatrists' diagnoses were compared. Also Thought disorder symptoms of renumbered 65 schizophrenia patient and 100 normal controls were discriminated using QRS test.
Kappa values of thought disorders detection and diagnosed were more than 65% in 6/9 symptoms of schizophrenia, and more than 74% in all 3 symptoms of bipolar disorder. Same consistency could also be seen in Pearson R value, and ROC AUC. In the discriminated analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive of delusion, looseness of thought and paralogism thinking detected utilizing QRS are more than 70% same compared with psychiatrists diagnoses.
QRS in thought disorder detection seem to have a predictable value for outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, would become an objective identification and diagnosis instrument, and might promote psychiatric clinical diagnosis.
We hypothesized an increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) glutamate levels would occur after three weeks of repetitve transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment and a decrease in major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms.
We report six cases (four females) 15–21 years of age with treatment-resistant MDD. Participants had a mean age of 18.7 years and a mean IQ of 102.3. Short echo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) was used to quantify glutamate levels in the left DLPFC (4.5cc) before and after rTMS treatment. rTMS was localized to the left DLPFC and applied for 15 consecutive weekdays. Treatment response was defined as a greater than 50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (Ham-D).1H-MRS data was analyzed with LCModel to determine glutamate concentration.
Following rTMS, treatment responders (N=4) showed an increase (relative to baseline) in left DLPFC glutamate levels (11%), which corresponded to an improvement in depressive symptom severity (68% Ham-D score reduction). Treatment non-responders (N=2) had elevated baseline glutamate levels compared to responders in that same region, which decreased with rTMS (−10%). Procedures were generally well tolerated with no adverse events.
rTMS is feasible and possibly efficacious in adolescents with MDD. In responders, rTMS may act by Induced elevations in elevating DFPLC glutamate levels in the left DLPFC, thereby leading to symptom improvement. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Adolescent Depression (TMSAD)
To investigate the effect of risperidone and (or) Xiao Huan Tang on activity and preferences behavior of glutamate dysfunction mice model.
70 kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, one group as blank group. Rest groups intraperitoneal injection MK- 801(0.072mg/ml, 5ml/kg/day) continuously 14 day, then randomly numbered: model group, risperidone group, Xiao Huan Tang group and risperidone combined Xiao Huan Tang group. Gavaged corresponding drugs for each group one month, at the same time observe high activities and changes in the preferences of five groups.
Compared with the blank group, activity of model groups was increased (36.8±16.2 vs blank group 11.3±14.5, P<0.05). After gavaged one month, model groups of high activity was decreased, especially risperidone combined Xiao Huan Tang group. There was no statistical meaning in inquiry activity of five groups (P > 0.05). Compared with model group, latent period of step-through test was prolonged 34.1s (P<0.05), of step-down test was prolonged 20.2s in risperidone combined Xiao Huan Tang group.
the combination of Xiao Huan Tang and risperidone can suppress the high activity, prolong harmed memory time, and protect preference behavior of schizophrenia mice.
Schizophrenia and mood disorders are chronic forms of mental illness. Quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) test may be useful as a biological marker for the clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders of mental illness.
To evaluate reliability and psychiatric clinical value of quantum resonance spectrometer (QRS) in affective disorders detection.
We studied 1014 schizophrenic patients and 248 patients with mood disorders (including 93 major depression patients). Affective disorder symptoms of same subjects obtained from QRS test and psychiatrists’ diagnoses were compared. Also 3 affective disorder symptoms of renumbered 93 major depressive patients were discriminated using QRS.
Kappa values of affective disorder detection and diagnosed were more than 0.69 in all 3 symptoms of schizophrenia, and more than 0.65 in 6/7 symptoms of mood disorder. Same consistency could also be seen in Pearson R value, and ROC AUC. In the discriminated analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive of hypothymia, anxiety, and irritability detected utilizing QRS are more than 0.66 compared with psychiatrists’ diagnoses.
The study is limited by no collected psychiatric rating scale data.
QRS in affective disorder detection seem to have a predictable value for outcome in schizophrenia and mood disorder, would become an objective identification and diagnosis instrument, and might promote psychiatric clinical diagnosis.
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) are the primary target of antipsychotic drugs and have been shown to regulate Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK-3b) signaling through scaffolding protein b-arrestin 2.
In the present study, we researched the effects of saikosaponin B1 on the b-arrestin 2-mediated Akt/GSK-3b pathway in human neuroblastoma cell lineSH-SY5Y cells.
To determine whether saikosaponin B1 affected neuronal morphology in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y cells.
We investigated the effects of saikosaponin B1 on neurite outgrowth using immunostaining. We examined the effects of saikosaponin B1 on Akt and GSK-3b and its well-known downstream regulators, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Bcl-2 levels using Western blot analysis.
Saikosaponin B1 was found to enhance neurite outgrowth. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for b-arrestin 2 knockdown blocked the increase in saikosaponin B1-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, saikosaponin B1 increased the levels of Akt and GSK-3b phosphorylation. The elevation of Akt phosphorylation induced by saikosaponin B1 was reduced by b-arrestin 2 siRNA. Moreover, saikosaponin B1 effectively increased the levels of phospho-CREB, BDNF, and Bcl-2.
Together, these results suggest that regulation of the b-arrestin 2-dependent pathway via blockade of the D2R in SH-SY5Y cells is one mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of saikosaponin B1.
We describe an analytical method of SH-SY5Y cell membrane chromatography (SH-SY5Y/CMC) for recognition, separation and identification of active components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). SH-SY5Y cells by means of culture with SH-SY5Y cell lines were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention components by the SH- SY5Y/CMC model were collected and active components then analyzed by SH-SY5Y/CMC under the optimized conditions. After investigating the suitability and reliability of the SH-SY5Y /CMC method using risperidone, sertraline and clozapine as standard compounds, this method was applied in screening active components from the extracts of TCMs such as Radix Gentianae, Radix Bupleuri, stir-baked semen ziziphi spinosae, rehmannia dride rhizome, uncaria rhynchophylla. Retention components from the extracts in the SH-SY5Y/CMC model were gentiopicrin and rosmarinci acid identified by the GC/MS method. In vitro pharmacological trials indicated that gentiopicrin and rosmarinci acid could concentration dependently protect the SH-SY5Y pre-treated by H2O2 (P < 0.05). The SH-SY5Y/CMC method is an effective screening system that can rapidly detect target components from a complex sample for antipsychotic candidate drug.
Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are the first-line pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. Recent human studies have found that myelin integrity could be improved by APD treatment in schizophrenia patients. Previous studies indicated that regulation of oligodendrocyte development and function may be a novel target for APDs.
The aim of this current study was to examine the possible effects of the antipsychotic drugs (APDs) haloperidol (HAL), olanzapine (OLA), and quetiapine (QUE) on the development of oligodendroglial lineage cells.
CG4 cells, an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line, were treated with various concentrations of HAL, OLA, or QUE for specific periods. The proliferation and differentiation of the CG4 cells were measured. The regulation of CG4 cell differentiation by oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factors 1 and 2 (Olig1 and Olig2) was examined.
The APDs used in this study had no effect on the proliferation of CG4 cells. The APDs elevated the expression of 2’,3’-cyclic nucleotide 3’-phosphodiesterase (CNP), a specific marker of oligodendrocytes, and promoted the CG4 cells to differentiate into CNP positive oligodendrocytes. QUE and OLA increased the expression of Olig1 and Olig2 whereas HAL only increased the expression of Olig2.
Our findings suggest that oligodendrocyte development is a target of HAL, OLA, and QUE and provide further evidence of the important role of oligodendrocytes in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. They also indicate that the expression level of oligodendrocyte/myelinrelated genes could be profoundly affected by APDs.
Saikosaponin B is one of the main ingredients of Bupleurum. Among the many effects of Bupleurum, saikosaponin B may be contributing molecules.human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y is a tumor cells of low degree of differentiation. Its cell morphology, physiology and biochemical functions similar to normal nerve cells, are widely used to study the mechanism of diseases and drug, of the nervous system.
To investigate the effect of Saikosaponin B on SH-SY5Y cells.
Cultured SH-SY5Y cells and drawed cell growth curve. Then based on the cell growth curve, using hydrogen peroxide of different doses(110?120?130?140?150?160?180?200?220μmol/L) to treated SH-SY5Y cells. At same time, volume fraction 0.05 serum contained Saikosaponin B was added. Cultured SH-SY5Y cells were observed by morphology and tested by the MTT assay.
Less than 140μmol/L hydrogen peroxide, SH-SY5Y cells does not be caused damage. Saikosaponin B of volume fraction 0.05 can relieve the damage of SH-SY5Y cells treated with 140μmol/L hydrogen peroxide, also can increase the survival of the SH-SY5Y cells.
Saikosaponin B can strongly protect the cultured SH-SY5Y cells from damage induced by hydrogen peroxide.