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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Subglacial hydrology plays a key role in many glaciological processes, including ice dynamics via the modulation of basal sliding. Owing to the lack of an overarching theory, however, a variety of model approximations exist to represent the subglacial drainage system. The Subglacial Hydrology Model Intercomparison Project (SHMIP) provides a set of synthetic experiments to compare existing and future models. We present the results from 13 participating models with a focus on effective pressure and discharge. For many applications (e.g. steady states and annual variations, low input scenarios) a simple model, such as an inefficient-system-only model, a flowline or lumped model, or a porous-layer model provides results comparable to those of more complex models. However, when studying short term (e.g. diurnal) variations of the water pressure, the use of a two-dimensional model incorporating physical representations of both efficient and inefficient drainage systems yields results that are significantly different from those of simpler models and should be preferentially applied. The results also emphasise the role of water storage in the response of water pressure to transient recharge. Finally, we find that the localisation of moulins has a limited impact except in regions of sparse moulin density.
The Main Karoo Basin of South Africa contains a near-continuous sequence of continental deposition spanning ~80 Myr from the mid-Permian to the Early Jurassic. The terrestrial vertebrates of this sequence provide a high-resolution stratigraphic record of regional origination and extinction, especially for the mid–late Permian. Until now, data have only been surveyed at coarse stratigraphic resolution using methods that are biased by nonuniform sampling rates, limiting our understanding of the dynamics of diversification through this important time period. Here, we apply robust methods (gap-filler and modified gap-filler rates) for the inference of patterns of species richness, origination rates, and extinction rates to a subset of 1321 reliably-identified fossil occurrences resolved to approximately 50 m stratigraphic intervals. This data set provides an approximate time resolution of 0.3–0.6 Myr and shows that extinction rates increased considerably in the upper 100 m of the mid-Permian Abrahamskraal Formation, corresponding to the latest part of the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone (AZ). Origination rates were only weakly elevated in the same interval and were not sufficient to compensate for these extinctions. Subsampled species richness estimates for the lower part of the overlying Teekloof Formation (corresponding to the Pristerognathus and Tropidostoma AZs) are low, showing that species richness remained low for at least 1.5–3 million years after the main extinction pulse. A high unevenness of the taxon abundance–frequency distribution, which is classically associated with trophically unstable postextinction faunas, in fact developed shortly before the acme of elevated extinction rates due to the appearance and proliferation of the dicynodont Diictodon. Our findings provide strong support for a Capitanian (“end-Guadalupian”) extinction event among terrestrial vertebrates and suggest that further high-resolution quantitative studies may help resolve the lack of consensus among paleobiologists regarding this event.
We have continued to improve and update the OPAL opacity code. Addition of intermediate coupling has further increased the opacity over earlier LS coupling results. A ‘corresponding states’ method has been used to extend the tables in both X and Z. This has allowed the calculation and distribution of extensive opacity tables for several different sets of metal abundance.
We report on the first sub-arcsecond resolution mid-IR images of the nuclei of galaxies from the IRAS ultraluminous sample. This sample contains galaxies which emit most of their energy in the far-infrared (10-100μm) and have luminosities approaching that of quasars. Previous observations in the mid-IR using single element detectors suggest that the IR luminosity is derived from a region smaller than the instrumental aperture, typically 5″(1.6 kpc at 65 Mpc). Our observations are capable of imaging the morphology of the mid-IR emission region to a factor of eight smaller than previously known.
On June 1, 1984 we conducted a seven station 18-cm VLBI observation of the 2016+112 gravitational lens system. Preliminary brightness distributions for A and B have been obtained via model fitting. Weak correlated flux density was detected in the C component region.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
Invasive species management is often more successful if desirable species are seeded after the target weed is controlled. However, control of invasive plants must be maintained following reseeding or the seeded species may fail to establish. A regional study conducted in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota evaluated the effect of aminopyralid, clopyralid, or picloram applied in the fall prior to fall-dormant seeding or seeding the following spring on cool- and warm-season native grass species establishment. Herbicides were applied at standard rates used to control invasive broadleaf weeds in the upper midwestern tallgrass prairie region of the United States. Cool-season species included Canada wildrye, green needlegrass, and intermediate wheatgrass. Warm-season species included big bluestem, little bluestem, sideoats grama, switchgrass, and Indiangrass. Aminopyralid did not reduce seedling establishment in either fall or spring seeding. Grasses generally were not affected by a pretreatment of the pyridine standards clopyralid or picloram either, with the exception of a slight reduction in fall-seeded establishment of intermediate wheatgrass. Picloram also slightly reduced fall-seeded establishment of Canada wildrye. Application of aminopyralid can safely be used to control susceptible invasive species preceding grass species establishment, with a safety margin similar to or slightly better than that with the pyridine standards clopyralid or picloram.
Numerical methods based on quadrilateral finite elements have been developed for calculating distributions of velocity and temperature in polar ice sheets in which horizontal gradients transverse to the flow direction are negligible. The calculation of the velocity field is based on a variational principle equivalent to the differential equations governing incompressible creeping flow. Glen’s flow law relating effective strain-rate ε̇ and shear stress τ by ε̇ = (τ/B)n is assumed, with the flow law parameter B varying from element to element depending on temperature and structure. As boundary conditions, stress may be specified on part of the boundary, in practice usually the upper free surface, and velocity on the rest. For calculation of the steady-state temperature distribution we use Galerkin’s method to develop an integral condition from the differential equations. The calculation includes all contributions from vertical and horizontal conduction and advection and from internal heat generation. Imposed boundary conditions are the temperature distribution on the upper surface and the heat flux elsewhere
For certain simple geometries, the flow calculation has been tested against the analytical solution of Nye (1957), and the temperature calculation against analytical solutions of Robin (1955) and Budd (1969), with excellent results.
The programs have been used to calculate velocity and temperature distributions in parts of the Barnes Ice Cap where extensive surface and bore-hole surveys provide information on actual values. The predicted velocities are in good agreement with measured velocities if the flow-law parameter B is assumed to decrease down-glacier from the divide to a point about 2 km above the equilibrium line, and then remain constant nearly to the margin. These variations are consistent with observed and inferred changes in fabric from fine ice with random c-axis orientations to coarser ice with single- or multiple-maximum fabrics. In the wedge of fine-grained deformed superimposed ice at the margin, B increases again.
Calculated and measured temperature distributions do not agree well if measured velocities and surface temperatures are used in the model. The measured temperature profiles apparently reflect a recent climatic warming which is not incorporated into the finite-element model. These profiles also appear to be adjusted to a vertical velocity distribution which is more consistent with that required for a steady-state profile than the present vertical velocity distribution.
Transfrontier wildlife corridors can be successful conservation tools, connecting protected areas and reducing the impact of habitat fragmentation on mobile species. Urban wildlife corridors have been proposed as a potential mitigation tool to facilitate the passage of elephants through towns without causing conflict with urban communities. However, because such corridors are typically narrow and close to human development, wildlife (particularly large mammals) may be less likely to use them. We used remote-sensor camera traps and global positioning system collars to identify the movement patterns of African elephants Loxondonta africana through narrow, urban corridors in Botswana. The corridors were in three types of human-dominated land-use designations with varying levels of human activity: agricultural, industrial and open-space recreational land. We found that elephants used the corridors within all three land-use designations and we identified, using a model selection approach, that season, time of day and rainfall were important factors in determining the presence of elephants in the corridors. Elephants moved more slowly through the narrow corridors compared with their movement patterns through broader, wide-ranging corridors. Our results indicate that urban wildlife corridors are useful for facilitating elephants to pass through urban areas.
The synthesis telescopes at Fleurs and Molonglo have been used to map 50 supernova remnants. Additional specialized software to process the maps has been developed, and Parkes observations have been used to supply short spacing information missing from the maps.
The Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope (MOST) of the University of Sydney (Mills 1981) produces maps of the 843 MHz continuum emission from fields of width 23′, 46′ or 70′ arc. The telescope comprises two co-linear east-west cylindrical paraboloids each 2186λ in length and separated by a gap of 43λ. For each paraboloid a phasing network (Durdin et al. 1984) generates a comb of 64 contiguous fan beams. Mapping is accomplished in real time during a 12-h observation by overlaying, in the map plane, the instantaneous cross-correlations of corresponding beams. The synthesized point-source response (beam) produced by this method has a width of 43″ (E-W) by 43″ cosec δ (N-S).
8.4 GHz linear polarization maps, obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, are presented for six southern supernova remnants. These results are compared with published and unpublished polarization maps at 5 GHz to derive the magnetic field direction and Faraday rotation measure distribution.
These results are part of a program to map the magnetic fields in galactic supernova remnants and complement our program to obtain high-resolution maps of galactic SNRs using the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope; five new Molonglo maps are presented here.
In 1988, a Joint Commission (9 and 25) meeting on the causes of the well-known limitations on the precision of infrared astronomy led to several suggestions to improve matters (see Milone 1989). These included better reporting of the photometric systems in use by practitioners, redesign of the infrared passbands to be more optimally placed inside the atmospheric windows, and development of a method to ascertain the water vapor content of the atmosphere when the astronomical infrared measurements were being made. An Infrared Astronomy Working Group was formed to look into the matter. Advice and suggestions were solicited from the community at large. All who volunteered information became, de facto, members of the Working Group. A small subgroup composed of Andrew Young, Chris Stagg, and Milone set to work on the central of the recommendations: improvement of the passbands. Young, Milone, k Stagg (1994) (hereafter YMS) summarized the work: existing JHKLMN and Q infrared passbands were found to be both far from standardized, and all too frequently defined, to various degrees, by the water vapor and other components of the terrestrial atmosphere. Following extensive numerical simulations with a MODTRAN 3 terrestrial-atmospheres model package, and Kurucz stellar atmospheres, we suggested a set of improved infrared passbands designed explicitly to fit within, and not be defined by, the terrestrial atmospheric windows; however, we sought to optimize them so as to get the maximum throughput consistent with plausible limitations on precision of manufacture of the filters. In 1995 and again in 1997, a number of improvements were made in the code with which the improved passbands were designed. While they do not much affect the optimization trials and thus the passband recommendations, they have been used to extend the modeling.
In this paper we describe a new observing system which is currently nearing completation at the Mount Wilson Observatory. This system has been designed to obtain daily measurements of solar photospheric and subphotospheric rotational velocities from the frequency splitting of non-radial solar p-mode oscillations of moderate to high degree (i.e. l > 150). The completed system will combine a 244 x 248 pixel CID camera with a high-speed floating point array processor, a 32-bit minicomputer, and a large-capacity disc storage system. We are integrating these components into the spectrograph of the 60-foot solar tower telescope at Mount Wilson in order to provide a facility which will be dedicated to the acquisition of oscillation data.
The link of the Hipparcos and VLBI extragalactic reference frames has been achieved with a precision of 0.0005″ in global orientation at the epoch of the catalogue (1991.25) and of 0.0003″/yr in rate of rotation by VLBI observations of 12 radio-emitting stars.
The results of photometric and spectroscopic observations of dwarf novae are presented. The data were obtained during an international program of multiwavelength observations, held in 1986 February at several observatories, of dwarf novae during the first and subsequent days of outburst. During the campaign numerous dwarf novae were monitored in order to catch them in outburst. Preliminary results and analysis of some objects are reported elsewhere. A total of 30 dwarf novae were observed in the northern and southern hemispheres. Among them 37% were caught in outburst, including 10% on the rise to outburst and 17% in decline. Photometric observations were carried out in the UBVRI system and colour indexes were calculated.
Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia.
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function, anhedonia, and depression severity were analyzed using linear regression equations.
A total of 369 adults with DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD were included in this analysis. Self-rated cognitive impairment [ie, as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)] was significantly correlated with a proxy measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia and self-rated cognitive dysfunction remained significant after adjusting for illness severity (r=0.162, p=0.007).
These preliminary results provide empirical data for the testable hypothesis that anhedonia and self-reported cognitive function in MDD are correlated yet dissociable domains. The foregoing observation supports the hypothesis of overlapping yet discrete neurobiological substrates for these domains.