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The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Critical shortages of personal protective equipment, especially N95 respirators, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a source of concern. Novel methods of N95 filtering face-piece respirator decontamination that can be scaled-up for in-hospital use can help address this concern and keep healthcare workers (HCWs) safe.
A multidisciplinary pragmatic study was conducted to evaluate the use of an ultrasonic room high-level disinfection system (HLDS) that generates aerosolized peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide for decontamination of large numbers of N95 respirators. A cycle duration that consistently achieved disinfection of N95 respirators (defined as ≥6 log10 reductions in bacteriophage MS2 and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores inoculated onto respirators) was identified. The treated masks were assessed for changes to their hydrophobicity, material structure, strap elasticity, and filtration efficiency. PAA and hydrogen peroxide off-gassing from treated masks were also assessed.
The PAA room HLDS was effective for disinfection of bacteriophage MS2 and G. stearothermophilus spores on respirators in a 2,447 cubic-foot (69.6 cubic-meter) room with an aerosol deployment time of 16 minutes and a dwell time of 32 minutes. The total cycle time was 1 hour and 16 minutes. After 5 treatment cycles, no adverse effects were detected on filtration efficiency, structural integrity, or strap elasticity. There was no detectable off-gassing of PAA and hydrogen peroxide from the treated masks at 20 and 60 minutes after the disinfection cycle, respectively.
The PAA room disinfection system provides a rapidly scalable solution for in-hospital decontamination of large numbers of N95 respirators during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Numerous research studies have demonstrated an association between higher symptom severity and cognitive impairment with poorer social functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP). By contrast, the influence of subjective experiences, such as social relatedness and self-beliefs, has received less attention. Consequently, a cohesive understanding of how these variables interact to influence social functioning is lacking.
We used structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect relationships among neurocognition (processing speed) and social cognition, symptoms, and social relatedness (perceived social support and loneliness) and self-beliefs (self-efficacy and self-esteem) in 170 individuals with FEP.
The final model yielded an acceptable model fit (χ2 = 45.48, comparative fit index = 0.96; goodness of fit index = 0.94; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.94; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06) and explained 45% of social functioning. Negative symptoms, social relatedness, and self-beliefs exerted a direct effect on social functioning. Social relatedness partially mediated the impact of social cognition and negative symptoms on social functioning. Self-beliefs also mediated the relationship between social relatedness and social functioning.
The observed associations highlight the potential value of targeting social relatedness and self-beliefs to improve functional outcomes in FEP. Explanatory models of social functioning in FEP not accounting for social relatedness and self-beliefs might be overestimating the effect of the illness-related factors.
A study of low-speed streaks (LSSs) embedded in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer is performed using selective visualization and analysis of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV). First, a three-dimensional velocity field database is acquired using time-resolved tomo-PIV for an early turbulent boundary layer. Second, detailed time-line flow patterns are obtained from the low-order reconstructed database using ‘tomographic visualizations’ by Lagrangian tracking. These time-line patterns compare remarkably well with previously observed patterns using hydrogen bubble flow visualization, and allow local identification of LSSs within the database. Third, the flow behaviour in proximity to selected LSSs is examined at varying wall distances (
$10 < y^+ < 100$
) and assessed using time-line and material surface evolution, to reveal the flow structure and evolution of a streak, and the flow structure evolving from streak development. It is observed that three-dimensional wave behaviour of the detected LSSs appears to develop into associated near-wall vortex flow structures, in a process somewhat similar to transitional boundary layer behaviour. Fourth, the presence of Lagrangian coherent structures is assessed in proximity to the LSSs using a Lagrangian-averaged vorticity deviation process. It is observed that quasi-streamwise vortices, adjacent to the sides of the streak-associated three-dimensional wave, precipitate an interaction with the streak. Finally, a hypothesis based on the behaviour of soliton-like coherent structures is made which explains the process of LSS formation, bursting behaviour and the generation of hairpin vortices. Comparison with other models is also discussed.
Triage - the sorting of patients according to urgency of need for clinical care - is an essential part of delivering effective and efficient emergency care. But when frequent over- or under-triaging occurs, finite time and resources are diverted away from those in greatest need of care and the entire Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is strained. In resource-constrained settings, such as South Africa, poor triage in EMS only serves to compound other contextual challenges. This study examined the accuracy of dispatcher triage over a one-year period in the Western Cape Government (WCG) EMS system in South Africa.
A retrospective analysis of existing dispatch and EMS data to assess the accuracy of dispatch-assigned priorities was conducted. The mismatch between dispatcher-assigned call priority and triage levels determined by EMS personnel was analyzed via over- and under-triage rates, sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs, respectively).
A total of 185,166 records from December 2016 through November 2017 were analyzed. Across all dispatch complaints, the over-triage rate was 67.6% (95% CI, 66.34-68.76) and the under-triage rate was 16.2% (95% CI, 15.44-16.90). Dispatch triage sensitivity for all included records was 49.2% (95% CI, 48.10-50.38), specificity 71.9% (95% CI, 71.00-72.92), PPV 32.5% (95% CI, 30.02-34.88), and NPV 83.8% (95% CI, 81.93-85.73).
This study provides the first evaluation of dispatch triage accuracy in the WCG EMS system, identifying that the system is suffering from both under- and over-triage. Despite variance across dispatch complaints, both under- and over-triage remained higher than widely accepted norms, and all rates were significantly above acceptable target metrics described in similar studies. Results of this study will be used to motivate the development of more rigorous training programs and resources for WCG EMS dispatchers, including improved dispatch protocols for conditions suffering from high over- and under-triage.
In rapidly urbanising China, a high number of elderly people, the so-called ‘laopiao’, float to cities where their sons or daughters live to look after their children and grandchildren. Laopiao in urban China are thought to suffer poor mental health owing to their floating status. This study explores the inter-relationship among social capital, the built environment and mental health in urban China. Using a recent survey conducted in Nanjing (N = 591), structural equation modelling was performed to compare the local elderly people and the laopiao. Results showed that mental health determinants are dissimilar between the two groups of elderly people. Bonding social capital promotes mental health in both groups, while bridging and linking social capital only contributes to the mental health of the laopiao. Also, access to public transportation is positively correlated with mental health in both groups. Furthermore, lower street network density and better access to parks enhance the mental health of the local elderly people, while higher street network density and more open space within a community enhance the mental health of the laopiao. Our findings suggest that different policy measures should be implemented for different groups of elderly people in urban China to improve their mental health.
Little is known about the determinants of community integration (i.e. recovery) for individuals with a history of homelessness, yet such information is essential to develop targeted interventions.
We recruited homeless Veterans with a history of psychotic disorders and evaluated four domains of correlates of community integration: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation. Baseline assessments occurred after participants were engaged in supported housing services but before they received housing, and again after 12 months. Ninety-five homeless Veterans with a history of psychosis were assessed at baseline and 53 returned after 12 months. We examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with 12-month community integration.
The strongest longitudinal association was between a baseline motivational measure and social integration at 12 months. We also observed cross-sectional associations at baseline between motivational measures and community integration, including social, work, and independent living. Cross-lagged panel analyses did not suggest causal associations for the motivational measures. Correlations with perception and non-social cognition were weak. One social cognition measure showed a significant longitudinal correlation with independent living at 12 months that was significant for cross-lagged analysis, consistent with a causal relationship and potential treatment target.
The relatively selective associations for motivational measures differ from what is typically seen in psychosis, in which all domains are associated with community integration. These findings are presented along with a partner paper (Study 2) to compare findings from this study to an independent sample without a history of psychotic disorders to evaluate the consistency in findings regarding community integration across projects.
In an initial study (Study 1), we found that motivation predicted community integration (i.e. functional recovery) 12 months after receiving housing in formerly homeless Veterans with a psychotic disorder. The current study examined whether the same pattern would be found in a broader, more clinically diverse, homeless Veteran sample without psychosis.
We examined four categories of variables as potential predictors of community integration in non-psychotic Veterans: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation at baseline (after participants were engaged in a permanent supported housing program but before receiving housing) and a 12-month follow-up. A total of 82 Veterans had a baseline assessment and 41 returned for testing after 12 months.
The strongest longitudinal association was between an interview-based measure of motivation (the motivation and pleasure subscale from the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms) at baseline and measures of social integration at 12 months. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal influence of general psychiatric symptoms at baseline driving social integration at 12 months, and reduced expressiveness at baseline driving independent living at 12 months, but there were no significant causal associations with measures of motivation.
The findings from this study complement and reinforce those in Veterans with psychosis. Across these two studies, our findings suggest that motivational factors are associated at baseline and at 12 months and are particularly important for understanding and improving community integration in recently-housed Veterans across psychiatric diagnoses.
Introduction: Each year, 3/1000 Canadians sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Many of those mTBI are accompanied by various co-injuries such as dislocations, sprains, fractures or internal injuries. A number of those patients, with or without co-injuries will suffer from persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) more than 90 days post injury. However, little is known about the impact of co-injuries on mTBI outcome. This study aims to describe the impact of co-injuries on PPCS and on patient return to normal activities. Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study took place in seven large Canadian Emergency Departments (ED). Inclusion criteria: patients aged ≥ 14 who had a documented mTBI that occurred within 24 hours of ED visit, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15. Patients who were admitted following their ED visit or unable to consent were excluded. Clinical and sociodemographic information was collected during the initial ED visit. A research nurse then conducted three follow-up phone interviews at 7, 30 and 90 days post-injury, in which they assessed symptom evolution using the validated Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Adjusted risk ratios (RR) were calculated to estimate the influence of co-injuries. Results: A total of 1674 patients were included, of which 1023 (61.1%) had at least one co-injury. At 90 days, patients with co-injuries seemed to be at higher risk of having 3 symptoms ≥2 points according to the RPQ (RR: 1.28 95% CI 1.02-1.61) and of experiencing the following symptoms: dizziness (RR: 1.50 95% CI 1.03-2.20), fatigue (RR: 1.35 95% CI 1.05-1.74), headaches (RR: 1.53 95% CI 1.10-2.13), taking longer to think (RR: 1.50 95% CI 1.07-2.11) and feeling frustrated (RR: 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.07). We also observed that patients with co-injuries were at higher risk of non-return to their normal activities (RR: 2.31 95% CI 1.37-3.90). Conclusion: Patients with co-injuries could be at higher risk of suffering from specific symptoms at 90 days post-injury and to be unable to return to normal activities 90 days post-injury. A better understanding of the impact of co-injuries on mTBI could improve patient management. However, further research is needed to determine if the differences shown in this study are due to the impact of co-injuries on mTBI recovery or to the co-injuries themselves.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a serious public health issue and as much as one third of mTBI patients could be affected by persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) three months after their injury. Even though a significant proportion of all mTBIs are sports-related (SR), little is known on the recovery process of SR mTBI patients and the potential differences between SR mTBI and patients who suffered non-sports-related mTBI. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of PPCS among patients who sustained a SR mTBI compared to those who sustained non sport-related mTBI. Methods: This Canadian multicenter prospective cohort study included patients aged ≥ 14 who had a documented mTBI that occurred within 24 hours of Emergency Department (ED) visit, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15. Patients who were hospitalized following their ED visit or unable to consent were excluded. Clinical and sociodemographic information was collected during the initial ED visit. Three follow-up phone interviews were conducted by a research nurse at 7, 30 and 90 days post-injury to assess symptom evolution using the validated Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Adjusted risk ratios (RR) were calculated to demonstrate the impact of the mechanism of injury (sports vs non-sports) on the presence and severity of PPCS. Results: A total of 1676 mTBI patients were included, 358 (21.4%) of which sustained a SR mTBI. At 90 days post-injury, patients who suffered a SR mTBI seemed to be significantly less affected by fatigue (RR: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50-0.97)) and irritability (RR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94)). However, no difference was observed between the two groups regarding each other symptom evaluated in the RPQ. Moreover, the proportion of patients with three symptoms or more, a score ≥21 on the RPQ and those who did return to their normal activities were also comparable. Conclusion: Although persistent post-concussion symptoms are slightly different depending on the mechanism of trauma, our results show that patients who sustained SR-mTBI could be at lower risk of experiencing some types of symptoms 90 days post-injury, in particular, fatigue and irritability.
This study aimed to assess whether increasing operative experience results in better surgical outcomes in endoscopic middle-ear surgery.
A retrospective single-institution cohort study was performed. Patients underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty between May 2013 and April 2019 performed by the senior surgeon or a trainee surgeon under direct supervision from the senior surgeon. Following data collection, statistical analysis compared success rates between early (learning curve) surgical procedures and later (experienced) tympanoplasties.
In total, 157 patients (86 male, 71 female), with a mean age of 41.6 years, were included. The patients were followed up for an average of 43.2 weeks. The overall primary closure rate was 90.0 per cent.
This study demonstrates an early learning curve for endoscopic ear surgery that improves with surgical experience. Adoption of the endoscopic technique did not impair the success rates of tympanoplasty.
Most available data about psychiatric mortality and invalidity concerns inpatients, although the majority of patients are treated as outpatients only.
It was the aim of this study to estimate the effect of anxiety disorders on early retirement and premature death in the working population with special emphasis on outpatients.
125.019 workes between age 16 and 58 were followed for an average of 6.4 years. Excess risks of death and permanent disability were calculated with multivariate Cox regression models.
Outpatient and inpatient treatment for anxiety disorders (OR 1.40 resp. OR 2.10) were associated with higher risks of early retirement. Males generally were more often affected by this bad outcome than females.
Further analysis showed decreased risks of premature death for outpatients with an anxiety disorder (OR 0.33). The effect tended to be most prominent during the middle decades of life and got smaller with older age, at which all-cause mortality approximated that of the control group. No significant effect on mortality could be shown for inpatients.
Patients with outpatient treatment for anxiety disorders have an elevated risk of permanent disability early in life, while all-cause mortality is lower. This beneficial effect can only be partly explained by different risk-taking behaviors. Different causes of death early in life and their connections with these disorders need to be discussed, too. Treatment should have a strong focus on preserving ability to work.
Absenteeism from work and inpatient treatment are well defined events in the course of any illness and may be indicators for the need of an intervention. The aim of this study was to estimate of the influence of these events on later permanent disability and death in a working population when caused by anxiety and/or depression.
Data of 128,001 members of a health insurance with a observation period of 6.4 years were used. Excess risks were calculated for patients suffering from anxiety, depression or both using Cox's proportional hazard models adjusted for age, gender, education and job classification.
Patients who received outpatient treatment had higher rates of permanent disability (hazard ratio (HR) 1.48 (Confidence interval 1.30, 1.69) for depression, 1.25 (1.07, 1.45) for anxiety) but lower premature mortality (HR 0.80(0.62, 1.03), 0.53(0.38, 0.73)) than controls. Inpatient treatment and co-morbidity were associated with further raised rates of permanent disability. Depressed inpatients also had higher premature mortality (HR 2.50(1.80, 3.48)).
The study shows a dose-responsive relationship between depression, anxiety, comorbidity and need for hospital treatment. It was was unexpected that some exposures seem to reduce mortality risk. Life style may partly explain this effect. However, these patients are subject to many other exposures, into which more research is needed to get a better understanding of the phenomenon.
Suicide rates are high for older persons worldwide. However, no literature could be found on young-old people’s opinions about elderly suicide and the beliefs/expectations that protect them from attempting suicide.
To explore opinions about elderly suicide among community-dwelling young-old people in Taiwan and their reasons for not killing themselves.
A qualitative descriptive design was used. Young-old (65–74 years old) outpatients were recruited by convenience from two randomly selected medical centers in northern Taiwan if they had never expressed suicidal ideas and had no severe cognitive deficit. Data were collected in individual interviews and analysed by content analysis.
Among 31 participating young-old people, most participants (87.1%) had heard of elderly suicide. Their opinions about elderly suicide reflected negative emotional reactions (32.3%), judgmental attitudes (32.3%), could happen after losing the meaning of life (9.7%), and expectations of social welfare (9.7%). Reasons for not killing themselves fell into six major themes: living well (32.3%), suicide cannot resolve problems (22.6%), fear of humiliating their children (16.1%), religious beliefs (12.9%), never thought about suicide (12.9%), and living in harmony with nature (12.9%).
Among the factors that prevented participants from killing themselves, perceptions of living well and of children’s filial behavior, as well as rational thinking could be adjusted. These factors can be addressed and improved by healthcare providers and policy makers to prevent suicide among the young-old. Our findings may also serve as a reference for geriatric researchers in western countries with increasing numbers of elderly ethnic minority immigrants.
It was the aim of this study to estimate effects of depression and anxiety on permanent disability and death in a workers' population.
128,001 health insurance clients were followed for a mean period of 6.4 years. Excess risks were calculated for patients suffering from anxiety, depression or both with Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, gender, education and job classification.
In several strata patients who received outpatient treatment for anxiety disorders or depression had a higher rate of permanent disability (females/anxiety: odds ratio (OR) 1.3, depression 1.3; males/anxiety not significant, depression 1.7) but a lower premature mortality (females/anxiety 0.4, depression 0.6; males/anxiety 0.6, depression not siginifant) than controls. Inpatient treatment and co-morbidity was generally associated with even higher rates of permanent disability. Depressive inpatients also had a higher premature mortality. While both illnesses were less frequent in men they showed more frequent disablement.
The reciprocity of disability and mortality among outpatients calls for a stronger focus on occupational functioning and therapy in the outpatient setting, but also raises the question why these patients obviously do better in terms of survival, in spite of worse occupational prognosis. Practitioners also need to be aware of the gender aspects and qualitative difference between depressive outpatients and inpatients in terms of survival.