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Although close binaries are believed to be of importance in the dynamical evolution of globular clusters, searches for such binaries have produced mostly negative results, aside from x-ray sources. Two dwarf novae which are possible cluster members are known (Margon and Downes 1983) and two classical nova candidates have been found. The crowded field around the nova observed in 1860 close to the center of M80 makes ground-based recovery of that star impossible with present techniques. Here we report on our attempt to recover the star which erupted in 1938 about 30″ (0.8 core radii) from the center of M14.
We present radiocarbon determinations for 271 New Zealand archaeological samples measured at the University of Waikato Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory between 1975 and 1995. A discard protocol is applied to the series and the list culled to winnow the acceptable dates from those that may incorporate error. None of the 221 acceptable 14C determinations older than 600 bp (in the case of terrestrial samples) or 930 bp (in the case of marine and estuarine shell) extends beyond cal ad 1250. This conclusion supports the short chronology model of New Zealand prehistory presented by Anderson (1991).
We calculated a new ∆R for New Zealand waters using 14C dates of historic shell previously presented by McFadgen and Manning (1990), and fish otoliths dated by Kalish (1993). We obtained a new estimate of −25 ± 15 14C yr. To test the accuracy of this value for correcting conventional 14C marine ages, we dated shell of a variety of different species excavated at the prehistoric site of Shag Mouth, North Otago. We compared the results with a pooled mean date for terrestrial samples and calculated a local ∆R value that we found statistically indistinguishable from the new ∆R estimate for New Zealand.
Recent measurements on dendrochronologically-dated wood from the Southern Hemisphere have shown that there are differences between the structural form of the radiocarbon calibration curves from each hemisphere. Thus, it is desirable, when possible, to use calibration data obtained from secure dendrochronologically-dated wood from the corresponding hemisphere. In this paper, we outline the recent work and point the reader to the internationally recommended data set that should be used for future calibration of Southern Hemisphere 14C dates.
We measured the 14C content of 36 living marine molluscs from Tairua Harbour and the rocky coast on the Coromandel Peninsula of New Zealand. We identified species suitable for radiocarbon dating and show that the open marine intertidal zone is enriched in 14C compared to the open marine subtidal zone or estuary. We also found a uniform 14C distribution in the Tairua Harbour, by analyzing samples of the estuarine bivalve Austrovenus stutchbwyi collected up to 5 km from the harbor entrance.
The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland and University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand radiocarbon laboratories have undertaken a series of high-precision measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated oak (Quercus patrea) and cedar (Libocedrus bidwillii) from Great Britain and New Zealand, respectively. The results show a real atmospheric offset of 3.4 ± 0.6% (27.2 ± 4.7 14C yr) between the two locations for the interval ad 1725 to ad 1885, with the Southern Hemisphere being depleted in l4C. This result is less than the value currently used to correct Southern Hemisphere calibrations, possibly indicating a gradient in Δ14C within the Southern Hemisphere.
The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand and The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland radiocarbon dating laboratories have undertaken a series of high-precision measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated oak (Quercus petraea) from Great Britain and cedar (Libocedrus bidwillii) and silver pine (Lagarostrobos colensoi) from New Zealand. The results show an average hemispheric offset over the 900 yr of measurement of 40 ± 13 yr. This value is not constant but varies with a periodicity of about 130 yr. The Northern Hemisphere measurements confirm the validity of the Pearson et al. (1986) calibration dataset.
We have conducted a series of radiocarbon measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated wood from both hemispheres, spanning 1000 years (McCormac et al. 1998; Hogg et al. this issue). Using the data presented in Hogg et al., we show that during the period AD 950–1850 the 14C offset between the hemispheres is not constant, but varies periodically (∼130 yr periodicity) with amplitudes varying between 1 and 10% (i.e. 8–80 yr), with a consequent effect on the 14C calibration of material from the Southern Hemisphere. A large increase in the offset occurs between AD 1245 and 1355. In this paper, we present a Southern Hemisphere high-precision calibration data set (SHCal02) that comprises measurements from New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa. This data, and a new value of 41 ± 14 yr for correction of the IntCal98 data for the period outside the range given here, is proposed for use in calibrating Southern Hemisphere 14C dates.
The IntCal04 and Marine04 radiocarbon calibration curves have been updated from 12 cal kBP (cal kBP is here defined as thousands of calibrated years before AD 1950), and extended to 50 cal kBP, utilizing newly available data sets that meet the IntCal Working Group criteria for pristine corals and other carbonates and for quantification of uncertainty in both the 14C and calendar timescales as established in 2002. No change was made to the curves from 0–12 cal kBP. The curves were constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) implementation of the random walk model used for IntCal04 and Marine04. The new curves were ratified at the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference in June 2009 and are available in the Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org.
In a separate study, we conducted a series of high-precision radiocarbon measurements using wood from Britain and New Zealand to investigate interhemispheric offsets and possible temporal variations. To minimize variability associated with different species, the pretreatment of the oak (Quercus patraea) and cedar (Librocedrus bidwilli) was to α-cellulose for both. This study investigates the thoroughness of a range of pretreatment processes by the stable isotope analysis of the products.
At the first meeting of the newly formed Commission on Spectrophotometry, at Paris in 1935, a thorough discussion, aided by several reports, took place on the principles of this branch of astrophysics. So it will be sufficient now to treat only such special points of theory and practice as have won interest by researches of the last few years.
The Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave is one of the most important sites for the study of the earliest manifestations and development of prehistoric art at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. Different dating techniques have been performed thus far (AMS 14C, U/Th TIMS, 36Cl dating) to model the chronological framework of this decorated cave. The cave yielded several large charcoal fragments, which enabled the opportunity for obtaining multiple dates; thus, a First Radiocarbon Intercomparison Program (FIP) was initiated in 2004 using three charcoal pieces. The FIP demonstrated that those cross-dated samples belonged to a time period associated with the first human occupation. One of the statistical interests of an intercomparison program is to reduce the uncertainty on the sample age; thus, to further assess the accuracy of the chronological framework, the Second Intercomparison Program (SIP) involving 10 international 14C laboratories was carried out on two pieces of charcoal found inside two hearth structures of the Galerie des Mégacéros. Each laboratory used its own pretreatment and AMS facilities. In total, 21 and 22 measurements were performed, respectively, which yielded consistent results averaging ∼32 ka BP. Two strategies have currently been developed to identify statistical outliers and to deal with them; both lead to quasi-identical calibrated combined densities. Finally, the new results were compared with those of the FIP, leading to the important conclusion that five different samples from at least three different hearth structures give really tightened temporal densities, associated with one short human occupation in the Galerie des Mégacéros.
We present AGNfitter: a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm developed to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with different physical models of AGN components. This code is well suited to determine in a robust way multiple parameters and their uncertainties, which quantify the physical processes responsible for the panchromatic nature of active galaxies and quasars. We describe the technicalities of the code and test its capabilities in the context of X-ray selected obscured AGN using multiwavelength data from the XMM-COSMOS survey.
Telescopes don’t make catalogues, they make intensity measurements; any precise
experiment performed with a telescope ought to involve modelling those measurements.
People make catalogues, but because a catalogue requires hard decisions
about calibration and detection, no catalogue can contain all of the information in the
raw pixels relevant to most scientific investigations. Here we advocate making
catalogue-like data outputs that permit investigators to test hypotheses with almost the
power of the original image pixels. The key is to provide users approximations to
likelihood tests against the raw image pixels. We advocate three options, in order of
increasing difficulty: The first is to define catalogue entries and
associated uncertainties such that the catalogue contains the parameters of an approximate
description of the image-level likelihood function. The second is to produce a
K-catalogue sampling in “catalogue space” that samples
a posterior probability distribution of catalogues given the data. The third is to expose
a web service or equivalent that can compute the full image-level likelihood for any
The Nd-disilicide, which exists only in a tetragonal or an orthorhombic structure, cannot be grown epitaxially on a Si(111) substrate. However, by adding Y and using channeled ion beam synthesis, hexagonal Nd0.32Y0.68Si1.7 epilayers with lattice constant of aepi = 0.3915 nm and cepi = 0.4152 nm and with good crystalline quality (χmin of Nd and Y is 3.5% and 4.3 % respectively) are formed in a Si(111) substrate. This shows that the addition of Y to the Nd-Si system forces the latter into a hexagonal structure. The epilayer is stable up to 950 °C; annealing at 1000 °C results in partial transformation into other phases. The formation, the structure and the thermal stability of this ternary silicide have been studied using Rutherford backscattering/channeling, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.
Dating initial colonisation and environmental impacts by Polynesians in New Zealand is controversial. A key horizon is provided by the Kaharoa Tephra, deposited from an eruption of Mt Tarawera, because just underneath this layer are the first signs of forest clearance which imply human settlement. The authors used a log of celery pine from within Kaharoa deposits to derive a new precise date for the eruption via “wiggle-matching” – matching the radiocarbon dates of a sequence of samples from the log with the Southern Hemisphere calibration curve. The date obtained was 1314 ± 12 AD (2σ error), and the first environmental impacts and human occupation are argued to have occurred in the previous 50 years, i.e. in the late 13th – early 14th centuries AD. This date is contemporary with earliest settlement dates determined from archaeological sites in the New Zealand archipelago.