The present research studied the effect of a dietary inclusion with Hermetia illucens larvae meal (Hi) on rainbow trout’s fillets chemical composition. The effect of Hi inclusion in diets on rainbow trout chemical characteristics was evaluated. Trout were fed three different diets: control (C, no Hi inclusion), 25% and 50% of substitution of fish meal with Hi (Hi25 and Hi50, respectively). Fillets were analysed to quantify proximate composition, carbohydrates percentage, colour parameters, nucleotides concentration, fatty acids profile, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic concentrations. Diets did not affect proximate composition. Contrariwise, Hi50 diet decreased fillet yellowness and both substitution percentages affected negatively adenosine monophosphate concentration. Saturated fatty acids, mostly C12 : 0, increased their contents in relation with Hi inclusion at the expense of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (both n-3 and n-6) fatty acids. Less modifications were reported in VOCs as only heptanal and octanal concentrations were affected, no new compounds appeared in relation with Hi inclusion. No modifications in proteins patterns were shown even if myofibrillar content decreased in trout fed Hi50. The results highlighted that chemical modifications occurred in fillets were related to the chemical composition of the H. illucens meal and to the percentage of inclusion in the diet. Substitution of fish meal with a precisely percentage of H. illucens meal could be a potential future solution in order to decrease the quantity of fish meal used in aquafeeds.