To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Metric spaces in which the distances are not real numbers have been studied by several people (2, 3, 4, 7, 9). Any ring R together with a mapping, X —> ϕ(X), of R into a lattice A with 0 and 1 satisfying
is called a "lattice-valued ring," where the operations union, ∪, and intersection, ∩, are the usual lattice operations. The mapping ϕ is called a "valuation" and A is a 'Valuation lattice." If R is a lattice-valued ring and a mapping d is defined by
Worldwide, Mycobacterium chimaera infections have been linked to contaminated aerosols from heater-cooler units (HCUs) during open-heart surgery. These infections have mainly been associated with the 3T HCU (LivaNova, formerly Sorin). The reasons for this and the risk of transmission from other HCUs have not been systematically assessed.
Prospective observational study.
University Hospital Basel, Switzerland.
Continuous microbiological surveillance of 3 types of HCUs in use (3T from LivaNova/Sorin and HCU30 and HCU40 from Maquet) was initiated in June 2014, coupled with an epidemiologic workup. Monthly water and air samples were taken. Construction design was analyzed, and exhausted airflow was measured.
Mycobacterium chimaera grew in 8 of 12 water samples (66%) and 22 of 24 air samples (91%) of initial 3T HCUs in use, and in 2 of 83 water samples (2%) and 0 of 41 (0%) air samples of new replacement 3T HCUs. Moreover, 7 of 12 water samples (58%) and 0 of 4 (0%) air samples from the HCU30 were positive, and 0 of 64 (0%) water samples and 0 of 50 (0%) air samples from the HCU40 were positive. We identified 4 relevant differences in HCU design compared to the 3T: air flow direction, location of cooling ventilators, continuous cooling of the water tank at 4°C, and an electronic alarm in the HCU40 reminding the user of the next disinfection cycle.
All infected patients were associated with a 3T HCU. The individual HCU design may explain the different risk of disseminating M. chimaera into the air of the operating room. These observations can help the construction of improved devices to ensure patient safety during cardiac surgery.
Comet Bennett (1970 II) was observed with the ultraviolet photometers on OAO-2 from April 13.39 to May 13.88, 1970, while its heliocentric distance increased from R = 0.77 to 1.26 a.u. An analysis of the photometer data for the emission features of OH λ 3090 and H λ1216 indicates the production rates of OH and H were 2.0 x 1029 molecule sec-1 and 5.4 x 1029 atom sec-1, respectively, at R = 1 a.u During this period the production rates of H and OH varied as R-2.3 . This is consistent with the assumption that water vaporization controls the production rate of gas in comets at small heliocentric distances.
Comet Bennett (1970II) was observed with an ultraviolet spectrometer on the OAO-2 spacecraft during April 1970 The instrument consisted of a plane grating, a parabolic mirror, a slit, and a photomultiplier tube. The exit slit provided a 2′ x 8′ rectangular field-of-view and a 23 A bandpass. At this resolution emission features such as OH λ3090 and CN λ3883 were essentially monochromatic. Since the instrument had no entrance slit, movement of the grating produced a shift in the field of view, with 1 arc min of spatial offset corresponding to a 10 A wavelength shift.
Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet.
During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content. Associations between characteristics of pictures and comments as well as weekly and daily trends of posting behavior were analyzed.
Most commonly, pictures depicted wounds caused by cutting on arms or legs and were rated as mild or moderate injuries. Pictures with increasing wound grades and those depicting multiple methods of NSSI generated elevated amounts of comments. While most comments were neutral or empathic with some offering help, few comments were hostile. Pictures were mainly posted in the evening hours, with a small peak in the early morning. While there was a slight peak of pictures being posted on Sundays, postings were rather evenly spread across the week.
Pictures of NSSI are frequently posted on Instagram. Social reinforcement might play a role in the posting of more severe NSSI pictures. Social media platforms need to take appropriate measures for preventing online social contagion.
Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre–post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.
Time series spectra of the F5IV star Procyon (α CMi) were obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory during a 35-night observing run in January-February 1997. The observations were obtained as part of an international collaboration to detect and study acoustic p-mode oscillations in solar-type stars. Spectra covered the wavelength range from 4000 to 5300 Å, with a resolving power of approximately 3500 (1.3 Å resolution). The sampling rate was one observation per minute, and the typical S/N ratio per pixel after averaging along columns is in excess of 1000. We obtained 12,888 spectra. A sample spectrum is shown in Figure 1
Kjeldsen et al. (1995) reported a probable detection of solar-like, low-amplitude p-mode oscillations in η Bootes using equivalent width measurements from low-resolution spectra of hydrogen Balmer lines. However, this detection has not been confirmed so far. Indeed, there is no confirmed detection of p-mode oscillations in a solar-like star using the equivalent width technique or any other approach (Bedding 1998).
The Commission is intended to study the origin of the solar wind, the heliosphere, i.e., the region dominated by the supersonic solar wind, and the heliospheric interface with the interstellar medium. The activities of the Commission cover both theoretical and observational aspects of these three regions.
We have begun a program to measure oscillator strengths of autoionizing resonances that result from a transition in the VUV between a laser excited initial state and a final state in which a core electron is promoted. These measurements demonstrate a new technique to combine synchrotron radiation, laser pumping, and photoelectron spectroscopy.
Measurements of the energy positions of autoionizing resonances have been honed to a fine art over the past 50 years. Total cross section measurements and the parameters that describe autoionizing resonances have been determined. Most of these studies have been made from the dipole allowed ground state. Recently autoionizing resonances have been observed from excited initial states and from ion initial states. We have heard several talks, at this meeting which described some of this type of research. In the measurements to be described in this paper, laser radiation is combined with synchrotron radiation, as shown schematicaly in Figure 1, to study the photoionization from excited initial states to continuum final states or to autoionizing final states. Continuum radiation from the Aneau de Collisions d’Orsay (ACO), which is installed at the Universite de Paris-Sud, in Orsay France, is monochromatized by a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) and is focused by a toroidal output mirror on to a weakly collimated sodium beam emanating from a furnace mounted on the axis of a cylinderical mirror analyzer (CMA). This electron spectrometer is used to study the kinetic energy distribution of the ejected photoelectrons produced by the interaction of the photon beam with the focused synchrotron radiation.
The Joint Discussion (JD14) is intended to focus attention on several apparent inconsistencies found in comet observations when compared with observations of collapsing interstellar clouds, star-forming regions, and models of the solar nebula. The JD is not intended to resolve these problems, for that a one-day discussion is too short. It rather is intended to draw attention to the inconsistencies to be discussed and resolved in future workshops.
This paper presents the design and science goals for the SkyMapper telescope. SkyMapper is a 1.3-m telescope featuring a 5.7-square-degree field-of-view Cassegrain imager commissioned for the Australian National University's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. It is located at Siding Spring Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia and will see first light in late 2007.
The imager possesses 16 384 × 16 384 0.5-arcsec pixels. The primary scientific goal of the facility is to perform the Southern Sky Survey, a six-colour and multi-epoch (four-hour, one-day, one-week, one-month and one-year sampling) photometric survey of the southerly 2π sr to g ∼23 mag. The survey will provide photometry to better than 3% global accuracy and astrometry to better than 50 milliarcsec. Data will be supplied to the community as part of the Virtual Observatory effort. The survey will take five years to complete.
The genus Diorhabda (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was recently revised, using morphological characters, into five tamarisk-feeding species, four of which have been used in the tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) biological control program in North America and are the subject of these studies. The taxonomic revision is here supported using molecular genetic and hybridization studies. Four Diorhabda species separated into five clades using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence data with Diorhabda elongata separating into two clades. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis using genomic DNA revealed only four clades, which corresponded to the four morphospecies. Hybridization between the four species yielded viable eggs in F1 crosses but viability was significantly lower than achieved with intraspecific crosses. Crosses involving Diorhabda carinulata and the other three species resulted in low F2 egg viability, whereas crosses between D. elongata, Diorhabda sublineata and Diorhabda carinata resulted in > 40% F2 egg viability. Crosses between D. carinulata and the other three species resulted in high mortality of D. carinulata females due to genital mismatch. AFLP patterns combined with principal coordinates analysis enabled effective separation between D. elongata and D. sublineata, providing a method to measure genetic introgression in the field.