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Supplementation with copper (Cu) improves deer antler characteristics, but it could modify meat quality and increase its Cu content to levels potentially harmful for humans. Here, we studied the effects of Cu bolus supplementation by means on quality and composition of sternocephalicus (ST) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles (n=13 for each one) from yearling male red deer fed with a balanced diet. Each intraruminal bolus, containing 3.4 g of Cu, was administered orally in the treatment group to compare with the control group. Meat traits studied were pH at 24 h postmortem (pH24), colour, chemical composition, cholesterol content, fatty acid (FA) composition, amino acid (AA) profile and mineral content. In addition, the effect of Cu supplementation on mineral composition of liver and serum (at 0 and 90 days of treatment) was analysed. No interactions between Cu supplementation and muscle were observed for any trait. Supplementation with Cu increased the protein content of meat (P<0.01). However, Cu content of meat, liver and serum was not modified by supplementation. In fact, Cu content of meat (1.20 and 1.34 mg/kg for Cu supplemented and control deer, respectively) was much lower in both groups than 5 mg/kg of fresh weight allowed legally for food of animal origin. However, bolus of Cu tended to increase the meat content of zinc and significantly increased (P<0.05) the hepatic contents of sodium and lead. Muscles studied had different composition and characteristics. The RA muscle had significantly higher protein content (P<0.001), monounsaturated FA content (P<0.05) and essential/non-essential AA ratio (P<0.01) but lower pH24 (P<0.01) and polyunsaturated FA content (P=0.001) than the ST muscle. In addition, RA muscle had 14.4% less cholesterol (P=0.001) than ST muscle. Also, mineral profile differed between muscles with higher content of iron, significantly higher (P<0.001) content of zinc and lower content of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus (P<0.05) for ST muscle compared with RA. Therefore, supplementation with Cu modified deer meat characteristics, but it did not increase its concentration to toxic levels, making it a safe practice from this perspective. Despite the lower content of polyunsaturated FA, quality was better for RA than for ST muscle based on its higher content of protein with more essential/non-essential AA ratio and lower pH24 and cholesterol content.
The main objective of this work was to evaluate technologies that have potential for monitoring aspects related to spatial and temporal variability of soil nutrients and pasture yield and for support to decision making by the farmers. Three types of sensors were evaluated: an electromagnetic induction sensor, an active optical sensor and a capacitance probe. The results are relevant for the selection of the adequate sensing system for each particular application and to open new perspectives for other works that would allow the testing, calibration and validation of the sensors in a wider range of pasture production conditions and rainfall patterns, characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
The main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially Ca and P) and collagen content. However, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. One such trace mineral is Cu. Here, we studied the effects of Cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red deer fed a balanced diet. Deer (n=35) of different ages (21 yearlings and 14 adults) were studied. A total of 18 stags (11 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with Cu (0.83 mg Cu/kg BW) every 42 days, whereas the remaining 17 (10 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with physiological saline solution (control group). The Cu content of serum was analysed at the beginning of the trial and 84 days after the first injection to assess whether the injected Cu was mobilized in blood. Also, the mechanical and structural properties of antlers and the mineral content in their cortical walls were examined at three (yearlings) or four (adults) points along the antler beam. The effect of Cu supplementation was different in yearlings and adults. In yearlings, supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 28%, but did not affect antler properties. However, in adults, Cu supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 38% and tended to increase the cortical thickness of antlers (P=0.06). Therefore, we conclude that, even in animals receiving balanced diets, supplementation with Cu could increase antler cortical thickness in adult deer, although not in yearlings. This may improve the trophy value of antlers, as well as having potential implications for bones in elderly humans, should Cu supplementation have similar effects on bones as those observed in antlers.
Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.
We present results of the optical identification of a spatially complete, flux limited sample of about 700 ROSAT All-Sky X-ray sources contained in 6 study areas north of δ = −9° with |bII|> 20° (including one region near the North Galactic pole (NGP), another one near the North Ecliptic pole (NEP)). Countrate limits are 0.01 cts s–1 near the NEP and 0.03 cts s–1 for the other areas. The optical observations were performed at the 2.15-m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory, Mexico, using the Landessterwarte Faint Object Spectrograph Camera which allows to carry out direct CCD imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The limiting magnitude is about 19m for spectroscopy and about 23m for B and R direct imaging. Our analysis shows a dependency of the ratio of ‘extragalactic’ (e.g., AGN, cluster of galaxies) to ‘stellar’ (e.g., coronal emitters, active binaries) counterparts on NH. In the area near the NGP (low NH) ‘extragalactic’ counterparts dominate, while in the area with the highest NH ‘stellar’ counterparts dominate.
We have observed 3 pairs of interacting galaxies (the Antennae, Arp 236, and NGC 1614) using the Fabry-Perot interferometer GHαFaS (Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system) on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma. We have extracted the physical properties (sizes, Hα luminosity and velocity dispersion) of Hii regions. We have combined also these observations with ALMA archival observations of these interacting galaxies, finding that there is a set of brighter and denser star forming regions. We have been able to compare these properties with those of two SMGs at redshift ~ 2.
The objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between serum vitamin D (VitD) status and tuberculosis (TB) infection conversion (TBIC), measured by the tuberculin skin test (TST) and an interferon-gamma release assay, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test, in the contacts of pulmonary TB patients in Castellon (Spain) in a prospective cohort study from 2010 to 2012. Initially, the participants were negative to latent TB infection after a screening that included TST and QFT-GIT tests, and other examinations. A baseline determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay. After 8–10 weeks, participants were screened for a second time to determine TB infection conversion (TBIC). Poisson regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Of the 247 participants in the cohort, 198 (80·2%) were screened twice and 18 (9·1%) were TBIC cases. The means of VitD concentration in the TBIC cases and the non-cases were 20·7±11·9 and 27·2±11·4 ng/ml (P = 0·028), respectively. Adjusted for high exposure and TB sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive index case, higher serum VitD concentration was associated with low incidence of TBIC (Ptrend = 0·005), and an increase of 1 ng/ml VitD concentration decreased the incidence of TBIC by 6% (relative risk 0·94, 95% confidence interval 0·90–0·99, P = 0·015). The results suggest that sufficient VitD level could be a protective factor of TBIC.
Optical thresholds, that correspond to a level located at 1 eV above the valence band, are observed by photocapacitance techniques in n-type Mg-doped GaN. In undoped GaN, this level has been previously related to the yellow emission detected by photoluminescence. In Mg-doped GaN, this yellow luminescence is only observed for excitation energies below the Mg-related band (2.9 - 3 eV). This result evidences that Mg-doping may reduce but not avoid the formation of the yellow band related defects in n-type and semiinsulating Mg-doped samples. The fact that the yellow luminescence is not observed for excitation energies above the bandgap may be justified by a higher efficiency of the Mg-related recombination path.
Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations show that the baryonic elements that at z = 0 form the stellar populations of late-type galaxies (LTGs), display, at high z, a gaseous web-like organization, where different singular structures (walls, filaments, nodes) show up. The analysis also shows that the spheroid-to-be elements are the first to be involved in the singular structures, while thick and thin disk-to-be elements chronologically follow them. We discuss how these differences at high z can explain the differences among these three components at z = 0.
Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal aging and dementia. Identifying this condition would allow early interventions that may reduce the rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the efficacy of a six-month cognitive intervention program (CIP) in patients with MCI and to assess patients’ condition at one-year follow-up.
Methods: Forty-six MCI participants assessed with neuropsychological, neurological, neuropsychiatry, and functional procedures were included in this study and followed up during a year. The sample was randomized into two subgroups: 24 participants (the “trained group”) underwent the CIP during six months while 22 (control group) received no treatment. Sixteen participants dropped out of the study. The intervention focused on teaching cognitive strategies, cognitive training, and use of external aids, in sessions of two hours, twice per week for six months. Cognitive and functional measures were used as primary outcome and all were followed up at one year.
Results: The intervention effect (mean change from baseline) was significant (p < 0.05) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (1.74), the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (0.14), the Boston Naming Test (2.92), block design (−13.66), matrix reasoning (−3.07), and semantic fluency (−3.071) tasks. Four patients (one trained and three controls) progressed to dementia after one year of follow-up.
Conclusions: These results suggest that persons with MCI can improve their performance on cognitive and functional measures when provided with early cognitive training and it could persist in a long-term follow-up.
In our past work, two types of nanometer-sized oxide particle were found in the commercial ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) ferritic alloy MA957. They were nonstoichiometric Y-, Ti-, O-enriched clusters (2 ∼ 15 nm) and stoichiometric Y2Ti2O7 (15 ∼ 35 nm). The particles which have an important role for the strengthening were confirmed to be nonstoichiometric Y-, Ti-, O-enriched clusters (denoted by YxTiyOz in this work). Based on that result, the stability and evolution mechanism of oxide particle at high temperatures were studied in this work. After annealing (1473 K × 1 h), most of the non-stoichiometric YxTiyOz particles were stable and their size increased very little. However, some these particles apparently became Y2Ti2O7 particles with increasing size and yttrium content. They possibly contributed to the growth of Y2Ti2O7.
The quantity, radioactivity, and isotopic characteristics of the spent fission fuel from a hybrid fusion-fission system capable of extremely high burnups are described. The waste generally has higher activity per unit mass of heavy metal, but much lower activity per unit energy generated. The very long-term radioactivity is dominated by fission products. Simple scaling calculations suggest that the dose from a repository containing such waste would be dominated by 129I, 135Cs, and 242Pu. Use of such a system for generating energy would greatly reduce the need for repository capacity
Two important issues in Performance Assessment exercises regarding the alteration of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are the contribution of Instant or better called Fast release Fraction (FRF) and the effect of High Burn-Up Structure (HBS). Therefore this paper focuses on the effect of HBS in FRF of a PWR irradiated in a commercial reactor with a mean Burn-Up (BU) of 48 GWd/tU. Additionally, determined FRF are compared with previous experiments performed with PWR with a mean BU of 60 GWd/tU, in order to evaluate the effect of BU on FRF.
In order to study the HBS contribution, static leaching experiments are performed with two samples prepared from different radial positions, labeled Core, central region and Out, enriched with HBS. Two synthetic leaching solutions, bicarbonate and bentonitic granitic groundwater are used under oxic conditions.
The estimated FRF are calculated from the determined Fraction of Inventory in Aqueous Phase (FIAP) taking into account the inventory determined experimentally for each fraction.
Higher release is observed for Core sample, which can be an indicative that HBS does not increase the RN release. With the exception of Rb and Cs, which release is higher at lower BU, no clear effect of BU is observed within the studied range.
The so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) is considered to govern the dose released from Spent Fuel repositories. Often, IRF calculations are based on estimations of fractions of inventory release based in fission gas release . The IRF definition includes the inventory located within the Gap although a conservative approach also includes both the Grain Boundary (GB) and the pores of restructured HBS inventories.
A correction factor to estimate the fraction of Grain Boundary accessible for leaching has been determined and applied to spent fuel static leaching experiments carried out in the ITU Hot Cell facilities . Experimental work focuses especially on the different properties of both the external rim area (containing the High Burn-up Structure (HBS)) and the internal area, to which we will refer as Out and Core sample, respectively. Maximal release will correspond to an extrapolation to simulate that all grain boundaries or pores are open and in contact with solution.
The correction factor has been determined from SEM studies taking into account the number of particles with HBS in Out sample, the porosity of HBS particles, and the amount of transgranular fractures during sample preparation.
The effects of mechano-chemical treatment on the surface characteristics and sorption properties of hydrotalcite were studied. Non-milled (crushed) and milled samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle size analysis and specific area. A milling time of 2 h decreased the particle size of the hydrotalcite samples from 21 to 8.0 nm, the specific area from 97 to 5.7 m2 g–1 and the total pore volume from 0.41 to 0.01 cm3. After the crushed and milled samples had been separately calcined at 500ºC, they were agitated with 10–2 M Na2MoO4 aqueous solutions for 48 h. The molybdate ion content in the regenerated non-milled hydrotalcite samples (HTc-MoO4) was found to be 6.0 meq g–1 while in the milled hydrotalcite (HTm-MoO4) samples this content was 2.5 meq g–1. The lower molybdate content was thought to be a result of compaction and, hence, reduced reactivity of the milled HT samples.
The aim of this study was to assess whether the recently developed Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was useful to evaluate the diet quality of a young Mediterranean population. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in southern Spain (Granada-Andalucia) from 2002 to 2005. Dietary information (24 h recall and FFQ) and socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected from a representative sample of the population (n 288, 44·1 % females and 55·9 % males) aged 6–18 years (mean 12·88 (sd 2·78) years). DQI-I was designed according to the method of Kim et al. modified by Tur et al. for Mediterranean populations. It focused on four main characteristics of a high-quality diet (variety, adequacy, moderation and overall balance). This young population from southern Spain obtained 56·31 % of the total DQI-I score, indicating a poor-quality diet. A higher score was associated with a longer breakfast and greater physical activity. The DQI-I may require further modification for application in Mediterranean populations, differentiating between olive oil and saturated fats, among other changes. Further research is needed to develop a new diet quality index adapted to the Mediterranean diet.
The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge on young suckled Salers bull production and to study the effect of forage type and concentrate level on performance, carcass and muscle characteristics as well as on meat quality. Twenty-four Salers male calves of 150 days of age were assigned to six groups: C0 (fed exclusively with hay and dam’s milk and slaughtered at approximately 6 months of age), and HH (hay – high concentrate), HL (hay – low concentrate), GH (cut grass – high concentrate), GL (cut grass – low concentrate) and CP (control pasture: pasture – high concentrate) groups differing in feeds received until slaughter and slaughtered unweaned at approximately 10 months of age. Carcass weights averaged 210 kg at 10 months of age at slaughter. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) in HH and GH groups tended to be higher (P = 0.09) than in HL and GL groups (1354 v. 1248 g/day). ADWG in CP group (1542 g/day) was higher (P < 0.05) than in the other groups. Carcass weight in CP group (230 kg) tended to be higher (P < 0.1) than in HL (198 kg) and GL (200 kg) groups. Carcass muscle weight was higher (P < 0.05) in GH (155 kg) and CP groups (165 kg) than in HL (141 kg) and GL (142 kg) groups. Carcass and offal fatty tissue weights and carcass fatness did not differ between groups. Neither forage type nor concentrate level had significant effect on the area of muscle fibres or on muscle metabolic enzyme activities (namely, lactate dehydrogenase – LDH, phosphofructokinase – PFK, isocitrate dehydrogenase – ICDH, citrate synthase – CS and cytochrome-c oxidase – COX). semitendinosus muscle of CP group presented higher CS enzyme activities (8.10 μmol/min per g) than HH (5.30 μmol/min per g) and GL (4.52 μmol/min per g) groups. Neither total nor insoluble collagen content significantly differed between groups. Lipid content in rectus abdominis muscle was relatively low (average 67.5 mg/g dry matter) and was not affected by diet (P > 0.05). The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content was lower (P = 0.01) in the low-concentrate-fed than in the high-concentrate-fed group (3.95 v. 5.37, respectively). Sensory analysis noted that longissimus thoracis muscle from CP animals was more tender and juicy than that from HH and GH animals (P < 0.05).
We report on an extension, through cosmological simulations, of the two-phase formation scenario for elliptical galaxies to classical spiral bulges. In particular, we analyze the possibility that the old stellar population of bulges forms in a fast phase, while the younger stellar component forms or is assembled in a slow phase, in part from disk material suffering instabilities and in part through satellite capture or mergers.
We have implemented a chemical evolution model on the parallel AP3M+SPH DEVA code which we use to perform high resolution simulations of spiral galaxy formation. It includes feedback by SNII and SNIa using the Qij matrix formalism. We also include a diffusion mechanism that spreads newly introduced metals. The gas cooling rate depends on its specific composition. We study the stellar populations of the resulting bulges finding a potential scenario where they seem to be composed of two populations: an old, metal poor, α-enriched population, formed in a multiclump scenario at the beginning of the simulation and a younger one, formed by slow accretion of satellites or gas, possibly from the disk due to instabilities.