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The snow surface roughness at centimetre and millimetre scales is an important parameter related to wind transport, snowdrifts, snowfall, snowmelt and snow grain size. Knowledge of the snow surface roughness is also of high interest for analyzing the signal from radar sensors such as SAR, altimeters and scatterometers. Unfortunately, this parameter has seldom been measured over snow surfaces. The techniques used to measure the roughness of other surfaces, such as agricultural or sand soils, are difficult to implement in polar regions because of the harsh climatic conditions. In this paper we develop a device based on a laser profiler coupled with a GPS receiver on board a snowmobile. This instrumentation was tested successfully in midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, in April 2006. It allowed us to generate profiles of 3 km sections of the snow-covered glacier surface. Because of the motion of the snowmobile, the roughness signal is mixed with the snowmobile signal. We use a distance/frequency analysis (the empirical mode decomposition) to filter the signal. This method allows us to recover the snow surface structures of wavelengths between 4 and 50 cm with amplitudes of >1 mm. Finally, the roughness parameters of snow surfaces are retrieved. The snow surface roughness is found to be dependent on the scales of the observations. The retrieved RMS of the height distribution is found to vary between 0.5 and 9.2 mm, and the correlation length is found to be between 0.6 and 46 cm. This range of measurements is particularly well adapted to the analysis of GHz radar response on snow surfaces.
Aspects of eudaimonic well-being, such as personal growth (PG) and purpose in life (PL), have been highlighted as important to older adults’ health. We investigated the relationship of PG and PL with patterns of survival to the age of 85 years and older.
The sample included 8,880 women from the Women's Health Initiative cohort who reached 85 years of age by December 1, 2013, and for whom data on the PG and PL constructs were available. Women were classified into mutually exclusive outcomes: Healthy, Prevalent, Incident, Disabled, and Deceased. PG and PL were each assessed using a modified seven-item measure derived from the Psychological Well-Being scale.
Women were most commonly classified as Healthy (38.2%, n = 3,395), followed by Incident (24.4%, n = 2,163), Disabled (19.0%, n = 1,685), Prevalent (14.3%, 1,273), and Deceased (4.1%, n = 364). Women with low PL and PG levels were more likely to have prevalent mobility disability and disease or incident death before the age of 85 years. Specifically, those who reported low levels of PG and PL had a 2.1- and 3.6-fold higher risk, respectively, of death.
These findings indicate that even among the oldest old, experience of purposeful life engagement and continuing PG may contribute to better health outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to describe the longitudinal trajectories and bidirectional relationships of the physical-social and emotional functioning (EF) dimensions of positive aging and to identify their baseline characteristics.
Women age 65 and older who enrolled in one or more Women's Health Initiative clinical trials (WHI CTs) and who had positive aging indicators measured at baseline and years 1, 3, 6, and 9 were included in these analyses (N = 2281). Analytic strategies included latent class growth modeling to identify longitudinal trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to examine the effects of baseline predictors on these trajectories.
A five-trajectory model was chosen to best represent the data. For Physical-Social Functioning (PSF), trajectory groups included Low Maintainer (8.3%), Mid-Low Improver (10.4%), Medium Decliner (10.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (31.2%), and High Maintainer (39.4%); for EF, trajectories included Low Maintainer (3%), Mid-Low Improver (9%), Medium Decliner (7.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (22.8%), and High Maintainer (57.5%). Cross-classification of the groups of trajectories demonstrated that the impact of a high and stable EF on PSF might be greater than the reverse. Low depression symptoms, low pain, and high social support were the most consistent predictors of high EF trajectories.
Aging women are heterogeneous in terms of positive aging indicators for up to 9 years of follow-up. Interventions aimed at promoting sustainable EF might have diffused effects on other domains of healthy aging.
It is well established that protein–energy malnutrition decreases serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels, and supplementation of 30 g of whey protein daily has been shown to increase serum IGF-I levels by 8 % after 2 years in a clinical trial. Cohort studies provide the opportunity to assess associations between dietary protein intake and IGF axis protein levels under more typical eating conditions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of circulating IGF axis protein levels (ELISA, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) with total biomarker-calibrated protein intake, as well as with dairy product and milk intake, among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (n 747). Analyses were carried out using multivariate linear regression models that adjusted for age, BMI, race/ethnicity, education, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and hormone therapy use. There was a positive association between milk intake and free IGF-I levels. A three-serving increase in milk intake per d (approximately 30 g of protein) was associated with an estimated average 18·6 % higher increase in free IGF-I levels (95 % CI 0·9, 39·3 %). However, total IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were not associated with milk consumption and nor were there associations between biomarker-calibrated protein intake, biomarker-calibrated energy intake, and free IGF-I, total IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels. The findings of the present study carried out in postmenopausal women are consistent with clinical trial data suggesting a specific relationship between milk consumption and serum IGF-I levels, although in the present study this association was only statistically significant for free, but not total, IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels.
We have investigated intercalation into optically transparent MPS3 (M = Mn, Cd) phases as a way towards spontaneous poling of cationic chromophores. Two nano-composite Materials of formula M0.86PS3 (dimethylamino-N-Methyl stilbazolium)0.28 were synthezised, and an efficiency up to 750 times that of urea was recorded in the cadmium intercalate. An additional interest arises from the possibility to associate NLO properties with the magnetization of the host lattice in the case of MnPS3 below 40 K.
The layered MIIPS3 compounds posess a unique cation exchange intercalation chemistry, which allows the synthesis of a wide range of air stable M1-xPS3G2x intercalates (G stands here for a Monocation). The positive charge of the guest cations is counterbalanced by intralayer metallic vacancies.
Intercalation exerts a dramatic influence on the magnetic properties of these compounds. Whereas pristine MPS3 compounds order antiferromagnetically (M = Mn, Fe‥), Many intercalates become magnets below an ordering temperature that can be as high as 92 K. The role of intercalation is discussed in terms of the creation of intralayer metallic vacancies, which destroy the spin balance that prevails in pristine MPS3 compounds.
The MPS3 host lattice has the capability of causing spontaneous poling of the dimethylamino-N-Methyl stilbazolium chromophore (DAMS), leading to materials that exhibit strong second harmonic generation. (SHG). Inserting DAMS into MnPS3 therefore leads to a composite that possess both spontaneous Magnetization (below Tc = 40 K) and a strong efficiency for SHG.
The Aurora programme is the European Space Agency programme of planetary exploration focused primarily on Mars. Although the long-term goals of Aurora are uncertain, the early phases of the Aurora programme are based on a number of robotic explorer missions – the first of these is the ExoMars rover mission currently scheduled for launch in 2013 (originally 2011). The ExoMars rover – developed during a Phase A study – is a 240 kg Mars rover supporting a 40 kg payload (called Pasteur) of scientific instruments specifically designed for astrobiological prospecting to search for evidence of extant or extinct life. In other words, ExoMars represents a new approach to experimental astrobiology in which scientific instruments are robotically deployed at extraterrestrial environments of astrobiological interest. Presented is an outline of the design of the rover, its robotic technology, its instrument complement and aspects of the design decisions made. ExoMars represents a highly challenging mission, both programmatically and technologically. Some comparisons are made with the highly successful Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity.
The distribution and global habitat association of the North African houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata sensu stricto) were studied for the first time in a large semi-arid steppe-land region in eastern Morocco. The study area has been protected from hunting for 6 years, but was still under significant pressure from grazing activities. Houbara distribution was assessed using point count surveys conducted during the 2002 breeding season and compared to natural- and human-related predictors. The hierarchy and quantification of influences was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis. Micro-topography first drove houbara bustard distribution, since birds were usually found in open flat tracts allowing visibility over a long distance for the prevention of potential predator approaches, but also for breeding males to be seen by conspecifics. ‘Flooding surfaces’ presenting concealment possibilities, as well as readily available food resources, were secondly sought. Proximity to wells was a surrogate to human presence and pastoral activity influences and appeared to affect houbara bustard distribution. The weight of human disturbance on houbara distribution is highlighted and it is recommended that this should be considered in conservation plans.
Empirical models were established, which link the biomasses or productions of the successive planktonic trophic levels in lakes of different depth and trophic status. Published data on 56 lakes were analysed, using both least-square and reduced-major-axis regressions. Reduced-major-axes regression technique was used in order to take into account variability due to both bottom-up and top-down forces. In shallow lakes, the energy transfer efficiency between phytoplankton and zooplankton decreases with increasing
trophy. An inverse tendency appears in deep lakes. However, when considering only the oligo- and mesotrophic temperate
lakes, the mean primary and secondary productivities per unit of area are about the same in shallow and in deep sites. On the other hand, shallow water bodies are characterized by a smaller mean size of the crustacean species, a lower mean biomass of zooplankton and a higher P zoo/B zoo ratio than deep lakes, probably as a response to the predation by fish. While the consumers seem to have a strong influence on the size structure and biomass of plankton, the energy flows between the trophic levels could be largely controlled by bottom-up forces.
Mucoceles are the most common lesions causing expansion of the paranasal sinuses. The sinuses most commonly involved are, in decreasing order of frequency, frontal sinus, ethmoid sinuses, maxillary sinus and sphenoid sinus. We reviewed 46 cases of surgically proven mucoceles and the purpose of this study was to report five cases of mucoceles in an uncommon location.
Quiconque s'est quelque peu penché sur les sociétés peules ne peut être que frappé par la rareté des traits culturels qui leur sont propres et la quantité considérable d'emprunts que les fulbe ont fait, dans les domaines les plus divers, aux sociétés et aux civilisations avec lesquelles ils se sont trouvés en contact. Cette perméabilité aux influences extérieures a naturellement entrainé l'assimilation au peul d'une grande quantité d'éléments signifiants provenant d'autres langues. Parmi ces apports, les emprunts faits à l'arabe occupent une place particulière tant de par leur mode particulier de transmission que par leur importance numérique et leur présence dans tous les dialectes de la langue.